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public dishonor. It is estimated that

It is estimated that rear of the column of free States, to revert since the close of the Civil War the South in the twentieth century to the conception has expended in taxes for the education of education which the civilized world was of the emancipated slaves something like already beginning to abandon by the close $120,000,000. This is a splendid record.

This is a splendid record. of the eighteenth. We recall nothing analogous to it in all It is true that if any Southern State history. Fifty years ago there was not a were to abandon its attempt to educate public-school system in any Southern her colored population the education State, and in most of the Southern States would not be wholly abandoned. She it was a criminal offense to teach the would by that very act make her territory slaves. Slavery was abolished, not with missionary ground; the efforts of missionthe consent of the South, but against her ary and charitable organizations in the vigorous protests and her heroic resist- North would be redoubled ; public charity

Yet no sooner is emancipation an would take up the work laid down by the accomplished fact than she begins in her State; and Northern schools, supported poverty to see what can be done to edu- by Northern contributions and officered cate the emancipated slaves for freedom. by Northern teachers, would be multiplied. In every Southern State there is now a Of course this work would be undertaken public-school system; and in every State under great disadvantages. It would be the public provision for the one race is difficult to raise adequate funds. The substantially equal to that made for the Northern teachers would not and could other. For the South to throw away in not understand either the nature of the its growing prosperity this honorable dis- negro or the demands of the community tinction achieved in its desolation and as well as the Southerner understands poverty is not to be thought of; we have them. The schools would be charity faith to believe that the suggestion will schools, not public schools, and the differbe thought of only to be indignantly repu- ence between the two is real and vital. diated. This work of education has been The fact that Northern charity had to be carried on under great difficulties. The appealed to for the continuance of a work money had to be raised, the school-houses which the South had once carried on, and built, the teachers to be educated, a cur- then abandoned in discouragement bericulum adapted to the conditions of the cause it presented obstacles, would be race to be chosen, a system to be organ- galling to Southern pride, as it ought to ized. Of course there have been mis- be. But, worse than all, the colored peotakes. The education has been too ex- ple, publicly and officially notified, by an clusively literary, and should be developed action which would speak much more along the lines of manual and industrial loudly than words, that the Southerner training; it has been too exclusively was no longer his friend and did not care intellectual, and should be developed along whether he obtained an education or rethe lines of moral training. But the fact mained in ignorance, would accept the that mistakes have been made is a reason separation which such an act would inevifor correcting the mistakes, not for aban- tably involve. Indifference is harder to doning the endeavor. Italy and France bear than enmity; and whether the abanhave established schools for their peas- donment of the public-school system for the ant children; Ireland has abandoned her colored people was based on the affirmahedgerow schools and is maintaining tion that they are incapable of receiving recognized parochial schools for her poor- an education, or on the affirmation that est population; England, by her Board the Southerner does not care whether they Schools, is educating the children of the are educated or not, the effect would be citizen and the laborer; America is plant- to increase that separation of the races in ing the common school in Cuba, Porto the South which all philanthropists and Rico, and the Philippines. Those in the statesmen have justly regarded as disasSouth who propose to abandon the attempt trous alike to the white and to the colored to educate the colored people, whom the people. South has thus far with such self-sacrifice We do not anticipate the division of endeavored to educate, propose to transfer the school funds in any Southern State. the Southern States from the front to the But the way to insure the defeat of this proposition is to protest against it wherever nable. Physical well-being without inteland whenever it makes its appearance, lectual resources or spiritual ideas makes and to compel its advocates to present men animals or sluggards, or fills them some other argument in favor of it than with a dangerous discontent. The wellan appeal to the prejudices or the pockets being of America is to be secured, not of the taxpayers. We believe that The only by wise, generous, and sane care for Outlook in this matter reflects the almost the physical conditions of the people, but unanimous sentiment of the best people by a far-sighted provision for the needs in the South; our only fear is that, in their of their minds and the aspirations of contempt for so undemocratic a proposi- their souls. Industry is only a means to tion, they may allow it in some sections a higher end; wealth is only an instruto gather a headway which it never could ment for a wider and truer culture. secure if it were met in the very outset There is nothing final in commerce, and with a challenge to debate from South- nothing satisfying in money. To be ern men.

merely commercial is to rank with the countries which serve the body. In order

to rank with the countries which, like For the Sake of Posterity Judea and Greece, have served the spirit,

