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If the charge is introduced in the morning, steam is College, analysed some specimens of the steamed bones kept up through the day, and the boiler left to cool off as prepared by Mr. Jones, for the express purpose of at night. On the succeeding morning the bones are comparing them with bone dust. The following analy. taken out, and are found to be so altered and softened ses give his results:
Steamed Bones. as to be readily crushed to a paste or powder. All ||
Bone Dust. Organic matter,.......... ...... 28.68
... 35.25 coherence is destroyed, and plt of the process is Ple hate of Lime,
.... 57.73 ..
... 54.00 onates and Alkali
1.49 thus a mass xtremely mi ticles.
. 9.26 Thi n e object whitained by
A comparison of these two analyses shows, that dur. in a b lisso u lphuric
g the steaming a loss of organic matter has taken the latt u are
lace, amounting to nearly eight per cent. This is the chem c obut still of m
gelatine of the bone, dissolved out by the steam. This to wi p e is reduced,
unts loss is however only apparent, as a moment's reflection gainea vision into smant is of advan- will show, that this dissolved gelatine will be found in tage, for n that such parti re more readily the water that occupies the lower part of the boiler. dissolv p osed in the soil,
After one or two charges therefore, this water should immed ally avail ble to
be drawn off, diluted with fresh water, and applied as a consideration of
op-dressing upon meadows or young grain. The gelaapplication smal quan
e being a highly nitrogenous, and therefore valuable or finely
I pr luce a efice r e, produces an excellent effect when applied in than th
s om substance equally this way. If not convenient to use this solution in a liquid rich o n
e tly luble, or in large form, it may be mixed with peat, ashes, vegetable har
mould, &c., or added to a compost heap. F
son bones have been found highly We thus see that every portion of the bone is preservady geous as a
nure, a com aratively small | ed, and made useful as a fertilizer, and that too by a quantity answering red purpose ir hastening and cheap process. Some farmer in each neighborhood augmenting the growth The crop. Eighter ten bushels might set up such an apparatus at a trifling expense, per acre, have been found to produce a most remarkable and supply the whole adjoining country at reasonable effect, far more than equivalent to a heavy di ssing with rates. Or an association might do the same thing, each the ordinary farm-yard manures. In fact it is pearcely steaming his own collection of bones in turn. By necessary that I should enlarge upon their properties in managing in this way the expense to each individual this respect, for even the most careless reader of agri. would be quite small, and all the bones got together in cultural subjects, must by this time have learned that the course of a season could soon be brought into a state any form of soluble phosphates constitutes an ecceed. fit for use. They are now so commonly disregarded and ingly concentrated and powerful manure for all of our wasted, that in most situations a farmer might possess cultivated crops. Phosphates are a necessary sondition himself of large quantities for a merely nominal sum. of life and luxuriance to all or nearly all valuace plants, The crushed mass of steamed bones, if left to itself and it is obviously important to furnish them in such soon heats and ferments, causing a loss of nitrogen in the a form as shall be mostly readily available.
form of ammonia. To prevent this in cases where the Several important papers relative to st amed bones, bones are not to be used at once, it is recommended to have been lately published in the Journa of the Chemi- | add a little salt; this arrests decomposition, and is itself co-Agricultural Society of Ulster Inland. Some of of some value as a manure. It also serves in many these, and perhaps the most resung, are by Mr. D. cases as a check to injurious insects, by destroying their T. Jones, a gentleman who was studying in the labora- grubs. Where it is desirable to add a highly ammoniatory of Prof. Johnston Edingburgh, when I was also cal and energetically acting manure, it is only necessary a student there. He is now applying his chemical to withhold the salt, and allow fermentation to go on knowledge to the improvement of a large estate in the till ammonia begins to be largely given off. The heap west of Ireland.
