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houses, authorizing a company to con- as the Board pointed out, was of little struct the long-needed bridge connecting avail, since the ownership of the proNew York City with New Jersey, and to posed road by a single railroad combuild an approach to this bridge connect- pany would enable this company, without ing it with the docks on the west side of loss to itself, to fix rates so high as to the city. The representatives of this throttle competition. The Merchants' Asborough, to their credit, voted against the sociation and other business organizameasure, on the ground that the city's tions have made similar protests. The interests were not guarded. The repre- veto of the bill by Governor Odell is sentatives of other districts, however, gave practically assured. such a majority in favor of the bill that it would have been forced upon the city concerned had not the necessity of the

City Heating Franchises

Central heating staGovernor's signature given the citizens of

tions are becoming New York an opportunity to protest. No so common as to demand attention. sooner, however, did the news of the Although the first plant of this sort was bill's passage reach the city than protests built at Lockport, N. Y., in 1877, and others came from every quarter where the char- were added soon after, it is only within the acter of the measure was understood. past few years that the sale of heat has The strongest of these came from ex- become important. The early stations Mayor Hewitt and Comptroller Coler, were constructed as heating plants only; both of whom pointed out that the bill the recent impetus to this service is due to gave the company practical control of the the utilizing of the heat otherwise wasted docks for several miles, and gave it in the making of electricity. It is fairly monopoly rights over the immense traffic well known that only a small percentage that passed over them. The city already of the energy stored in the coal burned owns docks to the value of a hundred under the boiler of an electric-lighting million dollars—having practically paid station can be made available as electric for them out of the profits—and both current. Few realize, however, that at the Comptroller and the ex-Mayor believe best only some fifteen per cent. of this that the city itself should build and own energy is utilized, and generally only ten the railroad connecting them. Mr. Hewitt, to twelve per cent. The bulk of it is in fact, made this suggestion when he was wasted in the form of exhaust steam from Mayor and when public ownership pro- the engine cylinders. The exhaust, of posals were less in the air than now. The course, is greatest in amount when the formal objections of the city's Board of demand for light is heaviest, and this Estimate and Apportionment, which were occurs in winter, when the maximum offered by the Comptroller, were presented quantity of artificial heat must be prothe day following. They showed that the vided. At scores of electric light or company in question had for six years combined electric light and railway or possessed the right to build the needed other power plants this exhaust steam is bridge, having received it from the Na- now so employed as to add at least forty tional Government in 1894, and that it per cent to the energy utilized. This neither had begun work upon the bridge is accomplished by the simple process heretofore nor would it be required to do of piping the steam, or the water heated so under the present act. It received an by it, to private consumers.

It was invaluable franchise for a railway along thought at first that central heating plants the water front, without agreeing to build were practicable only for compactly built the bridge. Furthermore, it received this portions of large or fair-sized cities, but franchise in perpetuity, in violation of the electrical companies are now selling heat provision of the city's charter that all in small towns. Among the larger places such franchises should revert to the city having central heating plants are Atlanta, without cost at the expiration of fifty Ga., and Seattle, Wash., while in New years; and, finally, the franchise proposed York City a company has been supplying did not even fix the tolls to be charged. steam for both heat and power for a numThe bill did contain the provision that ber of years. Included in the smaller the tolls should be “uniform," but this towns having this service are Delaware,

1901)

77

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QUALITY CONTROL MARK

and Red Oak, Ia. The cost of service had a firm foundation for establishing a varies with local conditions, such as new high record other than that furnished price of fuel, number of near-by consum- by such mergers as that long rumored ers, length and coldness of winters, but and finally officially proposed last week a charge of from five to ten dollars a between the Great Northern and Northern winter for a room of the ordinary size Pacific Railways on the one hand, and the seems to be usual. The attractiveness of Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy on the the service is not due so much to its low other. On one day of last week the excost as to its freedom from the dirt, labor, change of checks between New York and trouble occasioned by the storage Clearing-House banks reached the aggreand handling of coal, the care of furnaces, gate sum of nearly five hundred and fifty and the removal of ashes from private million dollars—a settlement effected with buildings. Then, too, where soft coal is balances of only thirteen millions. While used the smoke nuisance may be lessened the volume of transactions on the Stock by the substitution of a well equipped and Exchange may have been the proximate operated central station for hundreds or cause for this enormous increase, optithousands of separate furnace fires, in mists say that it is not greater than the many of which the combustion is very real increase of the wealth of the country incomplete. Inasmuch as all these cen- at large. On several days of the week tral heating plants must use the public the volume of daily transactions averaged streets for their piping systems, it is evi- over two million shares, and on one day dent that there is rapidly coming to the Union Pacific Railway represented over front a new class of municipal franchises. six hundred and fifty thousand sharesAlthough all the central heating stations the largest number of full shares belongthus far appear to be owned by private ing to a single company ever dealt in on companies, probably the day is not far a single day. While buying power so distant when municipal ownership of this far has represented that part of the counservice will at least be a subject for ear- try's earnings in excess of the sum which nest discussion.

