« AnteriorContinuar »
Farm of D. D. T. More.
1. My farm consists of one hundred and eighty-five and a half acres of land. No waste or woodland.
2. Soil, a sandy loam ; subsoil, principally a coarse This farm, which received the second premium of the
sand; am not aware of any limestone existing on the New-York State Agricultural Society in 1850, is situated farin; no stones worth mentioning in the town of Watervliet, on the Albany and Mohawk 3. I found the best mode of improving my land was Plank Road, two miles from Albany. It bas been in
by plowing under clover; the growth of the clover was
much aided by a liberal application of plaster, say 250 Mr. More's possession and occupancy for the last six | lbs. per acre.' years, and during that period has presented one of the 4. My experience is decidedly in favor of deep plow. must striking examples of successful and profitable im. | ing—not less than eight inches, and often deeper.
7. Yellow and white pine, white and black oak, scat. provement that we have ever known. Previous to Mr.
tering hickory, poplar and sassafras trees, were the M.'s purchase, it had been for fifty years subjected to principal trees originally. Sorrel and couch grass were ad exhausting course, under the leases of various tenants the principal weeds. the annual rent of the whole farm being but one hundred
8. I find from my experience I derive the most benefit dollars, and that deemed too large a sum by the tenant
by applying manure as a top-dressing. I use much of
my manure on my rye crop, in the following manner: as the whole amount of produce was only worth $100 to After the grain is harrowed in, I apply from twenty to $500 a year. Mr. More, in fact, bought the place in twenty-five loads of manure, (double loads, say thirty opposition to the advice of all his friends, who deemed
bushels each,) spread evenly over the surface. I have
never failed to get a good crop of rye. The grass seed it impossible that the land could afford him and his is sure to take, and the growth is much aided by the family "a living." But notwithstanding the soil was so manure; the clover being plowed in, leaves my land in much reduced, that, in Mr M.'s language, almost the excellent condition for a crop of corn. I manage my
manure by heaping in the yard, turning it, and keeping only crop he could raise at first was white beans, his
it covered with earth, to prevent as much as possible the clear judgment and practical knowledge of agriculture in escape of the gases. I have no cellars for manure under duced bim to make the purchase, at $60 per acre, and my barn, but have cisterns for collecting the urine. the result has more than realized his anticipations. The
9. My means of making manure are from the keeping
of about thirty head of cattle, and from four to six benefit of his good management has been of no small
horses, and mixing in various ways, all the straw that my value in the promotion of improve:nent in his neighbor. | farm produces. I make in this way about three hundred hood. His "good works" have stinulated others to loads of manure, and usually buy as much more. " do likewise," and much of the land adjoining bis, and
10. I prefer to have my manure pretty well rotted.
My usual mode of applying manure has been as follows: which, at the commencement of his operations, was in a Plow under clover, blant corn, follow with votatoes and similar condition, has advanced in price more than 100 then rye, with a top-dressing of manure, not so much per cent., and is made to yield a bountiful return for for the benefit of the rye as for the clover, and future
crops. I am satisfied that my land has improved rapid. good cultivation.
ly from this mode, in fact at such a rate that I shall not Mr. MORE has accomplished his results under many be able to follow it, so far as the rye crop is concerned. disadvantages. For a large portion of the time since he
11. I am not aware of any way of increasing manure
cheaper than by purchasing it, being so near to Albany, began, he has been in feeble health, and has been only
where it can be bought from twelve to thirty-seven able to exercise a general supervision of his affairs, with cents per load. out attempting bodily labor, but his constant vigilance 12. I have used lime, guano, and plaster. Lime I and care has well verified the maxim, that “the eye of
have applied to a considerable extent, usually as a top
dressing. Have used plaster, principally upon clover, the master will do more work than his hands." Neither
with much benefit. Guano I consider too dear for com. has he derived any benefit from the labor of his family. mon use. Stable manure and lime I consider the cheapIn his statement to the Society, he says "My family
est, considering their effects.
