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PREFACE.

The writer offers the following pages to the churches of his country as an hunible contribution to their stock of knowledge relative to heathen lands. It contains a faithful record of events which have occurred with1. the range of his experience and observation, and supplies much that may serve to illustrate the peculiar attributes of African society. It may, he ventures to hope, tend materially to promote the study of the philosophy of missions. It will furnish both the Sage and the Divine with facts for which perhaps they were not prepared, and exhibit phases of humanity which they have not hitherto observed. It will further show that, amid circumstantial differences there is a radical identity in the operations of human depravity, in Asia, in Polynesia, and in Africa; and that while the Gospel is the only, it is also the uniform remedy for the distress of a world convulsed by sin, and writhing with anguish. It will present striking examples of the complete subjugation of some of the fiercest spirits ihat ever trod the burning sands of Africa, or shed the blood of her sable offspring.

The Writer has indulged but slightly in philosophical disquisition, as he deemed it his province principally to supply facts. He leaves it with men of leisure and reflecting habits to analyze, compare, and deduce from those facts such doctrines as they supply. Indeed, little in this way can be added to the luminous works of Drs. Campbell and Harris, and Messrs. Hamilton, Noel, and others, by whom the subject of Missions has been so learnedly and eloquently illustrated. He hopes no apology will be deemed necessary for any imperfections which may appear in the preparation of his Narrative. The collocation of terms, and the polish of periods have made but a small part of his studies. Such pursuits, he conceives, were not the objects for which he was sent to Africa, and they would have but ill comported with the circumstances in which he spent a large portion of his arduous life on that benighted continent. He feels confident that lettered men will look into the pages of an African Evangelist for things far more substantial and important than the graces of composition-an accomplishment which the Author much admires, bu* to which he makes no pretension. He makes his present appearance before the British public less in the capacity of an Author than of a Witness, who most earnestly desires to establish and to enforce the claims of perishing, and helpless, and all but friendless millions, for whom he has hitherto lived and laboured-whom he ardently loves, and with whom all black, barbarous, and benighted as they are-be hopes to live, labour, and die!

Inured to active habits, and unaccustomed to sedentary pursuits as the Writer has been, he has found the preparation of the present volume, in addition to the translation of the Scriptures and of other books, and the almost unremitting labours of the pulpit and the platform, an arduous andertaking. This task has been attended with a multiplicity of mental

PREFACE.

exercises of a very diversified character. Some of these exercises have been solemn and painful, others sweet and soothing. He has been led to retrace the windings of a long and chequered pilgrimage, and to live over again much of his by-gone life. The review has, in many parts, been deeply humbling, but in all highly profitable. It has been refreshing to recount the mercies of the God whom he serves, which have been abundantly vouchsafed to him and his household in distant climes, and amid savage men. He has also ofttimes rejoiced in spirit, when he called to mind the displays of Divine grace, which have attended his very imperfect efforts to save the lost, and to benefit those who had no benefactor. Of time, however, he has often been reminded, that, as much is gone, little remains; while even that little trembles in the balance of an awful uncertainty. Of those who began at the same period with himself the career of missionary toil, the greater number have sunk into the grave; and not a few of those who followed long after, have also been gathered to their fathers. He is especially reminded of one, much honoured and endeared, whose tragical death, of all others, has most affected him. John Williams and he were accepted by the Directors at the same time, and designated to the work of God, at Surrey Chapel, on the same occasion. The fields of their service were both arduous, although of a widely different character. After much trial and many dangers, both have been permitted to return to their native land, and to publish narratives of their respective labours. Thus far they run parallel; but here they part company. “The Martyr of Erromanga" has finished his course, and rests from his labours; while his early friend still lives amidst the conflict. The Writer now feels that his work in England is done, and that the spirit of the stranger and the pilgrim is stealing powerfully over him. He longs once more to brave the mighty ocean; and eagerly anticipates the hour when he shall again reach the shores of his adopted country, and appear in the midst of the children of the Wilderness.

