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ships which may almost be described in his words as clad with triple folds of “adamantine steel, impregnable.” That the time is not yet come to dispense with such engines is proved by the frightful civil war now raging in America, between the northern and southern divisions of the United States, and which for a moment threatened to involve England at the close of 1861.

Twenty-five years are now completed of a reign which more than rivals that of Elizabeth in prosperity and glory. Though by no means a period of unbroken quiet, all its troubles have thus far ended well. The rebellions of Canada, Ireland, and India have led in each case to better relations with the imperial government. Our wars have closed in honourable peace, after their disasters had been retrieved. Our liberties have been extended, our laws, improved, our penal code mitigated, and imprisonment for debt virtually abolished. Commerce has been set free, and practical force has been given to the new doctrine, that the interests of nations are mutual and not opposite. Our colonial empire has been secured and vastly extended, and the gold of Australia and Columbia has given a new impulse to industry. The spirit of enterprise and discovery has unlocked the secrets of the Arctic Seas and of the continent of Africa. Science has made rapid strides; and the discoveries of the power-loom and the steam-engine in the last generation have been crowned by the general use of the railway and the electric telegraph. Famine, pestilence, and other visitations of Providence, have called forth abundant springs of private charity, and forced upon us the study of the laws on which life, health, and welfare depend, under the new names of Sanitary and Social Science. Among the foremost in this movement was the foremost subject of the queen, her royal consort, prince ALBERT ; and the last great event that we have to record is his untimely death on Saturday, Dec. 14, 1861. He had long been steadily growing in the respect and love of the British people, earned entirely by his merit. When he came to England, the popular prejudice against the German connexions of our royal family had not died out; and there were some in high places who looked with jealousy upon a prince whose youth had been spent in the cultivation of sound and elegant learning. An extreme party raised the cry of undue influence, when it was found that the prince had, with the consent of successive ministers, taken his natural position as the queen's helper in state affairs. But he lived down all these prejudices by abstaining as well from party politics as from the meaner temptations of his lofty place, and devoting himself to the sacred duty of helping the queen and training their children for their exalted station in the fear of God. To have done this and given no offence would have been much : but it is his peculiar praise that, shut out from political activity, he found a ner scope for his energy and wisdom in a work which no one else could have done as well, and in which he will long be missed. He was ready to aid every well-planned scheme of social improvement; and his speeches on these occasions are as much marked by freshness of thought and purity of language as by the earnest desire to do good But his great achievement was the Exhibition of 1851-an untried experiment, which his perseverance carried through popular coolness and powerful opposition to triumphant success. When the new Eshibition was opened on May 1, 1862, the most striking feature of the ceremony was the absence of him who had planned the scheme. Meanwhile her Majesty's profound grief has been shared by a dutiful and affectionate people, and consoled by her children, of whom none have been lost and none have proved unworthy. They are :-(1.) Victoria Adelaide Maria Louisa, princess royal, born Nov. 21, 1840; (2.) ALBERT EDWARD, prince of Wales, born Nov. 9, 1841; (3.) Alice Maud Mary, born April 25, 1843; (4.) Alfred Ernest Albert, born Aug. 6, 1844; (5.) Helena Augusta Victoria, horn May 25, 1846; (6.) Louisa Caroline Alberta, born March 18, 1848; (7.) Arthur William Patrick Albert, born May 1, 1850; (8.) Leopold George Duncan Albert, born April 7, 1853; and (9.) Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore, born April 14, 1857. The princess royal was married, Jan. 25, 1858, to prince Frederick William, now crown prince of Prussia. The prince of Wales, by his father's care, has resided for a time at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Edinburgh, and travelled through Canada and the United States, where he obtained much popularity; he has visited Rome, Egypt, and Palestine, where he was the first European, since the Crusades, who has been permitted to see the tomb of the patriarchs at Hebron. Prince ALFRED has entered the navy; and on July 1, 1862, the queen, without laying aside her mourning, celebrated at Osborne the marriage of the princess ALICE, who has been her chief earthly comfort in her deep affliction, to his royal highness prince Louis of Hesse Darmstadt. The Prince of Wales attained his majority on Nov. 9, 1862, and the year closed with the announcement of his betrothal to the Princess Alexandra of Denmark.


