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bright mind, a frank and earnest Chris- with the young man, and so expressed tian spirit, and as giving evidence in his themselves; they believed in his future; sermon of possessing an unusual power, they dealt with him most tenderly; they which is bound to tell some day. It sustained his examination at all points seemed as though he had been putting but theology, in the sense I have specihis time into the study of subjects which fied; and simply deferred action on this had not fitted him well for answering the until the fall meeting, anticipating his able questions which on such an occasion and triumphant entrance upon the minismust necessarily take precedence. It was try at that time. In this all the ministers, also clear that he had been taking into so-called liberal and conservative alike, his mind a great amount of material which agreed. There was positively no discrimhe had not yet found time to dispose of, ination against Union. and which left his theological position not I write this as an alumnus of Union ; unorthodox, but vague, so much so that also as one who, on the formal roll-call, the Presbytery did not see fit to license supported this young man as well as the him, at the moment, as a teacher.
others. Even the older and more conservative (Rev.) HENRY ELLIOTT MOTT, D.D. members of Presbytery were impressed Elizabeth, N. J.
Notes and Queries
It is seldom possible to answer any inquiry in the next issue after its receipt. Those who find expected answers late in coming will, we hope, bear in mind the impediments arising from the constant pressure of many subjects upon our limited space. Communications should always bear the writer's name and address. Any book named in Notes and Queries will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, postpaid, on receipt of price. 1. What is meant by “ covenant theology," lier and the Later Prophets ”-two volumes, contain
and what objection has modern theology to it? 2. ing valuable historical introductions (Scribners, $2). As Which do you consider the two strongest books to Jericho, the fact probably was that through the terror written on the Baptist controversy, one on each side? of its people hardly any defense was made, and it was 3. Did Phillips Brooks become interested in Spiritualism in his later years?
taken as easily as if the walls had collapsed.
J.G. M. 1. The doctrine (for which see the Westminster Shorter An editor of large influence, in considering the Catechism) that God originally entered into a covenant seat of authority, says: “ Those who speak of the of works with the human race as represented by Adam,
authority of religion as internal rather than external
do not thereby intend to disparage the authority of and, when this was voided by the Fall, into a covenant of
Christ or the Bible, but rather to emphasize the idea grace with the elect. The objection is that these cove- that it is only as Christ and the truths of revelation nants were really made in Holland about three hundred are enthroned in the heart that they really becoman years ago. See Schaff's “Creeds of Christendom," Vol. I., controlling force over the lives of men." Does p.773. 2. If you refer to the controversy on the meaning
express the real issue? If so, it does not appeai of the Greek word baptizo, and the original mode of ad
there is any real issue. Is the editor right in wh here says?
H. ministering baptism, The Outlook, not having cared
The author of the statement quoted is correct. There is, about it, has formed no judgment about the merits of the
however, an issue which his remarks do not touch. It is disputants. The controversy no longer exists among scholars. In a technical view the Baptists have won the
made by those who maintain that in the case of a revela
tion authenticated by certain externalevidences, as miracase. The Outlook, however, does not regard the ques
cles and credible witnesses, the reason, which has been tion as a technical one, to be settled by the dictionary
called to pronounce judgment on these credentials, has no and precedents. So far as any controversy can be said to
further authority, and no right to sit in judgment on the exist now, it is of that elusive kind which depends mainly
substance of the revelation as credible or incredible. on the point of view from which the question is regarded. See Stanley's "Christian Institutions," Chapter I. 3. If Boys'CLUBS.- As we are frequently addressed you mean attracted to it, no.
on this subject, we refer recent and intending inquirers Please tell me of any work or commentary
to the "General Alliance of Workers with Boys," at 34 upon the Old Testament, brief, concise, inexpensive,
Chestnut Street, Charlestown, Mass., of which William but up to date, written in the light of the very best
Byron Forbush, Ph.D., is President. Its special purpose modern criticism and historical research. I wish to is to be a Bureau of Information about boys and work follow the thread of truth for myself and for my with them. It publishes a quarterly, “How to Help Boys" Sunday-school class. For instance, what is the ker- ($1 a year). Its annual conference is held next October nel of truth in the story of the taking of the city of Jericho?
in Boston. A membership fee of “one dollar for life"
N. H.S. This question is often asked. The work that answers
is required. President G. Stanley Hall and Dr. E. E.