13. I tilled this year one hundred and forty-four acres, consists of wife and five children, the oldest but fourteen
as follows: ten acres of wheat, thirty-five acres of rye, years old, so that my children have been of little as. twenty-seven acres of corn, thirty-five acres of buckwheat, sistance to me-the balance of account being decidedly
twenty acres of potatoes, twelve acres of broom corn,
one acre of sowed corn, two acres of melons, fifty rods against them.”
of asparagus, and one and one-hall acres of strawber. When Mr. More took possession of bis farm, all the buildings on it were reckoned as not worth more than 14. I have cultivated wheat more as an experiment than $100, and “the fences had all rotted down, or become
anything else, as for the last few years it has been almost
a total failure in this section of the country. My man. nearly worthless." He sold the dwelling for $50, to be
ner was as follows: I sowed after potatoes, spring wheat taken away, and the barn he pulled down. All the of the Black Sea variety, about the 15th of April; har. buildings and fences now on the premises have been put vested about the 4th of August, at the rate of six and up by him. In making the purchase he says I paid
a-half bushels per acre. In the cultivation of my ryo
crop, I sowed part of it aster potatoes, and a part on a all the money I had, or could raise, which left me more clover lay; sowed the last week in August and the first to pay as interest than the former occupant paid as rent. week in September, one a half bushels to the acre; bar. But notwithstanding I have since put up my buildings,
vested about the 15th of July; product seventeen and a
half bushels per acre. The crop was much injured by a fences, and all other improvements, I have paid the
hail sto: in in the latter part of June, to the extent I interest, and reduced the principal, besides this year's
• In reference to Mr. More's mode of applying manure, it should (1850) profits."
be remembered that he plows " not less than eight mches deep, and
olen deeper." Therefore in choosing between plowing in manuro We take from the Transactions of the N. Y. State Ag. to this depth, or top-dressing, the latter is, perhaps, preferable, es.
pecially when, as in this case, the main object is 10 promote the Society for 1850, the following, from Mr. More's answers
growth of clover. Still, we cannot but regard it as probable, that if to questions propounded to the competitors for the pre the manure was fairly covered with earth, say to the depth of two tc
four inches, its effects would be greater in the end than if it was lon miums on farms:
eutirely on the surface. Eds.
think of eight or ten bushels per acre. I did not dis. I have cultivated usually about an acre of strawber. cover much difference between the manured potato ries, with success and profit. I have cleared over two ground, and the clover lay, which confirms my previous hundred dollars in one year from one acre. My mode opinion, that a clover lay plowed under, is about equal of cultivation is to take a clean piece of land in good to a dressing of manure.
condition, plow it very deep, harrow thoroughly, and I cultivated corn as follows: twenty-two acres on clo spread evenly from two to three hundred bushels of ver lay, part plowed in the fall and part in the spring. I leached ashes to an acre, mark the land in drills three After the clover had got about ankle high, I plowed it feet apart, and insert the plants from eight to twelve inch. deep, passed over with the roller, harrowed well, marked es apart, in the drills. I transplanted in April, or early in both ways three and a half feet apart, and planted from May. I obtained no fruit the first year, of consequence. 4 to 6 seeds in a hill; planted the last days of May and I cultivate between the rows, as long as I can get through first of June; as soon as I could see the rows I went with the cultivator, and then let the vines rop togetber, through with the cultivator; in about a week after, they will cover the ground entirely by the first of As. went through with the cultivator again, followed with the gust. I do nothing with them again until the next spring, hoe, making it perfectly clean, and thinning it to four when I take a double team and heavy harrow, and go stalks in the hill. I kept the cultivator stirring the over the beds thoroughly, until the plants are sufficient. ground as much as possible, till the corn was about three ly thinned; this loosens the ground and takes out all the feet high, then went through with the shovel plow, and weak plants. If the ground does not appear to be suffhilled moderately. As soon as the corn was glazed I ciently rich, I apply another dressing of leached ashes; cut it up by the ground, and set it up in small stooks. after