should then be mixed with gypsum, peat ashes, or char. He has made some experiments on the actual cost of coal dust. This applied to the soil will act as quickly the process, counting in the price of the bones, of the and powerfully as guano, with the advantage of a far fuel, of labor, &c. His boiler held 7 cwt., and the re. less price. From six to ten cwt. of these bones would sults were taken from five successive charges. Bone produce more effect upon most of our crops, than a dust cost £6 12s. or about $30 per ton, while a ton of very great application of farm-yard manure, and being raw bones cost but £3 or about $15. The additional ex. so portable might often be employed with a very great pense of steaming, was a little less than $1. For a trifle saving of expense. I think that the addition of 8 or 10 more than half then, he obtained by the steaming pro- | lbs. of sulphuric acid to each 100 lbs. of this manure, cess a ton of bones far more finely divided, and conse. would be a still farther improvement. quently more immediately beneficial, than bone dust. This method seems to me remarkably feasible, simple, Other writers give almost equally favorable results. effective, and cheap, and I hope that this notice may in.
The advantage of economy then, seems clearly to rest duce some of our more enterprising farmers to try it, with this process. The question arises, however, is there and to make their success public. The apparatus need any loss of valuable substance. With a view to settling cost but little at first, and the same boiler might be em. this question, Mr. Jones has lately made some direct ex ployed to steam food for stock in winter. Yours truly, periments. Dr. Voelcker, of Cirencester Agricultural Joun P. NORTON.
Notes of a Tour in Europe.
The railroad runs a good part of the way up the valley
of the Seine-most of the way a beautiful country, and The above figure is a portrait of a Merino ewe, pro- in a good state of cultivation. They were plowing and eured in Silesia, by WM. R. SANFORD, Esq., of Orwell, sowing their spring wheat. The piows are cumbersome Vt. It is one of the lot noticed in our current volume, and awkward things. They have long beams—the fore. p. 218. We have received from Mr. S. the following end of the beam mounted upon a pair of wheels about notes in relation to his tour through Europe for the pur- half the size of a wagon wheel. Paris is a splendid city, pose of examining and purchasing sheep. In the present so far as outward show is concerned. There appears to chapter we have the results of his observations in regard be very little business done in comparison with our cities. to France and Spain; in a future number he will furnish I shall not attempt a description of the city, as my busi. those relative to the various German states through ness was to see the stock of the different countries I which he passed.
visited. EDITORS CultivaTOR-In compliance with your re The first flock I visited was Mr. GILBERT's; he bas not quest, I will endeavor to give a short account of a tour only a good flock of sheep, but good horses, and some in Europe. I sailed from New York, Jan. 24, in the fine cows. He keeps about 25 cowg; some of them have packet ship Splendid, for Havre, France. We had thrce the appearance of being fine milkers; they are well cared days of pretty rough weather; the rest of the time quite for, and are in fine condition as well as the rest of his stock. fine. . We had a passage of 24 days. I was very sea. He has good warm stables for all of his stock. Nothing sick about half the way, which was anything but plea. is left out, unprotected. In fact it is the custom through sant, I assure you. Mr. GREELY has pictured it very France and Germany to shelter their stock in the winter fairly in his description of crossing. Havre I found to season. He appears to be man of a good deal of intelli. be a very busy place, as of course it must be, it being the gence and a good farmer. I found him to be kind and great shipping port of France. One of the first things I obliging. After looking over his stock, he took me a noticed, was the horses that they work in their carts; few miles from his place to see the agricultural school at they were very large and strong built, and carry enor. Gruno. It is a government establishment. They have mous loads with them. I think they are preferable to a large farm connected with the school, and are breed. any I ever saw for draft-borses, especially for cart horses ing most kinds of stock. Their policy is to cross for our cities. I had to stop one day in Havre to get every thing in the sheep line. They are making a cross my laggage through the custom house, and my passport between English and Merino. They have English ewes vised, which is a very great annoyance. I started from and Merino rams. Of cattle they have almost all kinds Havre at 11 o'clock, A. M.-arrived at Paris 5 P. M. -French, English and Swiss. Their bulls were mostly
Swiss, of good size and pretty well formed, but bad approach towards the south of France, you begin to see handlers. They have some very good hogs of the Eng. oxen at work. The first I saw were poor and small; lish breed, and were making a cross of the English and the way they work them is to lash a stick back of their Chinese. The farm appeared to be in a high state of horns, which is the way they do all through France and cultivation. Great pains were taken to make and save Spain, and drive them with goads. I never saw them use all the manure.
