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and tides on the movement of material on the sea-coast, in papers read at the Bristol and Glasgow Meetings of the British Association, some part of which is embodied in this pamphlet.1 The part relating to the protection of the sea-coast appeared in a series of articles in the Engineer in 1899, and is reprinted here with the permission of the editor of that journal, some additional information since obtained being added. Descriptions also of some of the most remarkable shingle-banks and sand beaches, and an article on the settlement of solid matter in salt and fresh water, have at different times been contributed to Nature, and are here partly reproduced with the sanction of the editor.

The author hopes that by collecting together the information scattered throughout these papers it may be of service to those interested in the protection of the sea-coast.

As the terms “windward” and “ leeward” have been generally used to denote respectively the direction from which the normal direction of the littoral drift takes place, and that to which it moves, these have been retained, although wind is not the cause of the regular and continuous drift.

The word "shore” is used to denote the margin of the sea above high water; and “ beach," the space between this and lowwater line.

1 - The Action of Winds and Tides on the Movement of Material on the SeaCoast,” British Association, Bristol, 1898; “ The Source of Warp in the Humber,” Glasgow, 1901.

2 “ Sea-Coast Protection,” the Engineer, April 7, 14, 21, 28, May 5, 12, 19, 1899.

3 “ The Northam Pebble Ridge,” Nature, Dec. 30, 1897 ; " The Wearing away of Sand Beaches,” June 1, 1899; “ The Colour of Flints," Nov. 30, 1899; “ SeaCoast Destruction and Littoral Drift," Aug. 23, 1900; “The Settlement of Solid Matter in Fresh and Salt Water," June 20, 1901.

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LITTORAL DRIFT.

Classifications of drift-Source of supply-Present contour of sea-coast due

to glacial action and wave-motion-Beach material derived from the land
-Cliff-destruction-Supply of beach material limited-Littoral drift as
affecting harbours-Shingle-Sand-Sand-spits-Sand-dunes—Alluvium
-Settlement of solid matter in fresh and salt water-Direction of travel

-Transporting agency-Tidal shore waves . . . . . . . . .

SEA-WALLS.

General description of sea-walls_Upright walls-Curved walls—Walls with

a stepped face-Sloping-Most effective form-Forces operating on-

Effect of walls on the beach-Strength of —Height-Material for facing

-Timber walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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GROYNES

Effect of groynes on wave-action-On sandy beaches--Distance a part-Effect

of harbour jetties as grognes-Height- Temporary-Sloping-Direction
-Length-Cost-Accretion of beaches due to groynes-Case system of
groynes—Beard's system-Conclusions as to the use and advantages of
groynes--Crown rights to the beach . . .'. . . . . . . .

116

THE COAST OF ENGLAND.

SOUTH COAST.-Start Point to Portland Bill–Slapton Sands-Tor Bay-

Hope's Nose to Otterton Point-Otterton Point to Beer Head-Sidmouth-
Beer Head and Seaton- Axmouth-Landslip at Axmouth-Lyme Regis
to Burton Bradstock-The Chesil Bank-Portland Bill to Christchurch
-The Island of Portland-Weymouth-Redcliffe Point to Swanage--

Swanage-Poole-Bournemouth Bay-Christchurch to Selsea Bill-Hurst

shingle-bank-The Solent-Chichester Harbour-The Isle of Wight-

Selsea Bill to the South Foreland-Selsea and Pagham-Bognor-Felp-

ham - Middleton - Littlehampton – Worthing-Lancing-Shoreham-

Southwick and Portslade-by-sea-Brighton and Hove-Newhaven and

Seaford-Eastbourne-Bexhill — St. Leonards and Hastings-Rye-

Dungeness — Dymchurch-Hythe-Seabrooke-Sandgate-Folkestone-

Dover

EAST Coast. - Northumberland and Durham - The Tees to Flamborough

Head-Scarborough-Filey-Flamborough Head to Spurn Point-Source

of warp in the Humber - Bridlington-Fraisthorpe--Hornsea— Witberu-

sea-Kilnsea-Spurn Point-The Lincolnshire coast--A-shaped groynes

at Trusthorpe — Tbe Wash - The Norfolk coast - Hunstanton and

Snettisham-Huvstanton to Blakeney– Weybourne shingle-bank-Wey-

bourne-Sheringham-Cromer-Cromer to Palling - Happisburgh to

Gorleston-Yarmouth-Gorleston to Lowestoft-Lowestoft-Pakefield

to Aldborough-Southwold-Dunwich-Aldborough--Bawdsey-Felix-

stowe — Harwich - Walton - Clacton — The Tbames Estuary-Margate

and Ramegate-Reculvers and Herne Bay-Isle of Sheppey and

Sheerness-Sandwich and Deal

WEST Coast.--St. Bees Head to the Duddon Estuary_Walney Island

Morecambe Bay-Fleetwood-Rossall-Blackpool - The Ribble Estuary

-The Mersey and the Dee Estuaries-The Welsh coast-Bristol Channel

-Barnstaple Bay-Northam Pebble Ridge-Coast of Cornwall. . .

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

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PAGE 1. SHORE WAVE BREAKING ON SEA-WALL, HASTINGS ... Frontispiece 2. SECTION OF SHINGLE BANK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3. SAND SPIT, GULF OF DANTZIG . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4. SAND SPIT, CAPE COD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5. SAND DUNES . . . . . . . . . 6. PLAN SHOWING DIRECTION OF DRIFT IN A BAY. . . . . 7. SEA-WALL AT MARGATE . . . . . . . . 8. , BRIDLINGTON . . . . . . . 9. SECTION OF SEA-WALL .. 10. SEA WALL AT Hove . . . .

SCARBOROUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
WESTGATE . . . . .
CLACTON (OLD WALL) . . .

102 , (New WALL). ..

104
BLACKPOOL. . . . . . .
FELIXSTOWE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
LEVEN ESTUARY. . . . . . . . . . . 108
TRUSTHORPE . . . . . .
SCHEVENINGEN . . . . . . . . .

111

. OSTEND . . . . . . . . . . . .

12 21. PLAX SHOWING ACCUMULATION OF SHINGLE AGAINST GROYNES, . 22. CASE G ROYNE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125 23. LYME BAY, SHOWING DRIFT OF SHINGLE . . . . 24. SECTION OF CHESIL BANK . . . . . . .

146 25. POOLE HARBOUR AND SAND-HILLS . . . . .

163 26. THE SOLENT, AND HURST SHINGLE-BANK... 27. GROYNES AT Hove . . . . . . . . 28. SEA-WALL, DYMCHURCH . . . . . . . . . 29. GROYNES AT SANDGATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

206

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