this is done, the ground is laid off in beds, about I consider stalks as the most valuable cured in this way. Ifive feet apart, and nothing more is done till the fruit I planted part of the eight-rowed white, and part of the comes to maturity. After the fruit is gathered, the beds eight-rowed yellow. I found the yellow corn some ten are cleared of weeds, and left till the next spring. The days earliest, but the white yielded best; I did not keep second year I repeated the above method. it separate. The whole averaged fifty-six bushels per One great benefit I find in using ashes as a manure, is acre. Five acres of sweet corn I planted the first days that it brings no weeds. I consider strawberries one of of July; the ground was well manured by top-dressing, my best crops. I failed, however, entirely in my crop cultivated the saine as the common; picked the 15th to this year. I had one and a half acres of the pine apple 30th of Cctober. It sold in the market principally, at variety, a variety much recommended for its prolific 62ļ cents per hundred ears, amounting to $257.33. The crops, and the superior quality of its fruit; my beds stalks are much more valuable than the other corn, as never looked so well as they did last spring, blossomed they contain a larger proportion of saccharine matter. finely, and bid fair for an abundant crop, but after blos.
I sowed this year thirty acres of buckwheat; after soming no berry appeared, and I had therefore a most mowing, I turned over a clover lay, and sowed between splendid failure. I had not a ful grown, perfect berry the 15th and 20th of July, about three pecks to the acre. in the whole field, they were all pistillate plants. I bare Harvested about the 10th of October; produce eight been setting rows of the Iowa variety through them, hundred and thirty-one bushels, twenty-three and three. with the hope of better success the next year. quarter bushels per acre. On fifteen acres I sowed rye 18. I usually sow clover and timothy seed on vinter with the buckwheat, which looks well, and bids fair to crops. Timothy in August and September, clorer in be a good crop.
| April. Four quarts of timothy, and usually twelve I cultivated twelve acres of broom corn, on an island | quarts of clover to an acre. My land being upland, I pre. in the Hudson river. In consequence of the late spring
| fer timothy and clover for pasture. freshet, I planted the first week in June, ground plowed | 19. I mowed thirty-two acres this year, and areraged deep, well harrowed, rolled and marked three feet apart, about one and a half tons per aere. I cut clorer when and planted with Campfield's Drill Barrow, hills eigh the heads begin to brown, and timothy when in full blos. teen inches apart, ten seeds in the bill, it was tended som, Cure as much in the swath and cock as possible. much the same as Indian corn, cut when the seed was To prescrve the color and keep the leaves from shelling, in the milk, cleaned and cured in the shade, to keep the salt in the mow, at the rate of four quarts to the load. brush green. My usual crop is about seven hundred 24. I was in the milk dairy business till last October, pounds per acre. This year, in consequence of having when I sold out. For the last two years previously I been twice overflowed, the crop is much injured, and kept on an average about thirty cows. Since then seren. will not yield more than four hundred and ten pounds Nineteen I pasture for others. I keep for use on the per acre.
farm, four mules, one horse, and one yoke of cattle. My One acre of corn I sowed for fodder. Sowed the last cows are of the native breed. of July, cut and fed to the cows through the month of 25. I have made no experiment in the breeding or use October. I find it excellent for late green feed.
of cattle. Have used for farm work, horses, mules and I cultivated two acres of melons; watermelons, citron oxen I prefer mules for general farm purposes. Osen melon, and preserve citron. Planted the first of June. the second best, I consider two mules as good, and will After the land was put in good order, by deep plowing, do as much work as three horses. I can keep three I marked out the ground six feet apart each way, and mules as cheap as two horses, besides saving much in put three shovels full of street manure in a hill. I plan. shoeing, and costing nothing for farriery; they will work ted at least twelve seed in a hill. Calculated about two. / when very old, and I could not be induced to do without thirds to be lost by the bugs. The produce was very | them. large, as the family consumed many, many were pilfered 26. I stable my cattle, and cut my feed principally and and given away, and sold over one hundred dollars give them as much as they will eat. Water in the stable. worth.
