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prove as rich as that in Pennsylvania. In on our carrying trade, and, with these Pennsylvania, it will be recalled, the dis- beginnings, we may wonder that, if such covery came just when the new war tax things are done in the green tree, what on alcohol more than quadrupled its will be done in the dry.” It is true that price, and made the demand for a cheap ocean-carriage is the only department in burning fluid a pressing one throughout which the gigantic expansion of our comthe North. The experiences of that day mercial control has not made itself felt. made the expression “strike oil” the The editors of other English papers review synonym for the sudden acquirement of the situation in the same gloomy way; wealth-Mr. Carnegie, among others, they see the British flag driven not only having had his fortune multiplied by off the Atlantic but off the Pacific. They sharing in the $40,000 investment in the are united in recognizing the natural and Storey farm, from which dividends of a many other advantages of the United million a year were soon extracted. The States, and in declaring that there is now knowledge that such things are possible a necessity to put more brains and more seems to deprive whole communities of energy into English work, for “it is now a their reason, so that probabilities are never question of the survival of the fittest.” measured, and men are ready to invest Perhaps, after all, add they, wistfully, one dollar in the hope of ten even when Englishmen have only flagged a little, they know that the chances are a hun- owing to a false sense of security arising dred to one that they will get nothing. from years of commercial supremacy.

This whole tone of criticism appears to

us to be based on a false conception of The Leyland Line

Last week the control commerce as a kind of war, whereas it is

of the Leyland line of in fact a form of service, and the compesteamers was acquired by Mr. J. P. Mor-tition in commerce is or should be a gan, acting for American interests. This generous rivalry in the promotion of the is one of the great steamship lines in the world's welfare. world, and its acquisition, even at a price nearly one-half more than it had been previously considered to be worth, has appar

Opposition to the exently rather frightened our English cousins. The English Coal Tax

port tax on coal, from Such a well-balanced sheet as the London

which Sir Michael ** Telegraph” says that, after the master- Hicks-Beach plans to raise $10,000,000 a stroke" by which one of the most impor- year toward meeting the expenses of the tant of our merchant fleets has been Boer war, has assumed portentous protransferred, what position in the whole portions. During last week it threatened field of British commerce can be considered to take upon itself dramatic form, as the secure from the enveloping strategy of the officers of the Miners' Federation, at a organizer of the steel trust, who, it must meeting in London, recommended that all be admitted, has acquired a better claim to the miners in the United Kingdom-threethe title of the Bonaparte of trade than has quarters of a million in number-should any other figure of modern industry? ... stop work until the proposed tax was withA few transfers like that of the Leyland drawn. This proposition, however, by the Line will menace the commercial suprem- union rules, was subject to a referendum acy of Great Britain as it never yet has to the local organizations, and the votes been menaced.” We fail to see how the taken on Saturday showed that in two acquisition of funds enough to replace the great districts at least—Derbyshire and Leyland ships and nearly half as many Yorkshire-a majority were against the more challenges British supremacy. The strike, while in most of the others the vote rest of the “ Telegraph's” remarks are was merely to support the position finally more to the point: “ America has super-' taken by the national organization. The seded our agriculture, beaten our coal mine-owners also are uncertain whether output, left us far behind in the production they desire the men to take such extreme of iron and steel, and has passed us at action-especially as its political effect last in the total volume of exports. She might be to prejudice the nation against has only commenced her final onslaught the demands of the mining interests. In



Parliament, however, the debate upon the Miquel has recently been regarded, first, innovation has given new life to the oppo- as the one man in Prussia and in Gersition, and even lent currency to rumors many to carry out the Kaiser's ambitious of an approaching dissolution. When the design for extending the canal system, debate began on Friday evening, Sir and, second, as the most prominent William Harcourt, the Chancellor of the candidate in the Imperial Chancellorship Exchequer in Mr. Gladstone's last Cabi- succession. Last week, however, the net, arraigned the proposed tax as