Hale are named as its Counselors. these requirements is yet to be written. For a textual commentary the “Cambridge Bible for Schools," whose D. L. P.-Your post-office address was inmany volumes range in price from 40 cents to $1.25, will correctly given. The following books will meet the point serve an ordinary reader, but for a critical view of the of your inquiry: "Foundations of Belief,” by A. J. Bal. narrative must be supplemented by at least such books four; a critique of the same in “Man's Place the as these : Day's “ Social Life of the Hebrews” (Scrib Cosmos,” by Professor Seth; "The Seat of Authority," ners, $1.25), Cornill's “ History of Israel” (Open Court by Dr. James Martineau. These are well known, and Company, Chicago, $1.50), “The Messages of the Ear can be ordered of any bookseller.
feature of the informal that at Chicago. The illumination of the
opening of the Pan- buildings in the evening will be, when the American Exposition at Buffalo on Thurs- grounds are complete, the most beautiful day of last week was the releasing at spectacle of its kind that the world has three o'clock of 'nearly four thousand
On Sunday the grounds were homing pigeons, each bearing a message open but the buildings closed; the decisfrom the Director-General “ To the people ion as to the final arrangement with reof all the Americas.” The gates were gard to Sunday opening has not yet been opened in the morning, and at noon there announced. were brief speeches in the Government Building. Mayor Conrad Diehl, of Buffalo,
On Friday of last
The Jacksonville Fire Mr. John G. Milburn, President of the
week one-half of the Exposition, and General William I. Bu- city of Jacksonville, Florida, was reduced chanan, Director-General, were among the to ashes within a few hours. The fire speakers. A message from President started in the yards of a fiber company, McKinley was read, forty-six aerial bombs where sparks from a neighboring chimwere fired, one in honor of each State in ney had fallen, and was swiftly carried the Union, the flags on all the buildings by the wind over a district thirteen blocks were unfurled, and in the evening the wide and two miles in length. The terribuildings were for the first time illumi- ble speed of the conflagration was the nated. The formal ceremonies marking result of the frame construction of nearly the opening have been postponed until all the buildings, the dryness of the the twentieth of May, and the indications season, and the height of the wind—all of are that by that time the Exposition will which worked together to make the calambe in good running order. Much of the ity as sudden as it was appalling. Every delay has been due to the almost unpar- church and nearly every public building alleled weather of the past six weeks, was swept away, while the homes of ten culminating in the heavy snowstorm of a thousand people were burned before anyfortnight ago. Most of the buildings are, thing of value could be saved. “The dishowever, practically completed, and the aster,” says a despatch of Saturday night, exhibits are being very rapidly installed. “has effectually obliterated the dividing The grounds of the Exposition cover three line between the rich and poor, and a hundred and fifty acres, which is some- common catastrophe has made all akin. what more than half of the total space To-night the sidewalks are thronged with occupied at Chicago. The architectural homeless persons. The wharfs are scheme has a unity which has not marked crowded with sleepers, and every availany preceding Exposition, and the liberal able craft in the harbor has been made use of color for decorative effect has into a temporary hotel.” Secretary Root already suggested the title of the Rainbow promptly placed government barracks and City. "A large majority of the Central tents at the disposal of the local authoriand South American States are represented ties, the Governor of the State as promptly by exhibits, and several of them have aided them with the support of militia striking buildings. The beginnings of the companies to prevent looting, and everyfair are auspicious, and there is everything seems to have been done with rare prospect that the attendance during the energy and discretion to meet the crisis, But the crisis still remains, and for weeks courts and the people the details of a to come the local authorities will need systematic conspiracy to defend gamthe help which already is being gener- blers from punishment or interference ously sent to them from all parts of the with their business on payment of regular country.