34. The depredations of the common peach worm I Fifty rods of asparagus. I cultivated as follows: sowed prevent by digging round the trees twice a year, and de the seed, transplanted the third year to the bed for cut. stroying them. This is the only troublesome insect I ting. I prepared the bed by plowing deen, and highly have had so far, except the common caterpillar, which manured with well rotted manure; when the bed was
with well rotted manure. When the bed wag | is easily got rid of. thus prepared, I took a large plow, and struck a furrow 35. I keep the ground cultivated for two or three feet about twelve inches deep, set my plants in the bottom of round the trees, and keep the ground covered with com. the furrow, about ten inches apart, cover, then struck the post, when the orchard is in sod, which is not more than second eighteen inches apart from the first, and so on one year in four. I endeavor to keep my orchard well until all are set. Top dressed with well rotted barn- manured. I wash my trees with a preparation of lime yard manure and salt. My asparagins was of an extra. / and oil of soap, which keeps the bark smooth and thrifts. ordinary size and quality. Sold $69.66 worth at eleven 37. I have a story and a half house, 24 by 36 feet, cents per bunch, besides what was used in the family. I with kitcken back, 18 by 30 feet, 12 feet taken off for cannot tell how much fertilizing matter is taken from the store room. The upper part of my main building is soil to produce twenty bushels of wheat. I wish I could. I devoted entirely to sleeping rooms.
My main barn is 30 by 80 feet, standing upon a side.
ACCOUNT OF RECEIPTS OF FARM. 363 bunches asparagus at Il cellis, .............
$69 66 hill of gentle slope, end towards the hill; under the end
Received from produce of 5 acres sweet corn,.. 257 33 where the ground is lowest, I take off twenty feet for a
610 bushels rye at 69 cents,......
410 90 horse stable, making room for seven head of horses; the Melons, pumpkins, and citron melons solo
143 00 next twenty feet is a root cellar; the remaining forty 831 bu-bels buckwheat at 44 cents,
305 44 feet is a cow stable with cisterns underneath for catch
Raspberries sold, ......
31 25 Potatoes, (includmg those w old,)....
100 00 ing all the water that falls on the building. My water
1,210 bushels of corn at 65 cents,
806 00 cistern occupies about twenty-four feet under this stable, Milk sold from an averarge of 30 cows, 9 months,. 1,629 81 and will bold something like two hundred hogsheads; Sixty-four bushels, 35 lbs. wheat,...
64 62 Five loads of hay,.....................
40 00 the other sixteen feet is occupied by a cistern for col.
Five loads of straw,......
5 00 lecting the urine from the stables, the floor being caulk. Broom brush, 4,920 lbs.,
250 00 ed and pitched, with a trough behind the cattle to con. Pigs sold,.....
40 00 duct their urine to the cistern.
Surplus of straw,..
100 00 Surplus of corn stalks, part sold,
100 00 My manner of building the cisterns is this. I dig ont
Twelve tons of clover hay at $6,....
72 00 the earth, of the requisite shape and dimensions, take Chickens and eggs sold, ........
40 00 cement and coarse sand of equal parts, mixed with wa.
140 lbs. butter at 18 cents,...........
Peaches sold, ....................... ter, and spread evenly about half an inch in thickness
10 00 Pie plant.................
11 25 all round the sides, and on the bottom, and cover with
Twenty-five calves at $1 each,..
25 00 planks, with earth over them. A cistern of the capaci. Received for pasturage,.
18 50 ty of one hundred hogsheads can thus be built, with
Received for work done by teams and men during
8117 30 pump, complete, for less than twenty-five dollars.
Received for labor done for S. Van Rens. The cow stable is arranged to accommodate twenty.