a whip in Europe, to drive oxen. They take no pains to The next farm I visited was the government farm at match them either as to size, color or sex; sometimes Rambouillet. The stock here, is principally sheep. It is they will have an ox and cow yoked together. As we the place where the Spanish sheep were first placed, and go south, we found the vineyards more extensive and the have been bred by the government ever since. There is vines larger; they were trimming the vines. They keep a palace there, but not in a very good state of repair at them headed down to about 2 feet high; they bind the present. It was formerly quite a favorite place of resort parts they take off into bundles for fuel; some they cut as a summer residence for the Kings of France. The close to the main stalk, and others they leave about 3 feet Director was very courteous, and took every pains to show long. They plant them out in different ways; some the sheep, samples, &c. They have samples of every times they occupy all the land. They put the rows sheep that they have sheared since they commenced. from four feet to four rods apart; when they do not oc Everything is done systematically. They have paintings cupy all the land, they till it between the rows; a good of most of the bucks that have been used. The form | share of it was in wheat. of the sheep is not as good as some other flocks that I
We arrived at Bordeaux, at 8 o'clock, 2d day. It 8aw, but the wool is finer. The director gave me some is the second city in France. Its prineipal trade is wide beautiful samples. They sell only once a year, and then and brandy. We started from Bordeaux at 8 o'clock at public auction. They sell all the bucks that they next morning-arrived at Bayonne at seven the follow. raise in that way, except such as they reserve for their ing morning, 175 miles. The country, part of the way own use, and ewes, if they have any to spare. They | from Bordeaux to Bayonne, is poor-some of the waya sold no ewes this year.
perfect desert; and the inhabitants look as poor as the I next visited Monsieur Cughnot's farm, who has
country. After leaving Bordeaux, I noticed that they had about the same number of sheep, and about the same the inside horns of their oxen sawed off to about 4 inches quality of Mr. Gilberts. These three flocks stand at
long. About half way from Bordeaux to Bayonne me the head. They are the places where almost all resort | found another kind of cattl
found another kind of cattle; they must be well bred, for bucks. I met a good many sheep breeders from dif
as they are all alike. I have seen sometimes 20 yoke, ferent sections, at those places, buying bucks. Februa. I should think, in a string, and any two of them would ry is the month in which they generally select their bucks match. They are not large cattle, but well formed, for the next season. They universally admitted that tight snug built-a yellow red color, with horns about Messrs. Gilbert and Cughnot had the best sheep in
had the best sheep in medium length, well formed, and stand about right France.
