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left to provide for our keep. A Wall Street one of the last houses we called at, and broker had advertised for a watch-dog, his stomach was filled. From the corner and I went with Bob to see him. But I had looked on enviously. For me there when he would have counted the three was no supper, as there had been no gold pieces he offered into my hand, I saw dinner and no breakfast. To-morrow Bob's honest brown eyes watching me there was another day of starvation. with a look of such faithful affection that How long was this to last ? Was it I dropped the coins as if they burned, any use to keep up a struggle so hopeand caught him about the neck to tell him less? From this very spot I had gone, that we would never part. Bob put his hungry and wrathful, three years before huge paws on my shoulders, licked my when the dining Frenchmen for whom I face, and barked such a joyous bark of wanted to fight thrust me forth from their challenge to the world in general that company. Three wasted years! Then I even the Wall Street man was touched. had one cent in my pocket, I remembered.

“I guess you are too good friends to To-day I had not even so much. I was part,” he said. And so we were.

bankrupt in hope and purpose. Nothing We left Wall Street and its gold behind had gone right; nothing would ever go to go out and starve together. Literally right; and, worse, I did not care. I we did that in the days that followed. I drummed moodiiy upon my book. Wasted! had taken to peddling books, an illus- Yes, that was right. My life was wasted, trated Dickens issued by the Harpers, utterly wasted. but I barely earned enough by it to keep A voice hailed me by name, and Bob life in us and a transient roof over our sat up, looking attentively at me for his heads. I call it transient because it was cue as to the treatment of the owner of it. rarely the same two nights together, for I recognized in him the principal of causes which I have explained. In the the telegraph school where I had gone day Bob made out rather better than I. until my money gave out. He seemed He could always coax a supper.out of the suddenly struck by something. servant at the basement gate by his cur- “Why, what are you doing here?" he vetings and tricks, while I pleaded vainly asked. I told him Bob and I were just and hungrily with the mistress at the resting after a day of canvassing. front door. Dickens was a drug in the “ Books!” he snorted. “I guess they market. A curious fatality had given me won't make you rich. Now, how would a copy of “Hard Times "to canvass with. you like to be a reporter, if you have got I think no amount of good fortune could nothing better to do? The manager of a turn my head while it stands in my book- news agency down-town asked me to-day

One look at it brings back too to find him a bright young fellow whom vividly that day when Bob and I had he could break in. It isn't much-ten gone, desperate and breakfastless, from dollars a week to start with. But it is the last bed we might know for many better than peddling books, I know.” days, to try to sell it and so get the He poked over the book in my hand means to keep us for another twenty-four and read the title. “ Hard Times,” he hours.

said, with a little laugh. "I guess so. It was not only breakfast we lacked. What do you say? I think you will do. The day before we had had only a crust Better come along and let me give you a together. Two days without food is not note to him now." good preparation for a day's canvassing. As in a dream, I walked across the We did the best we could. Bob stood by street with him to his office and got the and wagged his tail persuasively while I letter which was to make me, half-starved did the talking ; but luck was dead and homeless, rich as Cræsus, it seemed against us, and Hard Times” stuck to to me. Bob went along, and before I us for all we tried. Evening came and departed from the school a better home found us down by the Cooper Institute, than I could give him was found for him with never a cent. Faint with hunger, I with my benefactor. I was to bring him sat down on the steps under the illumi- the next day. That night, the last which nated clock, while Bob stretched himself at Bob and I spent together, we walked up my feet. He had beguiled the cook in and down Broadway, where there was

