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Canon Gore's He studied at Montauban and in GerCanon Gore ånd “ Catholicism"

recent book many, in many departments connected on the Lord's Supper, “ The Body of with Biblical history, criticism, and the Christ,” has grieved but not dismayed the ology. In 1866 he was made Professor of representatives of a portion of the High Theology in the Protestant Faculty at StrasChurch party in England. In it he affirms bourg, but when the French Strasbourg that there is no repetition in the Eucharist became the German Strassburg the French of the Sacrifice upon the Cross; that the theological faculty was removed to Paris, early Church fathers, as Chrysostom and and M. Sabatier with it. He became its others, would have resisted the idea that Dean, securing for it in large measure a Christ is made present on the altar under prestige due chiefly though not exclusively the forms of bread and wine; that Christ's to his character and genius. He was a brillpresence in the Sacrament is spiritual; iant writer, especially strong in characteriand that his intention was that it should zation, a very deeply interesting and even be eaten, not reserved as an object of inspiring talker, and a teacher of singular worship. These statements so antagonize power. His weekly contributions to the the Anglo-Catholic position that they are Journal de Genève” and his articles in received by its representative journal- “ Le Temps” gave him frequent and “ The Church Review "—with “ the pro- regular access to a public which he deeply foundest grief.” But this grief seems to influenced. The most notable of his be, not for any damage wrought, but for books are “ The Apostle Paul ” and Canon Gore, whom the Review regards “Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion," as having simply seceded from a vener- in which he endeavored to formulate that able fellowship. “If there was ever any philosophy upon a psychological and hisdoubt about it, Canon Gore's absolute torical basis. In both these books he severance from anything that can be called applied the principle of evolution, in the Catholicism is made open and indisput- one case to the writings of the Apostle in able.” What “ Catholicism ” holds pre- the other case to the interpretation of a cious he has dared to speak of as “the theistic and Christian philosophy, showing gross and horrible doctrine ” of literal the superiority of the Christian philosophy transubstantiation. Canon Gore is a as the final stage in the development of conspicuous leader in the High Church that religious consciousness of mankind party, and is also a notable scholar in on which all religion is based. One of patristic literature; however Protestants his recent distinctions was his appointmay differ from his interpretation of the ment by the Minister of Education as a New Testament, as we certainly do, there member of the Committee on Education. is no man in the English Church more He has held a very important place in the competent to declare with a scholar's Councils of the University of Paris; and authority what is the teaching of the among French Protestants probably no Fathers. His book is to the Anglo-Catho- one has held a more influential position. lics a severe blow.

The French newspapers, in their comments upon his death, place him in the

first rank of theologians of the age ; they Auguste Sabatier, who declare that his life gave the impression of Auguste Sabatier

died in Paris last week, unusual richness, and that he made himwas one of three men of eminence who self the defender of justice and of truth bore the name, all of whom were in a with distinction and eloquence. high degree representative of the spirit and genius of the Huguenot Church. Paul Sabatier became widely known in this coun