Prussian Ministry sustained a defeat in extraordinary and vexatious piece of bun- the Prussian Landtag or Parliament, and gling," which would throw the coal trade this was followed by the resignation of into chaos and bring about a reduction in Dr. von Miquel and two other Ministers. the wages of English miners. It was non- The ex-Minister of Finance was once a sense, he said, to assert that the foreigner revolutionist; this was in 1848, that year would pay the tax because he must have of revolutions. Then he quieted down English coal. Already, he declared, the somewhat and became a Radical, then trade of France was equally divided be- Liberal, then a Liberal Conservative, and tween England, Germany, and Belgium. finally a Tory of the William II. order. At this Sir Michael Hicks- Beach inter- To-day Dr. von Miquel is one of the most jected, “We are beating the others;" to picturesque characters in Germany, cerwhich Sir William replied, “ Then go tainly a different character from the twenty on beating them; why throw a shilling year-old youth expelled from the Fatherinto the scale against this country?" In land. His special ability has been shown Sir Michael's reply he admitted that the in his wonderful knowledge of finance, coal tax, like every other tax, was an ob- and his energy in carrying cut his finanstruction to trade, but he had little patience · cial principles. An even greater honor, with the claim that the coal industry was however, attaches to the fact that he was not able to bear a part of the taxation one of the first exponents of German needed by the country. The coal-owners unity, advocating it even when Bismarck of the United Kingdom last year, he was opposed to it. The defeat of the declared, made a profit of $145,000,000 Emperor's canal measure, is, we believe, upon a capital of $550,000,000. The only temporary. The connection of the new tax, furthermore, would rest upon the Rhine and the Elbe, the Oder and the foreign consumers, since the United States Vistula, is too definitely profitable a plan had been unable to get any part of Eng- not to appeal to all German industrialists. land's export trade, even last year, when It is absolutely necessary for them to English coal was uch dearer than now. have easy transportation, and it is as With a shilling a ton added to the present necessary for them to have cheap foodprice of English coal, it could still be sold stuffs. The canals will solve both probfor less than American coal, and therefore lems, hence industrialists are in favor of would be bought in preference. Upon the Kaiser's project. Here they meet this point Sir Michael Hicks-Beach seemed the opposition of the Agrarians, in other to have the best of the argument, so far as words, the agriculturists, who represent the immediate effect of the tax was con- both the upper and the lower ten of society, cerned, but the future development of together with much of its wealth and many England's export coal trade is none the of its vested interests. The Agrarians are less surely threatened by the tax pro- admirably organized in their campaign to posed, and the discrimination against a raise the duties on all imported foodstuffs. particular industry which the coal tax It is thus a battle of giants that we see involves runs counter to the fundamental in Prussia to-day. For the moment the principle that taxation should rest equally victory is with the Agrarians.

upon all.

Last week the Nestor

Last week definite informaThe Prussian Crisis

Famine in China of Prussian politics,

tion confirmed the rumors Johannes von Miquel, resigned the office recently current of terrible famine in the which he has so long adorned, that of two provinces of Shansi and Shensi, China. Finance Minister of Prussia. Dr. von Those are mountainous regions lying west of the coast province of Chili, in which to acquaint himself fully with the facts. the capital city of Peking is situated. The most important of these statements It is even claimed that the people of is that the settlements made by Dr. Ament Shansi and Shensi have been reduced to and Mr. Tewksbury with the village cating the bark on the trees. Mr. Conger, authorities were with the approval of Mr. United States Minister to China, who has Conger, the United States Minister, Mr. now arrived in this country, says that Rockhill, the special United States Comnothing has been raised in the stricken missioner, and Li-Hung-Chang, the Govprovinces for two years, and, unless relief ernor of the Province. The allied Powers, is quickly forthcoming, many must perish. it appears, decided that they could do He recommends that money be sent to nothing for the Christian Chinese, and the United States Consuls at Shanghai therefore, if they were not to be left to die and Tientsin, and to the heads of missions of starvation, provision must be made in the provinces. He adds that the Chi. through the instrumentality of the misnese Government and the Chinese people sionaries. The New York“ Sun," which will be duly appreciative and grateful, in this matter is looking for a dishcnest that in any event the demands of humanity man as eagerly as Diogenes with his lanwill be answered, and that future good tern ever looked for an honest one, seems will result. Mr. Conger, Secretary Hay, to imagine that there is an inconsistency and President McKinley have each con- between Dr. Judson Smith's statement tributed to the fund already started with that the indemnity secured by the missioncharacteristic energy by the “ Christian aries was “not for themselves, not for the Herald,” of New York City. While mission, let it be clearly understood, but China has generally a rainfall larger than solely and simply for the Chinese who that of western Europe, conditions ir: the were dependent on them,” and the stateprovinces of Shansi and Shensi begin to ment by Mr. Tewksbury of the basis on approach those of the neighboring and which the village indemnities were paid, arid Mongolia to the north. Any relief which included the provisions that “any measures undertaken by the Chinese balance after claims are paid to be Government would be inadequate and un- used as designated by the church," and, systematic; in any event, at the present “if desired by us, in any village where time, with the entire absorption of the disturbances have occurred, a suitable Government in other pressing matters, location shall be provided for the Chrisparticularly in that of the indemnity to be tian chapel.” But it is perfectly clear paid to the foreign Powers, the horrors of from the context that the church” here famine are augmented.