must be devoted to the purchase of necessaries, we believe that there is now a near

approach to that line in the upward moveThe Financial Situation

The recently issued ment, fixed by the actual and prospec

Government report tive value of securities, which cannot be on the condition of winter wheat pre- crossed without the certainty of sharp dicted a crop of four hundred and sixty reaction. million bushels, if the condition is main. tained, as against three hundred and thirty millions last year. While one could

Last week the British Gov

British Consols hardly expect that this promise would be

ernment offered to borrow fulfilled, present indications continue to $300,000,000, paying therefor 234 per show the probability of an immense cent. until 1903 and thereafter 272 per harvest of winter wheat. The corn out- cent. on its issue of bonds (or consols) at look seems to be even more encouraging, 9472. As within the past few years but from all agricultural sections reports British consols have sold at twenty points are at hand that, despite promising crops, higher than this figure, the present quotathere is a scarcity of hands. These con- tion, though representing an emergency ditions are also characteristic of the Ha- credit, was attractive enough to invite a waiian sugar plantations, although many sevenfold over-subscription. Thus it is Porto Rican laborers have been imported. evident that the entire loan could have All agricultural signs seem to point to a been placed at a better rate and could all combination of large crops and good have been placed in England. Neverprices. In other staple markets prices theless, Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, Chanshow a tendency to harden. The great cellor of the Exchequer, had thought wise expansion of exports continues, and there to offer a part for sale in this country. has been a further increase in railway The popularity of that procedure was eviearnings. Thus the volume of transac- dent when, among a multitude of smaller tions, as reported by bank clearings, has applications, insurance companies subscribed for from five to ten million dollars' the Chancellor feels that it must first be worth each, and one syndicate offered to settled whether or not the other Powers take fifty millions. If we turn to the are also ready to make similar sacrifices; quotations for United States Government if these other Powers will do the same, bonds, we will note that the return from Germany will reduce her demands. The them is below two per cent. One reason action of the British representatives at for this apparent advantage to our credit Peking calls for special chronicling and lies in the fact that we allow banks own- commendation. Sir Ernest Satow, the ing our securities to issue currency thereon. Minister, and Sir Robert Hart-really a

Chinese official, as he is Chinese Com

missioner of Maritime Customs—declare Last week Mr. Con- that not a penny shall be exacted on beThe Chinese Indemnity: The Foreign Side

ger, United States half of those missions whose representa

Minister to China, tives have already collected indemnities, arrived in this country, and was asked for and that in any event a money indemnity his opinion as to the amount of indemnity should either be waived or reduced to which China should pay to the foreign moderate proportion, if the Chinese GovPowers for damages done to their interests ernment will extend the present area for during the Boxer outrages. He replied trade. So far as the Powers can agree that China could pay three hundred million to substitute wider trade for a money dollars, accompanying his answer by the indemnity they will serve both their own statement that it would be necessary for interests and those of the Chinese Empire. the Government to practice economy, and that the time of payment should be extended over a long term of years. This

