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Nature, this Calendar, though very imperfect, like all first attempts, will always interest progressive people: and it may perhaps serve the Idealist as an alternative way of marking the day of the year.

It reminds us through the changing seasons of that simple agricultural life on which health of mind and body depends, and from which all true wealth is derived : that simple life to depart from which involves disease and in the end brings death. And perhaps it

. might be well if religious reformers, even at the risk of being called cranks, would use (together with the ordinary date, of course) the year of the death of Socrates. This would serve as a protest against the exclusive identification of religion with Christianity, and a reminder that not in Palestine only were there Prophets and Reformers, Great men and Good. The Positivist is not ashamed to use a double date.

Inasmuch as the terms Religion and Morality have no fixed connotation, I have given to them that meaning which appears to be most reasonable. Unless one wished to invent new terms, it is not possible to do otherwise: for to use the word Religion in the usual irrational acceptation would be to admit what I repudiate and to deny what I most desire to affirm. I believe that my use of the word Religion differs little from that of Kant.

I have thought it right to speak plainly about dangerous delusions. To individuals we must extend that charity which we hope to meet with ourselves; but institutions must in the interest of Truth be truthfully described. That kind of charity which shields abuses is in most cases a mere cloak for self-interest. If I use the word Superstition, it is without ill-will or odium.

One or two passages may be thought too plainspoken by those who do not realise the dangers that beset the old-fashioned blindfold piety. The conditions of modern life demand that the Eden-innocence (simplex nobilitas) of earlier days be replaced by a purity not less genuine, but more robust and practical.

Of Tolstoy's writings I have made little use, because this book was finished before they came into my hands. Moreover, the Russian prophet cannot be followed through thick and thin. The intense earnestness of this noble soul sometimes causes him to overstep the mark and to lose contact with Nature. His definition of Religion is too abstract and unpractical, and his subtle reasonings about the future life almost amount to a denial of the hope of immortality. Tolstoy errs also in ignoring Hellenism, and in supposing that Christianity began with Christ.

I have just lately seen the first volume only of a valuable theistic book entitled “Rational Christianity,' by Hugh Junor Browne of Melbourne, 1879. Hon. Rollo Russell's beautiful essay on “Religion and Life" bears faithful witness to Truth. From the point of view of Philosophy this book may be described as semitheistic. I have obtained, but not yet read, Washington Sullivan's “Morality as a Religion."

To Dr Alfred Russel Wallace, the distinguished scientist and much revered humanitarian, and to Mr V. Tchertkoff, the spiritual and idealistic Russian exile, I am indebted for advice and encouragement.

The publication of this book is due to the generosity

of a friend of enlightened opinions and emancipated mind, whose name I regret that I may not mention. He is far from endorsing all the views expressed in these pages : indeed he doubts whether it is a wise thing to unsettle men's faith. I will go a step further and admit that to unsettle a man's faith is a greater crime than to cut his throat. But at the same time I affirm that the greatest benefit which one mortal can confer upon his fellow is to unsettle his superstitions: for this is to drag him from a quagmire, to make faith possible to him, to bring the higher life within his reach. Faith and superstition can in no wise co-exist. Socrates and Christ were great unsettlers : so were the earlier Quakers; and there is, thank God, in such modern writers as Carlyle, Ruskin, Mazzini, and Victor Hugo a great deal of unsettlement.

If I withhold my name it is not in order to avoid obloquy, but from a very different motive. A writer who pledges himself as a matter of principle to derive no profit from the sale of his book may fairly claim the privilege of remaining anonymous; nevertheless, if my name could possibly add any weight to my words, I would certainly sign it.

The comments or suggestions of Idealists will be welcomed by the author, and if addressed to the publisher, will be forwarded. Allen Gleichgesinnten Gruss und Handschlag! To all like-minded friendly greeting!

August 1904 A.D. (Fructidor, Anno Socratis 2303.)

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XIX. PRAYER AND WORSHIP

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1.--FRENCH REPUBLICAN CALENDAR OF 1793 .

II.--SOLAR HEROES; SHOWING THEIR POINTS OF AGREE-

MENT

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