Amidst the dangers of the Deep, and the trials of the Desert, the Author will reflect with satisfaction upon the testimony he has left behind him to the condition and claims of the far distant tribes of South Africa. He is not without hope that it will, in some measure, serve to give him an interest in the sympathies and prayers of the Christian public when he will be "far hence among the Gentiles.” He leaves it to the churches of Britain as a memento of poor, degraded Africa. He hopes that all who peruse it, reflecting upon that unhappy and much injured region, will feel the urgency of its claims, and fervently supplícate the Throne of Grace on its behalf!

He bequeaths his book as a legacy of grateful affection to the multitudes of all classes, from whom he has received tokens of personal kind. ness, which, while life lasts, he will ever remember; and as an expres sion of a deep solicitude to promote the diffusion of the Gospel in tha Continent to which his labours have been more especially directed.

R. M. Walworth, London,

May 24, 1842.

CONTENTS.

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General view of the state of Africa-Attempts to explore-Supposed

origin of the Hottentots-How population extended-Origin of the
Bushmen tribes—Their extent-Bechuana Bushmen-Their suf-
fering and degradation-Variety of dialect accounted for— The
Tamahas-Melancholy view of Bushman country- The Kafir

origin and character-Countries of the Basutos and Bechuanas-

Namaquas and Damaras-Description of the Karoo-A dry and

barren country . . . . . . . . . . 13

CHAPTER II.

First Mission to South Africa Mr. Schmidt's success-Mission re-

sumed-Mission to the Kafirs-Dr. Vanderkemp leaves Cape Town

-Enters Kafir-land-Suspicions of the Kafirs—Ignorance of the

natives—The Doctor's colleague leaves him—The Doctor's devot-

edness and humility-Gaika solicits him to make rain-His self-

denial and perils - Hottentot woman-Enmity of some colonists

-Awful retribution-Kafir mission abandoned'. . . 25

CHAPTER III.

Dr. Vanderkemp's mission commenced among the Hottentots-The

Governor's kindness—The station attacked— Trying circum-
stances-Escape to Fort Frederick-Bethelsdorp-Successes of Dr.
V.'s efforts-His death and character-Character continued-A re-

markable incident-Kat River mission-Kafir mission resumed-

Affecting scene-William's death-Brownlee finally resumes the

mission-Effects of the Gospel . . . . . . . 34

CHAPTER IV.

Pushmen apply for teachers—Mr. Kicherer goes to Zak River-Diffi-

culties and sacrifices-Liberality of the farmers—The mission aban-
doned—The condition of the Bushmen-Lichtenstein's opinion-
The Bushmen's resources and habits-Provoking characteristics
Inhuman practice-Mr. Kicherer's description-Cruelty to off-
zpring-Bushmen possess amiable qualities—Missions resumed at
Toornberg, &c.—Missionaries ordered into the colony-Mr.
Faure's affecting statement Review of missions to the Bushmen
-Plan recommended—The Bushmen and the goats--Stratagem

hunting . . . · · · · · · ·

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Geographical position of Namaqua-land-When first visited by Mis-

sionaries—Topography-Character and language of the inhabi-
tants—Influence of foreign intercourse-Privations of the first mis-
sionaries—Their feelings—They cross the boundaries of the colony

-Cornelius Kok-Commencement of labours-First interview

with Africaner-His ancestry-Oppressions—Revenge—The ca-

tastrophe-Africaner's escape to the Orange River- War with the

Berends-A testimony-Africaner attacks a banditti–His mode

of warfare-His cattle stolen-He storms the assailants-Nicholas

Berend . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Missionaries settle at Warm Bath—The people of their charge-

Africaner joins the mission-Death of A. Albrecht-Pleasing
prospects blasted-Murder of Hans Drayer-Painful dilemma-
Trying alternative-A curious exhumation-Warm Bath de-

stroyed-Hints to new missionaries--Death of Mrs. Albrecht-

Light at even-tide . . . . . . . . . .

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Projected journey–Making bellows-Commencement of journey-

Geological observations— Travelling fare—Poisonous honey-Ig-
norance of the natives-Mr. Schmelen's journal-Other testimo
nies—Mistakes of travellers-Supposed tradition of deluge-A

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CONTENTS.

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