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quiet, thinking it over. What had hap- life of the metropolis, it exercises the old pened had stirred me profoundly. For spell over me yet. If my sympathies need the second time I saw a hand held out to quickening, my point of view adjusting, save me from wreck just when it seemed I have only to go down to Park Row at inevitable; and I knew it for His hand, eventide, when the crowds are hurrying to whose will I was at last beginning to homeward and the City Hall clock is bow in humility that had been a stranger lighted, particularly when the snow lies to me before. It had ever been my own on the grass in the park, and stand watchwill, my own way, upon which I insisted. ing them awhile, to find all things coming In the shadow of Grace Church I bowed right. It is Bob who

right. It is Bob who stands by and my head against the granite wall of the watches with me then, as on that night. gray tower and prayed for strength to do The assignment that fell to my lot when the work which I had so long and ardu- the book was made out, the first against ously sought and which had now come to which my name was written in a New me; the while Bob sat and looked on, York editor's book, was a lunch of some saying clearly enough with his wagging sort at the Astor House. I have forgotten tail that he did not know what was going what was the special occasion. I rememon, but that he was sure it was all right. ber the bearskin hats of the Old Guard Then we resumed our wanderings. One in it, but little else. In a kind of haze, thought, and only one, I had room for. I beheld half the savory viands of earth I did not pursue it; it walked with me spread under the eyes and nostrils of a wherever I went: She was not married yet. man who had not tasted food for the third Not yet.

When the sun rose, I washed day. I did not ask for any. I had my face and hands in a dog's drinking- reached that stage of starvation that is trough, pulled my clothes into such shape like the still center of a cyclone, when no as I could, and went with Bob to his new hunger is felt. But it may be that a home. That parting over, I walked down touch of it all crept into my report ; to 23 Park Row and delivered my letter for when the editor had read it, he said to the desk editor in the New York News briefly: Association, up on the top floor.

“ You will do. Take that desk, and He looked me over a little doubtfully, report at ten every morning sharp. but, evidently impressed with the early That night, when I was dismissed from hours I kept, told me that I might try. the office, I went up the Bowery to No. He waved me to a desk, telling me to wait 185, where a Danish family kept a boarduntil he had made out his morning book ing-house up under the roof. I had work of assignments; and with such scant cere- and wages now, and could pay. On the mony was I finally introduced to News- stairs I fell in a swoon and lay there till paper Row, that had been to me like an some one stumbled over me in the dark enchanted land. After twenty-seven years and carried me in. My strength had at of hard work in it, during which I have last given out. been behind the scenes of most of the So began my life as a newspaper man. plays that go to make up the sum of the

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The Rights of Man
A Study in Twentieth Century Problems

By Lyman Abbott
Chapter V.—Law and Liberty

I was responsible for the right exercise of

that power. The possession of the power E have seen that government imposed a concurrent responsibility. If, grows out of the instinct of on arriving on the scene, the boys whom I

self-preservation, and is a spon- took to be hoodlums had assured me that taneous development of that instinct. Its the boy whom I took to be a butcherfunction is the protection of the inherent boy was a thief and they were simply and indefeasible rights of person, prop attempting to recover their property, it erty, reputation, family, and liberty. It would clearly have been my duty to have has other and secondary functions of which investigated the question or secured an I shall speak hereafter, but they are not investigation of it. If, as the result of my governing functions. If government ful- interference, the thief had made off with fills this one function of protection justly the property which he had stolen, I should and adequately, it is a good government, have been morally responsible. In any whatever its form; and, whatever its form, given community the actually existing it is a bad government if it fails to per- government must in the first instance form this function justly and adequately; determine what is justice in any given it is pre-eminently a bad government if, case. Its power to enforce its judgments instead of protecting rights, it violates makes it responsible to form just judgthem.

ments. Might does not make right; but It is not always easy to determine what might does impose responsibility on the are the rights of person, property, reputa- one who possesses it to determine what is tion, family, and liberty which government right. cught by force to protect. A great deal Suppose, what not infrequently occurs, of the business of the courts consists in the government forms a judgment which the determination of these questions. to the individual or to a group of individThey recognize, for example, that man uals seems to be unjust, what is the remhas rights of property in some kinds of edy? Is there any? or is the decision of animals and not in other kinds ; that a the government final, so that while in verbal charge of crime is a violation of theory might does not make right, practithe rights of reputation which government cally and in effect it does ? In case the will punish, but a verbal charge of impro- decision of the government appears to be priety or indecorum is not; that to seduce unjust to the individual or individuals a daughter by promise of marriage is an directly affected, there are four courses, offense against the family which the law and only four, open to the injured party. will punish, but to win her consent with He may submit; he may endeavor by out promise of marriage is not. Who is peaceable methods to change the decision to determine what are the rights which of the government or the personnel of the government will protect and how they government; he may leave the community shall be protected ? The answer is that for another which is under a government the existing government, whatever it may that seems to him more just; or he may be, is to determine these questions. And resist the government and endeavor to this for a very simple reason. Whoever overthrow it. possesses power is, by the mere possession In the great majority of cases the first of that power, made responsible for its is the course which both prudence and right employment. To recur to the illus- morality dictate. There is probably not tration with which I commenced the last a reader of these art es of the age of article, assuming that I had power to pro- manhood who has not at some time suftect the butcher-boy from the hoodlums, fered what he regards as an injustice,