114 00 four head of cattle in two rows, with an alley way be.
231 50 tween. The sides are filled in with brick. One part of the barn, over the horse stable, I use for hay, and the
Total receipts for current year,..................81,852 51
... 2,174 35 remainder of the space, over my thrashing floor and cow stable, for grain and fodder. Attached to my barn I Net profits current year, .......
..............$2,678 16 have on the north a wagon house and tool shoop, 18 by Mr. More has furnished us with a brief summary of 50 feet, with room overhead for hay and grain, opening the pre
1, opening the products of his farm for the present year. It is ne. into the main barn. To the south of the main barn, at. tached in the same way, is a building 18 by 100 feet; cessarily imperfect, from the fact that the yield of only fifty feet is occupied as a cow stable, the remainder is a portion of his crops had been ascertained, and but few open shed, with room overhead same as north wing. To
of them marketed, when the statement was made-20th the south of the southern shed I have my hen house, 12 by 18 feet, with large windows on the south side, to
of October. admit light and warmth. East and south of this shed Barley, 33 acres, produced 895 bushels, weighing 48 is my barn-yard, protected from the north and west lbs. per bushel-sold in the aggregate, $671.25, from winds. The yard contains about three quarters of an acre, divided into two parts, the front one for most com.
which, deduct the total expense and charges incident to mon use; in the rear one I have four barracks for coarse the crop, $262.75, leaves a profit of $408.50 besides the feed, where I fodder in the middle of the day in plea. I straw, which is yalued at half the price per to sant weather. East of my barn, some forty feet, I have
Asparagus, 50 square rods—sales $71.70_charges on a wagon house, 28 by 36 feet, with corn honse and gra. nary overhead. About one hundred and fifty feet in the
same, $20-leaving as profit, $50.70. Potatoes, 12 acres rear of my honse, I have a shop 16 by 24 feet, story and - from which 602 bushels have been sold, at 50 cents a half, with sleeping rooms overhead.
per bushel, $301-400 bushels on hand, $200-aggregate 38. I have but one kind of fence, post and board, or plank, principally chestnut posts, and inch and a quar.
value $501; total cost of the crop $205—leaving as pro. ter culled spruce plank, four planks high, of which I fit $296. Indian corn, 14 acres-aggregate produce es. have sixteen hundred and eight rods, costing about
timated at 560 bushels. Buckwheat eight acres-sold eighty cents per rod. I have no wire fence, and have seen none that I admire. My fences are all in good con.
trom the same to the amount of $62.50, at 50 cents per dition, all having been built within the last five years. bushel. Hay, from 30 acres, 50 tons. Kept on the As an evidence of the good quality of my fence, I have
farm 17 cows-sold butter to the amount of $300. Kept not received a shilling's damage to my crops for the last
| 40 pigs, worth $5 each. year, from either my own or neighbors' cattle.
39. I measure my grain, seed, and potatoes; weigh Since last year, Mr. MORE has increased the number my beef, pork, and hay, and keep an account of all. of bis apple trees from 1000 to 1800, and has now set to 40. I keep a general farm account, of all my sales,
apple, peach, pear, plum, and quince trees, 52 acres. receipts and expenditures, and can strike a balance at the end of the year, and thus ascertain my profits or
The spaces between the small trees, are set to raspberlosses.
ries, currants, strawberries, &c. The raspberries and Accoryt of EXPENSES OF Farm. 407 days labor at 50 cents,......
currants, except such as were used in the family while Yearly and monthly labor, .........
fresh, were made into preserves and jellies-sereral hun. One girl one year...........
52 00 6 four months,............
16 00 dred pounds of which are on hand unsold. 500 busliels of oats al 41 cents, .....
205 00 Blacksmith's bill, ...........
97 81 Grocery, shoe, and dry goods bill
Farming in Pennsylvania. 12 bushels grass seed at 82 25,..