Last week Count

Cardinal-Elect Martinelli try a few years since by his admirable" Life

Colacicchi, a memof St. Francis of Assisi ;” Armand Sabatier ber of the Pontifical Noble Guard, arrived is perhaps the most distinguished biologist in this country from Rome, bearing with in France. Auguste Sabatier, the most him a zuchitt), or Cardinal's skull-cap, eminent of the three, was born in a region and a Papal bull of nomination to Monwhich saw the fiercest Huguenot resist signor Martinelli, the present Apostolic ance to the repressive policy of Louis XIV. Delegate to the United States. A day later, in Washington, Count Colacicchi they sprung. “ By measurements taken delivered these to the Cardinal-elect, who during the Civil War the Scotch in has now taken the oath of his new office. America were found to exceed their The oath was administered by Dr. Conaty, countrymen by two inches. . . . ComRector of the American Catholic Univer- parative weights tell the same tale. Of the sity at Washington. The Pope's nomina- recruits in our Civil War the New Engtion is significant, as it follows the nomi- landers weighed 140 pounds, the Middle nation to the cardinalate of Monsignor States men 141 pounds, the Ohioans 145 Martinelli's predecessor as Papal Delegate pounds, and the Kentuckians 150. Conto this country. When Monsignor (now versely, where, as in Sardinia, the populaCardinal) Satolli arrived here, perhaps tion is the leavings of continued emigration, proximately not so much to establish a the stature is extraordinarily low." These Papal legation as to unite two factions in physical characteristics, however, are less the Roman Catholic Church, it was important factors than the mental characbelieved by many that, with characteristic teristics which pioneer life demands and acuteness, Leo XIII. would lose no oppor- develops. The chief of these are selftunity to show to the American people reliance and energy, and both of these in his appreciation of the dignity of the office America have been intensified by the of Delegate. He has now done so by the sense of responsibility which political honors paid to the first two Delegates to democracy has imposed upon all classes, this country. Last week also witnessed and the sense of hopefulness which social another evidence of the Pontiff's favor democracy has given to the very poorest. towards America, in the elevation of the Professor Ross, we may note in concluRev. Dr. Rooker, Secretary to the Apos- sion, has been elected Professor of Socitolic Delegation at Washington, to be ology in the University of Nebraska, and Private Chamberlain to the Pope. Dr. Lecturer on Sociology at Harvard, so that Rooker is the first Churchman, not an his independence at Leland Stanford has Italian, to receive this honor.

not injured his career, may rather be said
to have promoted him and enlarged his

influence and power.
Professor E. A. Ross's
Causes of American
Characteristics

brilliant

paper on “ The

Causes of Race Supe- Education South and riority," which attracted marked attention at the recent meeting of the American

North Academy of Folitical and Social Science at Philadelphia, contained several striking The letter of Dr. Merrill which we pubobservations upon the causes of the char- lish on another page appears to us to acteristics which distinguish our own peo represent a certain unintentional injustice ple. Professor Ross's central thought, it toward the South not uncommon in the may be said, was the essential unity of North, and especially among those who mankind and the tendency of the present feel most deeply the wrongs which the Darwinian reaction to exaggerate race colored race have suffered and who are differences as much as the philosophy of most eager to help that race to a higher a century ago minimized them. In dis- life and a greater prosperity. Lest we be cussing American traits he showed that in misunderstood, we desire at the outset of the main they are the traits which have this article to give expression of our distinguished the colonists of every race. admiration for Fisk University, in whose The pioneer work for every race, he said, work the citizens of Nashville take a pride has been performed, not by the ablest or second only to that which they take in its highest-bred, but by the strongest and sister institution for whites, Vanderbilt most enterprising. The Dutch in South University, and our honor for Dr. Merrill Africa are reputed to be of finer physique and his associates in the splendid work than the Dutch in Holland, and in to which they have given themselves and America before the days of exaggerated the unselfish and heroic spirit in which immigration the emigrants were physi- they are carrying it on. cally taller than the people from whom Doubtless the education of both blacks

and whites of the poorer class in the South are the best that could be secured without is lamentably deficient. The school-houses a previous system of instruction ; if the are often poor, the teachers ill educated, school terms are often short, they are genthe school term too short to accomplish erally all the people think they can pay good results, the curriculum ill adapted to for ; if the curricula are sometimes ill present needs. But no one feels this constructed, they were constructed out more keenly or is more ready to acknowl- of inexperience ; if the community has edge and lament it than the intelli- been sometimes inclined to vacillate begent Southerner; and nowhere is there tween courses of study too purely literary a more vigorous, self-denying endeavor to and courses of study too purely industrial, make improvements in all these respects the vacillation is shared by other comthan in the Southern States. Left by the munities both in the North and in Engwar bankrupt, not only in money but in land. Despite all drawbacks, the fact educational institutions, without school- remains that substantially the same eduhouses, school-teachers, a school system, cation, in extent if not always in quality, or school experience, the South rejected has been provided by the State in all the the counsels of the irreconcilables who had common grades for both races. learned nothing and desired to perpetu- We do not propose here to present a ate in freedom the conditions created by scheme of public education in a paraslavery, and the counsels of the pessimists graph. But we may at least propound who believed that nothing could be done two principles which we think are too often for the colored race and that it was not ignored in the discussion of the quesworth while trying, and set itself, with a tion what should be the education of the courage almost if not quite without a colored race.