To all this the repsum is twenty-five million dollars less than

The Chinese Indemnity: resentatives of the

The Chinese Side the total indemnity claims submitted by

Chinese Court might the foreign Ministers at Peking-a reduc- well reply that from the claims of the tion from the first reported claims, and foreign Powers the value of the thousands largely due to the efforts of Mr. Hay, our of articles stolen or destroyed by foreign Secretary of State, who has now proposed soldiers, and an indemnity for the many to reduce the indemnity to two hundred murders and outrages committed by those millions. His proposal to minimize the soldiers, ought to be deducted. The indemnities has been received with frank demand of Germany and France that favor by Great Britain, Japan, and China should defray the cost of punitive Russia, the Powers which, with the expeditions, which have more than paid for United States, performed practically the themselves by looting, is monstrous. These whole work of rescuing the Legations at Powers are singularly out of place in Peking last summer. A supplementary making such a demand, from the fact proposal comes from Russia to repeat an that the first named took no part at all operation from which that Power has and the latter but little part in the relief already achieved a somewhat alarming of the Peking Legations—the pretext for success with China, namely, to advance to the despatch of foreign troops to China. the latter country the sum required to pay Yet these two Powers, with all the others the indemnities. This sum will not come save America, England, and Japan, have at all from Russia, but, as before, from presented claims for the cost of maintainFrance, a Power which must watch its ing their forces in the Chinese Empire partner reap all the profit while it again since the Legations were relieved. Absurd bears the burden of the Dual Alliance, for also is the attitude of the smaller EuroRussia wishes to retain Manchuria as a pean nations---Austria, Italy, Spain, Belpledge for the loan, thus securing her gium, Holland. Encouraged by the attiends in that region. The action of Ger- tude of Germany and France, they have many has been gratifying in so far as now asked for such enormous individual Colonel Hay's proposal has received the indemnities in the light of their small miliapproval of Count von Bülow, Imperial tary contingents as to awaken a suspicion Chancellor. As, however, this requires that they may be the tools of greater some sacrifices on the part of Germany, Powers. Mr. Hay has now made the proposal that the apportionment of the aggre- young men in these days of inconsistency and gate indemnity should be made only on the confusion. Suppose a young man of zeal and

integrity should ask one of you where he basis of the participation of each nation in

could put his moral power to the best advanthe rescue of the Peking Legations. The tage or according to the greatest need to-day, difficulty with this otherwise sensible pro- what would you tell him? That would hardly posal is evident in the protest by some

have been an open question at the beginning

of the century. "Mills gave the true as well as that the number of the troops of each the heroic answer. What has made the differPower available in China last summer was ence to-day? The failure of Christendom to determined by accident or by the nearness support Christianity through its practical of other possessions. America's part in moralities. For Christendom," as was said

by Professor Christlieb, “is the world's Bible. all the indemnity proceedings is thus seen "Ye are our epistles—known and read of all to be based, not upon greed or upon any men.?” The Church has been set back nobody estimate of China's power to pay, but upon knows how long by the behavior of Christian

nations in China. . And a like result must folequity alone.

low in degree everywhere wherever there is a

break between the faith and the morals of Last month the New York only sufficient support of sentiment in our

Christendom. Therefore I argue that the Dr. Tucker

“Times” reported President college is morality in the Church and the Misrepresented Tucker, of Dartmouth, as

Nation. saying in an address at Boston, “ The

To say, as Dr. Tucker does, that "the Christian Church has been set back no

behavior of the Christian nations in China body knows how far by the behavior of has set back the Church nobody knows missionaries in China.” Dr. Tucker's

how long," is a very different thing from words on such a subject carry great weight saying that the conduct of the missionaries with the thoughtful public, but this state

in China has set back the Church. By ment was so incompatible with all the

the Christian nations he means Russia, evidence which we have been able to

Germany, France, England, and the United gather by careful inquiry as to the conduct States. Happily, the attitude of our Govand work of American missionaries in

ernment has been such as to earn the China that we were unwilling to accept confidence, we think, of the Chinese. the “ Times” report until it was confirmed

We think there is just ground for Dr. by Dr. Tucker himself. At our request Tucker's feeling that the influence of he has sent us a copy of his address. Dr. Christian civilization has received a seriTucker was speaking on “ The Message ous blow from the conduct of the soldiers of the College to the Church," and we

and officers representing some of these quote, from an authorized copy of his so-called Christian nations. The violence, address in full, what he said concerning the cruelties, and the barbarities practiced the situation in Chira :

by those who are Christians only by virThe past century was a missionary century: tue of the fact that they are citizens of It began and continued under the incentive of motives for the redemption of the world. The countries which have enjoyed benefits of saying of young Mills to his college friends, Christian civilization for centuries have "We ought to carry the Gospel to dark and made it all the more necessary that the heathen lands, and we can do it if we will," missionaries, who are still heroically doing caught the heart, the conscience, and the faith of the Church. As a result the