The article on “ The Passing of Niag- and its soul. . ara,” which appears in this issue of The It is of the highest importance, thereOutlook, deserves the widest reading as fore, that America should not only make illustrating the perils which threaten much room for industry, but that it should preof the most impressive and beautiful serve every aspect of beauty which nature scenery in this country. This is a utili- has given it, and enlarge and deepen tarian age, very largely concerned with natural beauty with an intelligent, generthe material well-being of men. There is ous, and noble art. nothing finer or more encouraging in its At this stage, when the tide of commerspirit and its activity than the sense of cial energy is at the flood, those who care responsibility for the material well-being for the mind and the soul of America of the masses, or than the numberless ex- should watch with a vigilant eye the periments which are being tried in many encroachments of trade on beauty, and directions by many people, in the hope of should organize themselves together to giving better homes, better sanitary con- protect that natural wealth which God has ditions, and a more wholesome and nor- given the people of the United States; mal life to the working classes in this which belongs not only to them, but to country. With this movement The Outlook their posterity and to the world, and which is in profound sympathy; it believes that they have no right to alienate. Our cities the great work of the twentieth century and the Nation have been for years giving will be the bringing of social and economic away franchises which were public propconditions into harmony with higher ideas erty, and which they had no more right of the brotherhood of man and the respon- to give without compensation than a prisibility of man for man.

vate person has a right to give away the But it is a great mistake to imagine property of his neighbor. These franthat the well-being of men terminates with chises ought to have been sold or leased clean streets, good water, good drainage, for the benefit of the community. There comfortable houses, proper food, and the are other franchises which are being given right kind of clothing. It is essential that away which the country has no right the body shall be put in the right condition either to lease or to sell—íranchises which and kept there by right surroundings, belong to posterity. Among these are to because health of body is essential to be counted Niagara Falls, the Palisades health of soul. But the care of the body of the Hudson, the Columbia River, the is only the beginning of the total care of Grand Cañon of the Colorado, the Yellowthe human being. It would be possible stone Park, and many other localities to make everybody in the country com- sacred by reason of historical associations fortable and still leave everybody to the or beautiful because the hand of the dullest and most uninteresting life imagi- Almighty has molded them into noble

are looked upon as representing “good sins to know that poetasters, and probably usage,” when oftentimes they represent even poets, are often . put to it to find a only careless writing, which the author suitable rhyme. Mr. Matthews makes an himself would have corrected if he had had ingenious apology for Kipling's line in the the chance, or if the error had been brought “Recessional," to his notice. So with many of the ex

“ The shouting and the tumult dies." amples which Mr. Matthews has recently Now, if Mr. Kipling had been writing adduced as showing the wide latitude plain prose, is it possible that he would which writers should have in employing

have written dies? Scarcely; and in startphrases which are criticised by purists. Professor Whitney wrote, as quoted by ably wrote die ; but after a few moments

ing off his muse in this stanza, he probMr. Matthews, “Pupils who have only he struck off enjoyed the ordinary training,” etc. If some kind friend had looked over the

“ Still stands thine ancient sacrifice," learned Professor's shoulder and with and the Spectator believes that he just unfaltering nerves had suggested putting couldn't forego the temptation to add an the only after the enjoyed, the Professor

s to the die and see how it would look. would doubtless have said, " Thank you. Finally, after worrying an hour over the I hadn't noticed it. Such slips will occur," line, he probably said, “ Well, let it go at etc., etc. A friend of the Spectator whose that. If anybody reads the stuff, they'll business it is to read manuscripts before probably call it "archaic,'' rugged,' Chaupublication tells him that that sort of work ceresque,' or something of the sort. Anyis calculated to shake the faith of any one

how, Shakespeare succumbed to the same in our greatest and our best, so far as temptation in grammatical impeccability is concerned. • I know a bank where the wild thyme blows, In a recent address by a man who has Where oxlips and the nodding violet grows,' occupied one of the most exalted govern- and in mental positions, he says, he found several

• Hark, hark! the lark at heaven's gate sings, glaring examples of the “split infinitiveAnd Phæbus 'gins arise, and the use of a personal instead of a His steeds to water at those springs relative pronoun. That these are really