We agree absolutely with parallel, to the work of social, industrial, our correspondent that there should be and educational reconstruction. It began no race in education, and no discrimito rebuild its devastated towns and reha- nation against the colored people in the bilitate its abandoned and desolated plan- educational provision made for all its tations; to reconstruct its entire industrial people by the State. We have said this system on a new basis and out of unprom- recently so emphatically that we need not ising materials; to provide out of private elaborate the declaration here ; though it charity for its disabled veterans, while is just to add that we believe that our paying its quota of expense entailed by conviction on this subject is shared by National taxation for the Federal veter- the great mass of educators in the South, ans; to originate and develop manufac- and by the great mass of the people in so tures never before known or even con- far as they have thought on the subject ceived as practicable in the South; to at all. But educational provisions should meet as best it could the increased de- always be adapted to the present condimand made by the results of the war for tion and the immediate needs of the home missionary work and for hospitals pupils. The first need of the great and orphanages ; and to create in some majority of the people of the United instances, in others to re-establish, higher States, black and white, North and South, institutions of learning for the education is ability to earn their own livelihood, of its youth of both sexes. That it under because the first duty of every man is to took at such a time the construction of a support himself by his productive induscommon-school system for the primary try. And while it is true that there must and secondary education of all its chil- always be some lawyers, doctors, ministers, dren of bo‘h races, and that it divided its and writers, and a great many teachers, school fund between them impartially in it is also true that there must be a great the proportions of their need, not of their many more men who earn their livelihood contributions to it, deserves a cordial and by some form of handicraft. We would hearty recognition from all men. It have our common-school system, North constitutes a fact of which Americans and South, recognize this fact. We would have a right to be proud. If the school- have manual training enter into every houses are often poor, they were built school and form a necessary part of its out of the poverty of the people; if the curriculum, from the kindergarten to teachers are sometimes incompetent, they the high school. We would have it as essential a part of public-school education industrial education made a component as reading, writing, and arithmetic. We part of our public school system, those who, repudiate the sedulously cultivated notion if they must choose between sacrificing that a man is truly well educated who can the literary and professional education of use his hands only to hold a book, and his the few or the practical education of the eyes only to read it.

We would attach many, prefer the former alternative, we industrial education to every district believe will be found in the result wiser school, if its sole agricultural equipment statesmen, truer philanthropists, and saner were a spade and the only exercise its educators than those who consciously or use in converting the desolate school yard unconsciously so shape educational sysinto a flower garden, its sole mechanical tems as to create the impression that hard equipment a plane, a saw, a hammer and labor is somehow menial and literary some nails, and the only exercise some labor alone genteel. repairs on the ill-built and out-of-repair school-house, its sole domestic equipment a needle and thread and the only exer

A Dangerous Time cise repairs on the ragged gowns of the girls. We would do this in Massachusetts The transactions in the Stock Exchange and New York as well as in Alabama and on Wall Street last week were the largest Georgia. The notion that industrial train- in the history of the country, and the ing is an inferior sort of education, and largest in the history of any exchange. the notion that it should be a class educa- That there has been a great and subtion, we emphatically repudiate.

stantial advance in values is beyond The other fundamental principle is that question, and while there may be in the the only limits to education are those set future serious reactions, the condition of by the capacity of the pupil to receive and the country justifies the belief that values appropriate on the one hand, and the of all well-managed properties have adability of the educator to provide, on the vanced permanently, and that the wealth other. How far the State should go in of the country in all departments is greater providing education is a difficult question; than it has ever been before. Those who we do not here discuss it. But no educa- go into Wall Street, therefore, for the sake tional system should assume that because of making investments are taking advana child is poor or is an Italian or a China- tage, in a normal and legitimate way, of man or an African, therefore he cannot the rapidly increasing resources of the benefit by the highest education he can Nation. get. His first duty is to get an education But there is a great difference between in those things which will enable him to buying for investment—that is to say, support himself; that done, the way should buying with relation to actual values—and be open for him to get whatever other buying for purposes of speculation that education he can utilize, and, if it be beyond is, buying on the strength of the value of the province of the State to provide, he the day, in the belief that the value will be or his friends can pay for. If there are increased to-morrow, and that the purany people in the South who desire to chaser can then sell at a profit. This limit the education of the colored people often means buying what one has not the to the handicrafts, on the double ground money to pay for, and selling what one that industrial education is an inferior does not possess ; it is gambling, pure and kind of education and the colored race is simple. Such gambling always accoman inferior kind of race, we oppose them panies a great rise of values. The subon both propositions: we maintain that stantial purchasers who deal with realities industrial education, properly compre- are surrounded by a hoard of speculators, hended, is as high as the highest, and usually of small means, with narrow marthat the colored people are entitled to get gins which they cannot afford to lose, from the State as good an education as who play the game in Wall Street prethe State gives to any of her citizens, in cisely as professional gamblers play it so far as they can appropriate and make around the roulette or card table. One it their own. On the other hand, those, day last week, when the excitement was both North and South, who desire to see at its height, a young girl of fine instincts