colleges poured their humanitarian and self-sacrificing out their wealth of consecrated life into dark work in China, should live and act in and heathen lands. The record of the century accordance with the highest standards of has been a continuous record of heroism filling unselfishness. A sincere love of his felits pages with the names of heroes and mar, low-men, demonstrated by his daily attitheir work are discredited in the eyes of the tude towards those even who are injuring world. Christendom has been exposed before him, is the only power which can perpaganism. The very nations which have sent manently sustain the missionary in a forthat they have not learned how to keep the eign land among people who instinctively commandments. What chance has the mis. look upon him with suspicion. We sinsionary in China, under the present ethics of cerely believe that the great body of misChristendom? You recall the proverb,,“ In sionaries in China have done their work the presence of arms the laws are silent."... relying on this power. No doubt individlooks as if we must add, “The Gospel also." It is very difficult to know what to say to

ual mistakes have been made, as they are

Boer War

made by the very best of men in all out a strenuous diplomatic and, if necesdepartments of iife, but all the evidence sary, armed struggle. of the most judicial observers among travelers and officials in China is that the

As the British missionaries, as a body, have sacrificed

Mr. Montagu White on the

have charge of their comfort, their property, and often

all the telegraphic their lives in carrying out the principles communications with South Africa, it is of the Gospel which they are endeavoring but natural that the reports of the Boer to bring to the knowledge of their fellow- war should be somewhat pro-British. It men in China.

is, therefore, of interest to receive a

report of the situation from a Boer source, Last week the successful con- although that source is hostile to everyKorea

clusion of negotiations for a very thing British. Mr. Montagu White, the large French loan to construct a rail- representative of the Boers in America, way from Seoul, the capital of Korea, to has just returned from Europe, where he Wiju on the Chinese (now really Russian) met a number of persons from the Boer frontier was announced. The interest is fighting camps, “which they quitted for put at five and a half per cent., and it is legitimate reasons as recently as the end asserted that the customs have been of January, and others from Johanneshypothecated to France. As the Russo- burg and Pretoria, from which places they Chinese Bank will “finance " the loan, it have been deported by the British authoris easy to see that France's partner in the ities. They one and all tell the same Dual Alliance has been arranging matters; story, namely, that the Boers in the field indeed, it was the objection of Mr. Brown, are determined to fight on to the end, Director-General of Korean Customs, to unless their independence is recognized. pledging the Korean customs as security Even the victims of the reconcentrado for this loan which created Russia's desire system, who are fed upon weevily corn for his dismissal. The rumor persists and damaged sugar, share the optimism that Russia is aiming to take possession of those in the field as to the ultimate of Chinghai Bay, on the Korean coast. triumph of their cause.” Mr. White deWith her commercial hold on Masampo, clares that the reports concerning illshe would thus control two strategeti- treatment by Boers of Outlanders and cally fine Korean harbors, and be in a peace envoys are false. “Several men position to thwart some of the plans of like Lanham, Walker, and others, reported Japan. Masampo is a day's steaming to have been murdered in cold blood, are from Nagasaki, the great Japanese port. still alive, and Andreas Wessels, a peace About half-way between them lies the envoy, reported shot by order of General island of Tsushima, which Japan has con- De Wet, is now known to be alive and verted into a fortress. Korea, once the well.” Mr. White claims that the great most isolated nation in the world, has opportunity for a peaceful settlement was now become a storm-center. Englishmen, lost after General Cronje surrendered at Americans, and other foreigners are rep- Paardeberg. “ This disaster for a time resented among the public officers of its so disheartened the Boers that had Lord Government (Mr. Brown, for instance), Roberts, instead of insisting on unconbut the transportation, telegraph, cable, ditional surrender, offered anything like and postal facilities are in the hands of generous terms, it is certain that peace the Japanese, who, naturally more inter- would have been established long since. ested than any other people in Korean On the other hand, the demand for unconagriculture, mining, industry, and com- ditional surrender, and the burning of merce, have provided that Korean civil. homesteads, the destruction of crops and ization should progress on the lines of gardens, the carrying off of cattle, and, Japanese development at home. More above all, the harrying of the women, proconfidently than ever do the Japanese longed the war.” Since then, says Mr. regard Korea as the proper country for White, “the greatest indignation has been their overflow population and energy; caused among the Boers by the policy of they will not allow Russian aggression feeding on half-rations those women and there to pass beyond a certain point with children who had relatives at the front."

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