39 00 10 do clover seed at $450,.. 12 do seed wheat at $1.25,....
In the early part of October, we paid a visit to PennSeed corn and garden seeds, .....
sylvania, for the purpose of being present at some of the 26 bushels seed buckwheat at 62) cents,....
16 25 State and school taxes .
31 22 agricultural exhibitions, and learning something of the Insurance in Mutual Ins. Co, average about,
4 50 Depreciation of farming tools,......
The first point of 100 00
agriculture of a part of that state. Two tons of plaster,......
10 00 destination was Newtown, and after attending the fair of 1.000 bushels of lime, at 4 cents,...
40 00 Grains for cows,....
119 17 the Bucks County Agricultural Society, at that place, Hay bought in April last,....
we took the opportunity of examining some of the farms Total expenses for current year,................ $2,174 35 in that neighborhood. The above includes all farm and family expenses, with the exception of doctor's bills and church expenses.
| Bucks county bas long enjoyed a great celebrity as a
farming district, and if that portion of the county which tion. But the suggestion may be worthy consideration, we saw is a fair representation of the whole, its reputa
ronnta. | whether a deeper tillage, which could be effected by a
sub-soil plow without burying any deeper the manure or tion is not undeserved. It may be pronounced an inter
surface soil, would not be beneficial. In spring, about esting section. Its surface, though comparatively level, the last week in April, the ground is thoroughly worked is sufficiently diversified to afford a pleasant aspect, nu.
over with a large cultivator, which brings the soil into
excellent condition for planting. The corn is planted merous streams of excellent water, and roads which are
I the first week in May. Furrows are made four feet easy to be traveled over. The proportion of wood, and apart for the rows, and the seed is dropped in them with its situation with respect to the cleared land, is such as a hand drill. The drill does not cover the seed, and to
... I do this a harrow is drawn, with the teeth opward, in imparts an agreeable variety to the landscape, and with do
such a way as to fill the furrows. When the plants are the general neat appearance of the farms, and large and fairly started, they are thinned so as to leave one every substantial stone dwellings and barns, few sections of the nine inches. The crop is gone over once with the band country present more attractions in respect to rural en
| hoe; the rest of the work is done with the cultivator,
Strict attention is paid to the thorough eradication of joyment and comfort.
weeds. For the twelve years Mr. C, has managed the From Mr. ADRIAN CORNELL, Jr., we obtained some farm, he has made it a rule that no foul plants should be facts in regard to the agriculture of the neighborhood, allowed to go to seed, and the effect has been to almos and especially in regard to the agriculture and products
wholly prevent their appearance. In a cornfield of Sr.
teen acres, scarcely a weed could be seen, and orer the of his own farm, which we think will interest and benefit
whole farm nothing of the kind obstructed the grosta our readers. His residence is about three miles from of crops. The corn is cut up and shocked, as soon as it is Newtown, and about twenty miles north from Philadel.
ripe enough to cure. The yield averages sixty bushels per
acre, measured as husked in the field. The cost of col. pbia. The place has been occupied by the ancestors of I tivation is 20 cents per bushel. The price it brings in Mr. C. for several generations; a portion of the dwelling market is usually 624 cents per bushel. The fodder pro house was built by his great grandfather, in 1745, and duced on an acre, yielding as above stated, is reckoned
worth $6. The fodder is all fed out in the barn-yard, the remaining portion by his grandfather, in 1762. It
in order that the waste parts may be converted into use was a well known mansion during the Revolution, and nure while the British army was encamped in the vicinity, Oats follow corn—sown as early in spring as the sol was more than once subjected to scarch, from being sup. will admit of plowing, three bushels seed, broadcast, to posed to shelter "rebel" officers.
the acre. No manure is given to this crop. The average
yield is 60 bushels per acre. The average price which The home farm consists of 144 acres, exclusive of
this grain brings in market, is 40 cents per bushel. wood-land. It is devoted to mixed husbandry, as are Wheat succeeds oats. The preparation consists in most other farms in this section, a system which is gen. first spreading on the stubble, fifteen two-horse agon erally found most profitable where circumstances are
loads of manure to the acre, which is iminediately plor.