referred to is the village church which had been impoverished or destroyed. The

indemnities in all cases went, not to the If any of our readers are missionaries nor to the Missionary Board, The Missionaries still in doubt whether the but to the Chinese Christians themselves in China

course of Dr. Ament and who had been despoiled by the mobs. Dr. Tewksbury in China deserves criti- “Not a penny," says Dr. Judson Smith, cism or commendation, we advise them to " has been asked or used for missionary read with care the article by Dr. Arthur losses of any kind.” H. Smith in this week's Outlook, and the article by Dr. Judson Smith in the “ North American Review” for May. It is not

The surrender of General

The Philippines necessary for us to summarize the latter

Alejandrino has been fol. article here, since in the main it simply lowed by that of General Tinio, who has confirms the statement of facts as made long been carrying on an active insurgent by us in the editorial entitled “Mission- campaign in the province of South Ilocos. aries in China" in our issue for April 13. Tinio is the man who held Lieutenant There are, however, some additional Gilmore and his men prisoners, and is. facts of significance stated by Dr. Judson said to have ordered them shot after t'plan Smith, and his entire statement must be were turned adrift. It is also re-sideraregarded as authoritative, because it comes by General MacArthur that nuls, which from one who has had every opportunity opposition in the island of won by the

ectarian theological

been ended by the surrender of Quentin view, and a broad human conception of Sales. Minor items of news of similar the ends of education. She said : purport come from other parts of the In a very broad view we may look upon archipelago, together with one report of a education as any training by which are develfierce fight between a hundred insurgents oped individual power and poise. By power and twenty-one men of our forces under and steadily accomplish a given end. But

I mean the capacity to clearly concentrate Captain McDonald, in which that officer this force should be regulated by a sense of was wounded and an American soldier proportion and good judgment which may be killed; the insurgents were defeated. expressed by the word poise. The aim of a

college is more than intellectual, it is moral Brigadier-General Bell, who has just and spiritual as well. To this end the social arrived in this country from the Philip- life of a college must represent the truest pines, said to an interviewer: “One-sixth democracy, and the religious life of a college of the natives of Luzon have either been should be as catholic as the social life is demokilled or have died of the dengue fever broader obligations-service to the community.

cratic. A college must recognize also much in the last two years. The loss of life by Woman's influence will be as broad as her killing alone has been very great, but I intelligence makes it. Here in Barnard your think that not one man has been slain

effectiveness is aided by a consolidation of except where his death served the legiti- Miss Gill is a graduate of Smith College,

like forces. mate purposes of war. It has been necessary to adopt what in other countries has made an extraordinary record during would probably be thought harsh meas

the last two years in philanthropic and ures, for the Filipino is tricky and crafty, educational work in Cuba, and enters upon and has to be fought in his own way.'

her new work with every promise of emiThe trial of Captain James C. Reed at

nent usefulness. Manila on charges of soliciting and receiving bribes for wrong disposition of

On Friday eve

The Society for Ethical Culture commissary stores has been concluded,

ning of last but the verdict is not known at this week the New York Society for Ethical writing.

Culture, founded and still directed by Dr.
Felix Adler, celebrated its twenty-fifth

anniversary. Mr. Salter, Mr. Sheldon, Miss Laura D. Gill was and Mr. Weston, the leaders of the daughter The New President formally installed Presi- societies in Chicago, St. Louis, and Philof Barnard College