we found this kind of cattle for about 100 miles in the On returning to Paris, I fell in with Mr. GEORGE south of France, and about the same distance in the CAMPBELL of our State, who was on the same business north of Spain. They make fine oxen, but what the that I was, (after sheep.) We therefore concluded to cows are for milk, I did not learn. The women do travel together, and purchase in company. We con- most of the marketing in France. In the morning at cluded to go to Spain first, as that was the place Bordeaux, and the same at Bayonne, the roads were full where the fine sheep came from, and see what we could of women, carrying their stuff to market; some with find. Started from Paris Feb. 4th, went 150 miles mules, but more with donkeys; their stuff put in baskets by railroad to Tours. The country, a good part of the and slung on each side of the donkeys, and would weigh way, quite poor; saw very little stock. We passed seve. often more than the donkey. But the greater part carry ral miles through a valley, I should judge from 6 to 8 their vegetables, fish, or whatever they bave to carry to miles wide, with a continuous village at the foot of the market, in baskets on their heads. The diligence starts hills each side of the valley. The valley is meadow and from Bayonne for Madrid. We had to stop over one day pasture; the hills are planted to vines. Every few rods to get our passports vised. We entered the Spanish teris a wine vault, all the way. At Tours we took the dili. ritory about 25 miles from Bayonne. A small river digence-found beautiful roads and quite level. The vides the two countries; the French flag is flying on roads are in perfect repair; they keep stones by the one end of the bridge, and the Spanish on the other side of the road, broken fine, and persons all the while we had to have our passports vised by the police on learon the road to keep in repair. As soon as they begin to ing France, and again on entering Spain. The country wear down in any place, they put in some of this broken we passed the first day was very good: they raise large stone. The road will be as straight as you can draw quantities of turneps, which stand in the field through a line as far as your eye can extend. In the south part the winter. We came to the mountain about dark. They of France and north part of Spain, they have trees had to put on oxen in two or three places to draw up planted each side of the road; many of them have got the diligence. They drive principally mules in Spain to be of good size, and form a beautiful shade; they are usually from five to nine. They are very cruel to the generally poplar. They drive from 5 to 6 horses-three mules, the whip being in almost constant use, sometimes abreast-go at the rate of from ninc to ten miles an hour. by two drivers, one on the box and another along side : Their horses are large, and generally in fine condition. foot. I have seen these Spaniards run 2 or 3 miles at a time They are a very strong, hardy race of horses. As you l by the side of the mules, on a full gallop, whipping all the time. A good share of the way after striking the olives and acorns. There is a good many coarse sheep mountains, the country is miserable, and the inhabitants in this part of Spain. They raise this wool for their own more so. If any one wants to see poverty, let him use. They manufacture their own cloth, both wool and travel torough Spain. I have counted ten beggars at linen. Their process of doing it is very slow. I saw one time around the diligence; they are at all the stop them getting out and spinning flax. It is all done by ing places, and at bills where they have to walk the the women. They use no brake in getting out their flax, team you will find them stationed. Everything is done it being all done by the swingling knife. The spinning in Spain, I should judge, as it was a thousand years ago. part is done wholly with the hands. They take a stick A great share of the stuff goes to and from market on about three feet long, tie the flax on to one end; the the backs of mules and donkeys. As you get near Mad. other they hold under the arm, and pull out and twist rid, the road is full of them. Saw very little stock on with the other hand. It hardly seems credible that peo. the way but sheep, and they of a very inferior kind. In ple will live and do as they do. There are large villa. the north of Spain and south of France, they have the ges where you cannot find a light of glass. They have poorest sheep that I ever saw. In many of the flocks only one door to their houses, and everything goes in two-thirds of them will be black-their sheep are small, and out at that door. The stable is in the back part of with coarse wool, and ill-formed.
the house, and the animals have to pass in at this door, The tools used here are very rude and clumsy; their and the manure out the same way. After looking plows are a crooked stick, the mortice through the np. among the sheep till we became satisfied that there was right part, just in the turn, and put through a piece of nothing that we wanted, we put back for France. Resp. iron which runs along the top of the lower part, an inch yours, W. R. SANFORD. Orwell, Vt., June 24, 1851. or two beyond the point of the wood. With this apolo. gy for a plow, they scratch up the ground. In some
Sales of Live Stock. parts of Spain I saw fine looking crops, cultivated in this The sales of stock advertised by L. G. Morris, Esq., miserable way, and without manure. Very little use is of Fordham, Westchester county, and GEORGE VAIL, made of manure in Spain, except to burn the land. The
Esq., of Troy, took place according to appointment. land must be very strong and rich to bear such crops
Mr. Morris's was on the 24th of June. The weather was with such cultivation, and without manure. We were fair, and there was a large attendance of people. The three days and two nights from Bayonne to Madrid.
