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turned for Gloucester, and she grasped her rarer occurrence. The introduction of opportunity. The new knowledge drew trawl-fishing rapidly increased the fishing her men into larger fields involving larger As the fishing-ground was found risks, and she stands to-day mistress of the further off shore, the boats grew larger; field, the queen of the fishing industries the man of money was able to own a share in this country.

in many boats; the crews became, as time The fishing in Gloucester has passed went on, laborers who shared in the rethrough many changes. There are men sults of their own labor. This method who remember when fishing was a matter still prevails. The men have contracts, of going out but a short distance and and share equally in the profits—a more catching every day all that a man could satisfactory basis than the old one of takcare for. As the years went on, a good ing out the tongues of the cods to have haul or catch near shore was a rarer and them counted at the end of the day's labor, AT WORK IN A CAPE ANN QUARRY or marking each halibut with a man's ried on. There are boats that leave and private mark and counting these as a return in a day—a very small part of the man's earnings, subject to cost specified. whole number in the harbor. There are The difference in each day's return to vessels that go for two or three days; and each man of the crew varied, and while when the season is a good one, this branch this method of tally prevailed for a long of industry is very profitable. The two period, it was not, on the whole, consid- and three weeks' trips vary greatly in the ered fair. Profit-sharing is the present returns. The Banks trips have called in practice. The basis may be that one-half the capitalist. The boats and equipment of the gross catch or “fare "goes to the for this long-distance fishing are expenvessel ; from the other half expenses are sive; the stores must be provided in bulk, deducted, and the balance, in which the and there must be provision for the family vessel has again a share, is divided. of the fisherman while he is gone. Often Sometimes the basis is a fifth ; whatever when his share of the expenses of the trip, the basis, the vessel gets her assignment food, salt, etc., and the support of his first on the gross, then one share of the family during his absence, are deducted, net earnings


ngs, sharing costs equally with his balance is very small, and he must at the crew. The shore fishing is still car- once reship for another cruise.


THE FISH-CLEANERS The trawl and seine have, in some agree that the greatest change in the inbranches of fishing and on some grounds, dustry has come with the birth of the cenentirely displaced the hook and line. tury. The spring of 1900 saw the first Mackerel-fishing has appeared and disap- fishing-boat equipped with auxiliary powpeared on the eastern Atlantic coast. As er, and witnessed her complete success. early as 1657 mackerel was an article of Her earnings were the largest ever made commerce. In 1692 the General Court in a season by one boat. One man exforbade the catching of mackerel in nets plained it : “ There was the fish, millions or seines, or their use, except when fresh, of them, and not a breath to move a boat. before July 1. Until 1821 the catch was Chug-a-chug, away she went, and scooped small, but since that time, with varying 'em in; we looked on.” seasons, mackerel-fishing has remained All agree that fishing has entered on a an important part of the fishery inter- new era, and the day of sails as entire ests of Gloucester. There are men in the dependence for long-distance fishing is business in Gloucester who say that some going. Some men say that this will change measure of protection will yet have to be the working fisherman's relations; that given all kinds of fish on our Atlantic the far greater cost of the boat and the coast. This prophecy is made, although all cost of running must, in the nature of things, make the question of wages prom- guese section. These people are a most inent, and the end will be a reduction in interesting part of the population. The the fisherman's earnings. The opposite men are the crews of the fishing-vessels, view is taken by many, as the men worked which are for the most part owned on shares on the new boat this year, and and sailed by the natives of Gloucester, earned more than the men on the sail- but rarely manned by them. Many of boats. The new motive-power must be these Portuguese own their own houses, other than steam. The boats need all while others have erected three and fourtheir space for fish ; carrying coal is out storied houses occupied by four and more of the question. The inventive genius of families. These are the modern fisherthe country will solve the problem of gen- man's “huts.” From many of the winerating a power from fuel, small in bulk dows no glimpse of the sea is given. The inexpensive, quick, and powerful. The storm rages, the waves beat, and the fog fuel used in the new boat is gasoline. enwraps the Cape, but the fisherman's The cruises vary in their success; the wife cannot stand on the shore and peer years' records vary greatly, but the Glou- out for the vessel she knows so well, for cester of to-day tells the story of success the shore is covered with storehouses, in spite of fluctuations. The years show smoke-houses, lofts for drying fish. At a steady gain. There is now a market night she does not sit alone in terror, nor always open. Refrigerated cars carry the does she go in a driving storm to her product of the cruise west and south. neighbor's for comfort or lo comfort, for When this demand is met, right at the her neighbor is upstairs, downstairs, docks are lofts and smoke-houses ready across the hall, at her door. Every for the fish, fresh or salt, as it has been American in Gloucester speaks well of for the fisherman's interest to deliver it. these people. “ The women are beautiful

Here invention and chemistry have needlewomen ; they stay closer in their revolutionized the business. Labor, the homes than the women of any other nation,” chief factor in the curing of fish, is being is the testimony of the women of Gloucesdisplaced by machinery in one direction ter. The streets of houses, the interests and called in in another. Chemistry in vessels, the mercantile establishments has turned all the waste into a valuable in Portuguese possession, are the eviproduct; the skin of the cod is now dences of their thrift and industry. The turned into a patented coffee-settler; and Sunday-school, numbering about one huna fertilizer is the product of the scraps dred and fifty when visited, was entirely cast aside in making the preparations for under the control of young girls not more the table, which are constantly growing than eighteen, some barely fifteen, yet more dainty and attractive. This depart- good order and attention were the rule. ment of the business gives employment The Nova Scotian rarely becomes a perto hundreds of boys, girls, young women, manent resident. He appears in great and men.

numbers in the late winter, and returns Anything less like a fishing hamlet than home in the fall when the herring-fishing the Gloucester of to-day could not be con- begins. Some become capitalists and are ceived. A city of paved streets, electric part owners of the vessels in which they cars, free postal collection and delivery, sail. They make valuable members of the electric lights, and the telephone, and that community, and are a large factor in the last mark of commercial greatness, a for- commercial success of Gloucester. eign population and consequent social Another industry is rapidly gaining problems--that is the Gloucester of to-day. ground on Cape Ann. Her quarries are Previous to 1850 there were very few carrying her name around the world. foreign-born people on the whole Cape. This industry has attracted the Scotch and To-day there is an Irish population own the Finns, especially the latter, who are ing a handsome Roman Catholic church taking possession of the old houses on the of stone, a rectory, and a library in stone north shore, and building houses to meet and brick, a parochial school, and several their needs. The Finns live by themsmall churches. A Roman Catholic selves, have their own church, their own church for the Portuguese is in process entertainment hall, keep their habits of finishing in the center of the Portu- and their language, deal with their own

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