On chaliced flowers that lies.'” insignificant faults does not affect the And so the world gets another example point. Another friend recently told of a

of the freedom of our English tongue, curious instance of the way in which and the critics have another instance in learned men sometimes go to pieces over which "good usage " justifies a violation simple words. “When I was a college of the rules of the grammarians. boy,” said this friend, “one of my professors made the remark, “You were mizzled by the similarity, etc. I was The Spectator has no desire either to nonplused by the word 'mizzled,' but said exalt or to abase the grammarians. He nothing. Later the professor used the is simply interested in observing, as is his same word again : ‘I was mizzled by one wont. He observes that people who are whom I supposed was an authority.' I finicky about grammar are not very agree then understood that he meant misled.' able to converse with—they are apt to say, As a boy he had probably seen the word for instance, that one must not end a sen

misletoe'thus spelled, and shortly after tence with a preposition. He is equally the word · misled.' He had been “miz- unhappy with those who “murder their zled' by the similarity of spelling, and all English "—they betray a lack in charachis life had been saying 'mizzled' for ter or training that makes them singumisled."

larly unappreciative of the conversation of

those who might do something to save The poets, too, help to make trouble them from their ungrammatical selves. for the grammarians, and “good usage” The Spectator therefore is inclined to for the grammarless. The Spectator has approve a middle course, and to say, Be seldom knowingly dropped into verse not grammatical overmuch—or overmuch since he arrived at years of discretion, grammatical--for why should a man be but he remembers enough of his youthful more attentive to the form than to the substance ? and also, Be not overmuch and misdrawn checks and sometimes libel indifferent to the niceties of speech, for a suits are the punishments that lie in wait careless speaker becomes a slovenly writer, for him.

Justice in the Philippine Islands

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By Pandia Ralli (Readers of The Outlook will find a special interest in this article, written by a native of the Philippines, because it describes the first civil case tried before the American Governnor of Benguet, the Hon. Phelps Whitmarsh, who went out to the Philippines as Special Commissioner for The Outlook. Mr. Whitmarsh gives some description of Benguet in his article called “The Land of the Igorrotes," published in The Outlook for April 28, 1900. Apart from the special interest just referred to, Pandia Ralli's article affords a significant glimpse at the beginnings of the institution of American ideas of justice and law in Benguet. - The EDITORS.)

HE first case under the auspices language, a second interpreter is on hand

of the Civil Government of the to conjure with their own vernacular.

province of Benguet is now being The Ilocano brigade are confident of held. The little room, not twenty by four- victory. Their former holding of all the teen, in which justice is dispensed has trump cards-plausibility, unmitigated imin turn at various hours done duty as pudence, and, above all, their past white living-place, levee room, and office for the rulers' avaricious sympatlıy-makes them Provincial Governor. In this chamber, bear themselves in the court-room with a whose walls are hung with krises, bolos, jaunty air as though already anticipating roughly carved oblong shields, hardwood- the division of the spoil. Clad in spotshafted double-barbed spears, and the less white shirts dangling outside their feathery grass-made head-gear of the immaculate trousers which overtop tannorthern Busule or head-hunter, Western colored shoes, their thin, pliant fingers push and Eastern stagnation seem curi- profusely covered with cheap jewelry, ously to blend together.

carefully groomed and glib of tongue, their Supported by perjured witnesses, the appearance is in direct contradiction with case in question is one of those trumped- that of the mountain men to whom they up issues of the breeched against the are opposed. These latter have no furunbreeched, the white linen trousers of ther confinement of dress than the geedemi-civilization versus the gee-string of string, and on occasion a blanket worn ignorance. Spanish “justice” had been with an innate dignity, while a colored an ally of the llocano gambler and handkerchief is bound around the forerefugee from the neighboring province of head. Dimly, very dimly, it is dawning La Union. He it was who robbed the on their unexercised brains that a change unsophisticated Igorrote once for his own of order has taken place, and that the benefit and once for the account of his American, now substituted for the Spanmaster.