was taken to the Stock Exchange, and effort and sometimes by organization. looked down for the first time upon the Nothing is more frightful in its vulgarity turmoil of one of the most extraordinary and general demoralization than a woman, days in the history of the Exchange. Her turned gambler, buying her wardrobe or comment when she came away was, “ It is gaining an additional sum for personal one of the saddest sights I have ever seen.” expenses by her winnings at cards; and There is something profoundly saddening yet this is precisely the way in which in the spectacle of the mad rush and whirl some fashionable women have been makof a great speculative movement, when ing money during the last few years. This men seem to part with their sanity and means not only loss of character, but loss rush at prospective profits with a kind of of youth and of beauty; it means nervous un human intensity. The most significant exhaustion and kindred physical ills; for thing in last week's history in Wall Street the gambling mania, when once it has for the sober-minded and thoughtful seized its victim, is like the opium habitobserver was the fact that on Friday the extremely difficult to shake off, and involivalues of many stocks fell from sheering in the end absolute disintegration of physical exhaustion of traders and the the moral nature. Mature men of means, inability of the machinery of the Exchange young men generally, and all women, to deal with the enormous volume of should carefully guard their sanity while transactions.

values are rising and not attempt to gain We have come to a perilous stage in the by gambling that success which ought to present rise of values—the stage at which come only as the fruit of foresight, intelsober men are apt to lose their judgment, ligence, energy, and patience. and young men, who have not yet arrived at years of judgment, are likely to entangle themselves, perhaps for life. It is a good Degrees and Public Men time for all men who do not intend to purchase for investment, or who have not While the question whether the degree abundant means to lose, to keep away of LL.D. should be given to President from Wall Street. Nothing is more de- McKinley by Harvard University was still moralizing than the gambling mania, the unsettled, The Outlook took no part. in desire to secure large returns without that discussion, because it appears to us commensurate effort and without the long that there are some questions which are patience and waiting which the accumula- not to be determined by the press. Such tion of wealth by legitimate means in- is the question whether a particular univolves. Magical stories of sudden turns versity shall give a particular degree to a of fortune are in the air; one overhears particular man. This may properly be young men recounting Arabian Night tales left to the authorities of the university, of fortunes made in an hour. It is a time without counsel from the omnisicient to turn a deaf ear to all these tempta- newspaper. But now that it is unofficially tions. If the stocks were suddenly to announced that the authorities have unanifall, there would come to light at this mously agreed to confer the title on Presimoment a great many defalcations; for dent McKinley, the occasion seems appromen of excellent impulses are tempted at priate for the expression of some opinion such a time to risk money which is not respecting the significance of such degrees their own. The gambling mania is as old and the principle upon which in general as humanity; it is felt by all classes, but they should be granted. An honorary especially by people of leisure. During degree never ought to be given to a man the past two years there has been an out- simply because he holds a high public break of gambling of very serious extent office. This principle was affirmed by among certain fashionable sets. Dr. Harvard in its refusal to grant a degree Huntington's timely word in a sermon of LL.D. to Benjamin F. Butler. He preached in this city during the winter had done nothing, in the opinion of the called attention to an evil the existence of University authorities, to entitle him to which has been recognized by sober- the honor, and the mere fact that he minded women in fashionable circles, who had been elected a Governor of the State have striven to stem the tide by individual did not entitle him to it. An honorary

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