dent of Barnard College adelphia, were present, and letters were in this city on Wednesday afternoon of received from the kindred associations in last week, Brinkerhoff Hall being crowded Europe, all of which owe their establishwith an academic audience, duly gowned, ment to the impulse given by the parent and pervaded by a spirit of generous wel- organization. Mr. Percival Chubb, Dr. come for the new head of the institution. John L. Elliott, and two of the officers, After a short prayer offered by Bishop reviewed slightly the work of the Society, Potter, President Low, on behalf of Colum- how its disclosure of the tenement-house bia University, and after due commemo- conditions led to the appointment of the ration of the admirable services to Barnard first Tenement-House Commission, and College of Miss Ella Weed and Miss how the pedagogical methods introduced Emily James Smith (now Mrs. George in its schools had been adopted by the Haven Putnam), formally welcomed Miss public schools of the city. A pleasant Gill to her new work. Professor Robin- interlude occurred when a young girl in a son, who has been the Acting Dean since simple white gown stepped on the platthe retirement of Mrs. Putnam, extended form, whose occupants rose to greet her, a welcome on behalf of the faculty, Miss and presented, in behalf of the alumni Virginia Gildersleeve on behalf of the and pupils of the Ethical Culture Schools, alumnæ, and Miss Florence Sanville on a silver wreath, as a token of the reverence behalf of the undergraduates. Miss Gill's and affection felt by those who had come

'tress was brief, and was an expression up from the kindergarten through the inThe Pri spirit and her ideals rather than a dustrial and literary training of the schools,

of her methods. It was marked for the Society which had made their trainJohannes vs of statement, soundness of ing possible. As the leaders from the other which he has su Finance Minister


cities paid heartfelt tribute to the inspira- terpreting Scripture, provided that the tion and light Dr. Adler had given them, students held to the main points of belief one might have wondered how the quiet current among Presbyterians. At the man sitting there, apart from the hallowed close one of the examiners remarked that, tradition and quickening of the churches, though the students had shown themselves had been able to give so much; but when sound on the main points, there was an obhe arose to speak, and gave expression to servable fringe of individual opinions, all the passion for righteousness which bas of which were not, however, such as could animated all his work, it could be under- be regarded as unsound. The spirit both stood. Dr. Adler spoke of what the visit- of the Presbytery and the candidates, on ing delegates had accomplished, making what has been until recently a burning their societies in the different cities instru- question in both the Congregational and ments for civic righteousness, and said : Presbyterian denominations, was indicated " If any word uttered on this platform has by the following question and answer in the been of helpfulness, it is because the Ideal case of one candidate: “Where would you has used me.” He touched on the aims class a man like Socrates?” “I think of the Society, its desire for truth and for I would leave him to the mercy of God.” service to humanity, its emphasis on democratic equality, on the fact that no front

The most important

Dr. Parker's Proposal pews were to be bought by the man of

feature of the Joint wealth, and that he who contributes his Assembly of the Congregational and Bapdollar a year and he who gives of his tist Union in England, which has just bounty are as brothers. He told of the been in session, was the proposal made by failure predicted when the Society was the Rev. Dr. Joseph Parker, Chairman of started, by those who said that, after the the Congregational Union of England and novelty had worn off, no group of people Wales, looking towards a union of the would come to hear lectures on Congregational, Presbyterian, and Baptist morality, and spoke of the respect and bodies of England on lines similar to those recognition which had been won from the adopted in the recent union of the Free community. Notable in such a meeting Churches of Scotland. Dr. Parker urges was the absence of any note of self- the members of the Free Churches to unite glorification and of any attitude of antag- in providing a theological education for onism toward orthodox institutions, and their respective ministers, so both econoall present went away inspired and en- mizing expenditure and increasing results. couraged in the belief that there is a In his idea, the united body of Free power not ourselves that makes for Churches should establish a ministerial righteousness-a power which works irre- sustentation fund, which should preserve spective of the limits of creeds and theo- the individuality of each church. Three logical differences.

high-grade colleges at Oxford, Cambridge, and Durham would replace the present

eight existing theological colleges belongUnion Theological Seminary A tortnight ago

A fortnight ago ing to the above-mentioned denominations.

The Outlook re- Both economy of management and greater ported the difficulty which four members working power would be secured by the of the present Senior Class of the Union application to the religious world of that Theological Seminary had with the examin- spirit of combination which has already ing bodies. These bodies declare that achieved such success in the commercial the difficulty was not theological but in- world. If Dr. Parker's proposal is actellectual, and that their action was in cepted, as we hope it may be, English the interest of scholarship. Since then Dissent may date a significant developfive candidates for licenses from that class ment from the 1901 meeting of the Bapand two from other institutions have tist and Congregational Union. The plan successfully passed examinations by the has features in it worthy of the consideraBrooklyn Presbytery. The examiners de tion of our own denominations, which clared themselves not concerned about enfeeble theological education by the what special collateral views may have multiplication of sectarian theological been encouraged in the students in in- seminaries.

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