ed in, three and a half to four inches deep, harrowed, adapted to it, and especial so, where, as in this case,
| and left to rot till about the middle of September, wben the products are regularly marketed from week to week. the ground is cross-plowed, about five inches deep. The The soil is of very uniform character over the whole
soil is then reduced to a fine tilth by the harrow and rol.
ler, and the wheat sown by a drill, two and a-half bush. farm, and varies bnt little over a large extent of country
un els to the acre. The vield for the last ten rears bas from the Delaware river west wardly. The surface is
averaged over 25 bushels per acre-has sometimes gode mostly a fine, friable loam, underlaid, generally, with a
as high as 30 bushels per acre. The average price it has grayish yellow clay, (probably impregnated with iron,)
brought in market for the last ten years, is 110 cents per resting at various depths on sandstone strata. It is an excellent soil as regards mechanical relations; being
bushel. The kind raised by Mr. C., and almost the only
kind raised in this part of the country, is the Meditereasily tilled, not liable to pack closely under the effect
ranean. It succeeds better against both the Hessian-dy of rains, nor to bake under the effect of drouth. This constitution renders the crops comparatively independent
and wheat-midge and is also less subject to blight. The of the weather, as to wetness or dryness, and with good
grain has improved very much in quality, since it was cultivation insures a certain return. We have before
first introduced, but ip acquiring this quality, it has lost mentioned that a very protracted drouth had been ex.
something of the peculiar habit by which it was enabled perienced here the past season-scarcely rain enough to
to resist the Hessian-lly. The straw was formerly rery soak the ground to the depth of two inches, having fallen
stiff, and the husk or sheath which enveloped the stem, from June to the 25th of October; and yet on Mr. Cor.
adhered so closely that the insect could not obtain a NELL's farm, and some others which we visited, the crops
lodgment for itself. The subject is agitated of making were nearly all good. It should be understood. how.
a new importation of this variety of wheat, for the ob ever, tha: there appears to be an inexhaustible source of
ject of securing the property for which it was at first water through this district, at no very great depth in the Spectany Vanadie.
specially valuable. earth, as is seen in numerous unfailing rivulets, and the Clover and timothy seed are sown on the wheat at the abundant supply afforded by wells.
close of winter, on a light snow, or early in spring, while Course of Cropping.-Mr. CORNELL's farm is divided the ground is very soft. Mr. C. likes the mode of putinto lots of 12 to 16 acres, each of which (except what is ting in wheat by the drill-thinks the crop is usually betdevoted to orcharding) is in regular rotation, brought ter so than broadcast-but it has an objection in reference into the same crop. This rotation is the following: first to the clover and grass, which is regarded as of some year Indian corn, second year oats, third year wheat, importance. The drill leaves the surface somewhat in fourth, fifth and sixth years clover and timothy-mowed ridges and furrows; the clover and grass-seed, though two seasons and pastured one.
sown broadcast, tends to collect in the surrows, which The sod for corn is usually plowed in November and causes it to grow in rows like the wheat, leaving the field December. From five to eight two-horse wagon loads imperfectly swarded over. The yield of hay is about of manure are spread before plowing. The land is then two tons per acre. The whole amount of hay cut on the plowed to the depth of three and a half to four inches. farm annually, is about 80 tons. Its average market This will appear to many persons as much too shallow. value is $12 per ton. Mr. C. defends his practice by the argument that the Fruit.-Mr. CORNELL has about twelve acres deroted sod and the manure should be kept where the crop will to apple and pear trees-three or four acres of which are derive most benefit from them, that is, as near the sur. set to an apple orchard, as yet too young to bear much. face as practicable, without suffering loss from exhala. I In general these fruits are an important item of farm pro