iard, is not invariably in the market to be Governor Whitmarsh, ex officio J. P. of bought by the highest bidder. Expectthe Province of Benguet, is presiding antly clustering around the table at which over the court in his embryo capital of is seated the Governor, they anxiously Baguio, which at present is two days weigh every word that falls from the infrom anywhere. The ex-Boston mer- terpreter's lips. chant, ex-diver, ex-author and Outlook The case in question is, or has been, a correspondent talks in English to Pro- typical one. The desire of four Ilocanos vincial Secretary Sheerer, ex-Igorrote re- Chagoul, Officina, Palaxa, and Alvarezcluse andex-amateur geognostic, who trans- is to possess the two rice-fields of the old lates the words into Spanish. Thence Igorrote woman Chown, the wife of the the parable is resumed in Ilocano by still more aged Pinas. How cleverly the Imigdo Octaviano, the little weazened-up quartette have hatched their little scheme inspector. For the Igorrotes, failing to by working on jealousy! Their tool is understand their previous legal and official Inchec, stepdaughter to Chown. Pinas put away Inchec to marry her stepmother, his dangling legs. Brisk Officina, with divorce being but a desire so expressed hair brushed up pompadour fashion, coolly and a killing of hogs or similar compen- and brazenly tells the court how one of sation on the part of an Igorrote husband. Chown's paddy-fields had been bequeathed Igorrote affection is latent, the emotions to him by Lintan three years ago. He is being but the expression of a full or lured into saying that it is only for the empty stomach, so Inchec did not hesitate, last ten days that he has cultivated this on the representation of the subtle.four, to self-same field, apparently oblivious of the arraign her stepmother as guilty of re- fact that he is supposedly claiming it on taining these rice-paddies willed to her the behalf of Inchec and not for himself. (Inchec) on the death of her father Lintan. Fortunately, the slow old Pinas, as bald

Appearing in court with a baby strapped of speech as of clothes, has a lawyer to behind her, Inchec is not a houri of beauty. speak on his behalf—a former captain of Her tousled black hair sprawls down over the English army and now a cattle-buyer. her shoulders in riotous confusion, its The awe inculcated in Pinas by his surfringe rolling into her eyes. Her little pig- roundings has effectually quelled all power eyes are cast downward as, swinging with of speech on his part. Finding the court an uneasy motion from the hips, she tells to be not against her, if not with her, her story against Pinas, who is the neces- Chown, haggard and crowsfooted (an sary butt through which to strike at Igorrote woman's freshness fades with Chown's chattels. Every now and again her early childhood), visibly brightens up, she twitches around herself the blue and finally having to be checked for undue gray (once white) blanket-dress of the garrulity. Even the Igorrote interpreter Igorrote woman. Occasionally you come has at times to requestion her in order to across an Igorrote woman who, though ascertain the sum and substance of her dirty, has a passable figure. In such a uncouth dialect. case the teagownlike blanket-dress, with Breathlessly the Igorrotes await a dethe opera-hood attachment, gives a posi- cision. Never in all their lives have they tively pleasant appearance to the eye. known a trial to extend itself to such a In the wake of Inchec's testimony follows length. Hearing that the case is soon to that of the four intriguers. So far, the be decided, others of the mountain race, fact that the old order of things, with its leaving for the nonce their packs and farm ripe, pluckable plums, is now behind them implements outside the Governor's house, forever has not yet dawned upon them. enter fearfully on tiptoe and gaze anxSo, in giving vent to their evidence, they iously into his face. To a spectator no contradict each other with the utmost doubt the whole proceeding is very funny, complacency, taking little heed that on but somehow nobody feels like laughing. cross-examination their tale hangs together Then comes the verdict. According to as much as a sieve will hold water. Igorrote tradition, when a rich woman Some interesting local color is furnished marries a poor man, her goods, on the by Chagoul, the goggle-eyed, dressed in a death of her husband, at once revert to black and white Christy minstrel suit. her. Rich Chown married poor Lintan ; On a certain occasion, he says, some therefore the two rice-paddies were not women of his (women, mark you, and not his property to will to Inchec or anybody men!) were sent up to work on the con- else. Igorrote tradition is evidently not tested fields. Again, he adds, about some without a certain fund of common sense. cattle brought into the issue, that after The dumfounded Ilocano coterie gaze the “death feast " it was impossible for at one another in amazement. The Govhim to say how many were left alive. ernor rises to declare the court closed. Among the Igorrotes it is customary to There is a patter of naked feet, and the eat of the dead man's stock for weeks and room once more is vacant. Before sometimes months. Strapped in a bam- another sun-up, from northernmost Loo, boo chair, the corpse presides over its perched five thousand feet high, to Sublam, own obsequies, with an ever-lit cigarette bordering on La Union Province, swift between the fingers, a silent host at this runners will spread the welcome news of gorging contest until shriveled into a emancipation as complete as ever mummy by the pine-smoke curling beneath meted out to the serfs of Russia.

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