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ETHELRED, Edgyth. r. 975-979.

r. 979-1016.

m. 1. Ælflæd. 2. Emma of Normandy. By these two marriages Ethelred had 14 children, of whom it will here be neccessary

to mention only 3.


(by first wife), assassinated Nov. 1016.

m. Algitha.

by second wife,

ob. 1036.


(by second wife),

r. 1042-1066.
m. Edgitha.


m. Agatha (d. 1057).

Edgar Atheling


(in whom
m. Malcolm, k.

(a nun).
the male Saxon line

of Scotland.
became extinct).

m. HENRY I, k. of England
(thus uniting the Saxon and Norman lines)

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VICTORIA I., our present most gracious and beloved queen, was proclaimed on June 21, 1837, by her two names of Alexandrina Victoria, but she immediately dropped the former. She was born, May 24, 1819. The death of her father (Jan. 23, 1820) deft her to the sole care of her mother, Victoria, duchess of Kent and princess of Saxe Coburg-Gotha, the sister of prince Leopold; and the charge was fulfilled with a care and wisdom, of which the fruit has been shown in every step of her Majesty's life.

She soon displayed a character totally opposite to the selfish indolence of George IV., and the weak good nature of William IV. She devoted herself to public and private duty with diligence, activity, punctuality, and economy. Having given up the domains of the crown for a very moderate civil list, she speedily paid her father's debts and those contracted by her mother for her education. Her accession was hailed with cheerful hope, based on the knowledge of the training she had received, and with chivalrous devotion to a second virgin queen, who had the advantage over Elizabeth in youth and gentleness. She was wisely guided into the strict path

of the constitution by lord Melbourne, and after him by succeeding ministers, by her lamented consort, and by the duke of Wellington, whose advice was always sought in great emergencies.

The queen was welcomed with enthusiasm on her first public appearance in the city, Nov. 9, 1837. Lord Melbourne's tottering ministry revived in the sunshine of her favour and in the strength of her liberal principles ; but there were clouds around and breakers ahead. They were suspected by the Radicals of receding from liberal principles under shelter of court favour, especially when lord John Russell announced the “finality” of the Reform Act (Nov. 1837). Offence was given by their resistance to the shortening of the term of “apprenticeship ” which preceded the final emancipation of the negroes. Their Irish policy offended the Tories without satisfying the Repealers; and in CANADA they had to meet a formidable rebellion with measures of coercion. This rebellion led to the settlement of the affairs of Canada by lord Durham in the following year, and the union of the two provinces under a new and popular constitution. There was a marked coolness in the queen's reception on her way to open parliament at the beginning of 1838. The Conservatives under sir Robert Peel gained strength in the commons, and the government were in a minority in the lords, where they were assailed by the tactics of Lyndhurst and the invectives of Brougham. The Radicals raised a cry for“ Peerage Reform,” which ministers lost popularity by opposing. The bad harvests of 1837 and 1838 inflamed popular discontent, and a formidable agitation was raised by the Chartists, who propounded a new “People's Charter” of five points, namely, universal suffrage, vote by ballot, triennial parliaments, equal electoral districts, and salaries for members of parliament. Lastly, the repeal of the corn-laws was demanded by the Anti-Corn-Law League, wbich was formed at Manchester by Mr. RICHARD COBDEN, in September, 1838. At the same time the finances of the country were falling into confusion. In 1839 the ministry were defeated, and resigned; but, sir Robert Peel having been prevented from forming a government by a matter relating to the court, they returned to office. In the autumn there were serious Chartist disturbances in Wales, and blood was shed in an attack on Newport.

On February 10, 1840, her Majesty was married to her cousin, Francis ALBERT Augustus Charles Emanuel, second son of the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who was born Aug. 19, 1819. Parliament voted him an annuity of 30,0001., and the queen afterwards conferred on him the dignity of PRINCE CONSORT. In this year was formed the Quadruple Treaty between England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, for the protection of the sultan of Turkey against his rebellious


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