beautiful lawn in front of Mr. M.'s residence was divided We called on our minister at Madrid, and found him
| into lots with iron hurdles, and the cattle and sheep very ready to do all in his power to assist us. He is all to be sold, were brought there in the forenoon, for ex. gentleman well fitted for the place, and is very much re. amination. The stock was generally in good condition, spected. On inquiry, I found most of the sheep owners
rs though not in high flesh. At one o'clock the large com. lived in Madrid; but the sheep were about 200 miles from
pany was invited to a sumptuous repast, comprising the Madrid, in Estramadura, in their winter pastures. I
substantials and many of the delicacies of the season. became pretty well convinced before leaving Madrid, by
Soon after this the sale commenced. The bidding was conversing with the sheep owners, that we should not
generally brisk, and the animals were speedily disposed find anything that we wanted. Some of them admitted
of at prices as per following list--which, considering that that their sheep were much degenerated, and they were
the larger portion were what are called “grade” stock, thinking about taking some measures to improve them.
may be deemed quite satisfactory. It will be under. They said they were going to Germany to get bucks. All
stood that Mr. Morris intends to establish himself as a said that their sheep were not as good as they were be
breeder, and this sale should rather be considered as a fore the French invasion—that they have no standard
preliminary step to that object. He has still in his pos. flocks to resort to for good sheep, as they had before
session that portion of his herd which he designs as a these good flocks were broken up. But as we had gone
breeding stock. These consist of selected individuals so far, we concluded we would go and see for ourselves.
of the Short-horn, Devon, and Ayrshire breeds, each When we examined the flocks we found them about
of which are to be bred pure, under his special care. as we expected. The sheep, as a general thing, are
The stock sold consisted of small-no wool on their legs, and very light colored-1
THOROUGH BRED SHORT-HORN, Cows, HEIFERS AND HEIFER occasionally there would be a good looking sheep in
.... 8110 00 the flock, bearing some resemblance to those that were
2. Cleopatra, 9 years old, Gen. Cadwallader,......... 85 00 formerly brought from there, but with no fixed charac. 4. Coquette, 4 years old, Edward Il. Smith, Smithtown, 50 00
5. Red Lady, 4 years old, Gen. Cadwallader,.......... 175 00 teristics. I should not dare to breed from them, as
6. Eleanora, 4 years old, Gen. Cadwallader,......
135 00 there would be no certainty in breeding from such ani.
8. Miss Rolie, 2 years old, A. Van Ingen, jr.......
105 00 9. Fame, 16 inonths old, Gen. Cadwallader,...,
60 00 mals. I did not see a sheep in Spain that I would pay 10. Red Rose, 15 menths old, G. Hopkins, Long-Island,.... 30 00
11. Kate, 5 months old G. G. Hubbard, West Needham, the transportation on to this country.
12. Lily, 3 months old, Joel Terrill, Oswego, ......... 80 00 Estramadura is one of the wildest parts of Spain, and rts of spam, and 13. Beulah, 2 months old, Gen. Cadwallader,
55 00 is rathera hard place for an American to live. Every. 14. Pocahontas, 11 years old, Ileury Parsons, C. W., .. 100 00 thing is cooked with garlick and oil. It is a great place
IMPROVED DAIRY STOCK.
Cows, Heifers, and Heifer Calres. for Olives, thousands of acres being covered with the
15. Beauty, 6 years old, Dr. A. Smith, New Rochelle,...... 105 00 trces. They raise a good many hogs in this part of the 16. Sue, 8 years old, Richard Lewis, N. Y.........
100 00 17. Watson, Henry Parsons,.................
40 00 country. I have seen sometimes 200 in a drove, all
19. Strawberry, Gen. Calwallader,....
75 00 black. They are never fed, and are kept by shepherds, | 19. Bess, 6 years old, G. Hopkins, ..
65 00 20. Gizelle, 1 years old, G. W. Thacher, Pelham,..
105 00 the same as their sheep. They get fat in the fall on 21. Alarm, 3 years old, John Rae, Morrisania, ......... 37 50