either through the commission or the free speech or a free press; or those who omission of his government, and has sub- suffer the injustice may only know that mitted to it with such grace as he could they are suffering, but not be sufficiently command. All human organizations are intelligent to understand why they suffer imperfect. And for those individual acts and so be unable to point out the injustice of injustice due to the imperfection of and demand a remedy; or they may be human government quiet and uncomplain- so poor and so uninfluential that their ing submission is the best remedy. protests are unheard and unheeded. In

When, however, it is not a single act this case the third remedy remains : they but a series of acts, and when this series may, if they can accumulate the means of acts becomes a governmental habit, we and possess themselves of the courage, may resort to the next remedy. We appeal leave the community in which they were to public opinion, and by public opinion born and reared and go to another comendeavor to bring about a change either munity, where, as they believe, their just in the habit of the government, or in its rights will be better safeguarded and their personnel, or in its structure, or in all three. interests better promoted. This is the As I am writing this article such an agi- remedy which millions of immigrants to tation is going on in the city of New York, America have sought for injustice suffered the object of which is to change both the in their original homes. It is true that form of the municipal government—that is, the government may forbid, and in some its charter—and the personnel of the cases has forbidden, such migration. In government—that is, the men who admin- so doing it clearly violates the fundamental ister it. As we have seen, the force which principle of its own existence. For govenables the government to serve its pur- ernment, as we have seen, is formed to pose of protection of rights may be a force protect the rights of man. One of the of arms exerted over the governed, or a most elemental of those rights is the right force of conscience exerted within the to go where one pleases so that one does governed. In nearly all modern govern- not violate the rights of others. Leaving ments these two forces are combined. one's native country to go to another The more democratic the government the country does not violate the rights of any more its force is in the conscience of the other one.

other one. Such prohibition of migragoverned and the less is it in the physical tion assumes that the governed exist for power or force of arms of the governor. the benefit of government, whereas govThe appeal to the conscience of men, ernments exist for the benefit of the therefore, which would have been in vain governed. under the Cæsars in the first century, is When neither of these remedies is pracnot in vain in modern Christendom in the ticable, there remains, as a last and terrible nineteenth century. The appeal to the resort, revolution. To justify revolution conscience of Europe made by Mr. Glad- against an existing government, whatever stone in his published letters concerning it may be, these conditions must exist : the cruelty and rapacity of the Bourbon the government must be an unjust govrule in Naples led to the overthrow of ernment; the injustice must be of such a Bourbonism in Italy and the establishment character that submission to it involves of Italian unity. The appeal of the evils to the community greater than resistanti-slavery reformers in England and ance will.involve; the remedy by public America against slavery resulted in the opinion must be denied or be unavailing; overthrow of slavery by peaceful measures the evils must be so widespread that in the British Empire, by revolution in the escape from them by emigration is imUnited States. The appeal to the con- practicable except to the favored few; science of England by the Chartists ended and, finally, the discontent produced by in the initiation of nearly all of the the injustice must be so widespread as to political and social reforms which they give promise of success to a movement demanded and the end of much of the organized to overturn the government injustice against which they complained. and substitute a new one in its place.

A variety of circumstances may make This right of revolution, however, rethis method impracticable or ineffective. quires further elucidation. The government may refuse to permit “Man,” says Aristotle, “is naturally a

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