tribute through systematized channels. With this ground gained, one point of van
tage in the coming political campaign will New York City has be gained, for emphatically that campaign Tracing the Connection
been witnessing a must be primarily moral as well as nonstrange spectacle : on the one hand, pool- partisan. rooms and gambling-houses have been raided one after another on evidence
It is a mistake to at
The President's Tour previously obtained and on warrants reg
tach special political ularly sworn out and served (if necessary significance to the cordial welcome everyeven with violence) by Justice Jerome, of where accorded to President McKinley the Court of Special Sessions, in person ; in his tour throughout the United States. on the other hand are seen the Commis- That crowds greet him at every stoppingsioner of Police, Murphy, and his Deputy, place indicates that the people pay an Devery (in all but name Chief of Police), honor to the office of President which the calmly and repeatedly denying that they press does not pay, and that in this respect have any evidence that public gambling the average American is both more of a exists in New York. To add to the patriot and more of a gentleman than the anomaly, the keepers of the illegal pool- partisan newspaper, or that type of inderooms in New York are in a state of pendent newspaper which out-Herods virtuous indignation at the illegal gambling Herod in its partisanship. Doubtless at the race-tracks, and call upon the Mr. McKinley is personally very popular; police to stop it! Justice Jerome has the doubtless this trip will add to his populaw behind him in his unusual course of larity ; for he has that unaffected interest serving warrants personally, as might be in all classes of men, that spirit of genuine shown by quoting several sections of the comradeship, and that sincere admiration penal code. As to the dignity of such a for the common virtues of probity, indusproceeding, a reformer and enforcer of try, and thrift which always tend to popthe law who thought more of his personal ularity among what Abraham Lincoln dignity than of his object would in New called “ the plain people.” But that he York prove more statuesque than efficient. is seeking to turn this popularity to his Moreover, in recognizing the debt of good own advancement, or even to that of the citizens to Justice Jerome, it should be Republican party as an organization, remembered that he is working for some- there is nothing to indicate. As is fitting, , thing far more important than any num- Mr. McKinley's speeches have dealt in ber of sensational raids and arrests. The generalities; the occasions for speech whole force of the attack on corruption afforded by such non-partisan receptions and lawbreaking now is and must be in are not appropriate places for the defense finding the links of the chain of guilt or even the definition of party policies. which, as every man on the street believes, We are not of those who think that the stretches from gambler to policeman and utterance of the simpler moral maxims politician. It is for evidence of this that by such a speaker at such a time is valueDistrict Attorney Philbin, the Committee less; such maxims uttered by a successful of Fifteen, and Justice Jerome are striv- political leader, whose sincerity is apparing. Letters, checks, and receipts found ent, come with a weight which does not in the safes of raided places have already attach to them when uttered by the minfurnished much evidence tending in this ister from the pulpit. Among the most direction. The mysterious “ John Doe" significant of his political utterances, as about whom there has been so much news reported, are two-one bearing directly paper wit and vague wonder is in reality on expansion, the other indirectly on the probably not one but several men, and protective policy: before long there may be evidence enough
The policy of the United States has always to enable the Grand Jury to lay before the been to keep what it originally started with,
and hold all it honorably gets. [Great ap- Manufacturers' Club at Charlotte, North plause.) We refused to divide our original Carolina, in which he not only defended possessions, and we will be the last to desert our new possessions. [Long-continued ap
his support of the expansionist, protecplause.)
tionist, and subsidy policies of the Admin
istration, but called upon the business It is your business as well as mine to see to it that an industrial policy shall be pursued in
interests represented by his audience to the United States that shall open up the repudiate the policies of the new Democwidest markets in every part of the world for racy” which dictated the Kansas City the products of American soil and American platform. The South, he declared, ought manufacture. We can now supply our own markets. We have reached that point in our
now to support the policy of protection in industrial development; and in order to secure order to develop its growing manufacsale for our surplus products we must open up tures, and it ought to support Oriental new avenues for our surplus. I am sure that expansion and subsidies to shipping in in that sentiment there will be no division, order to develop markets for the South's North or South. The first of these paragraphs indicates great industry-cotton. More than this,
he continued, the South ought to conclearly that, in the President's mind, the
demn the spirit animating the whole proPhilippines are to remain permanently in
gramme of the new Democracy: some form under American sovereignty. We think that this will be the probable and distrust of the governing power, to array
To sow discontent with industrial conditions result; though we hope and believe that class against class in the hope of securing they will remain, not as possessions, but as fancied social and industrial equality, is, to my measurably autonomous colonies. The mind, the first step in revolution. . . I, for second of these paragraphs indicates that one, do not believe that the people of the South the President is prepared to ally himself hands of this so-called " new Democracy” to
are ready to trust this government into the with that increasing fraction of the Repub- begin the leveling process through the exerlican party which recognizes the funda- cise of the taxing power; and yet this is exactly mental truth that, in the words of the
what this new propaganda means, and outside New York “ Times,” “expansion is sure, class who preach and practice social equality
of the South it is proclaimed by the very same soon or late, to do away with restriction." between the races. The two dogmas are
inseparably interwoven. Go into the West,
attend one of their campaign meetings, scratch Just when the division beneath the skin, and you will find the same Democratic Division of the Democratic party old social equality dogma, to the tune of which at the South at the South will show the soul of John Brown is still “ marching
on." at the polls cannot be foretold, but the division is no longer a matter of prophecy, The concluding sentences quoted marked but of record. Within the past month the only point upon which Senator Mcthere has beer a series of events indicat- Laurin's platform did not square with ing the lines of the cleavage. The first that of the Republican party, and the and least important-of these was Presi- reception his speech met with showed dent McKinley's appointment of a Gold that his audience was substantially in Democrat, Mr. Capers, as United States accord with him. A Conservative party, Attorney for the District of South Caro- in harmony with the Republican party on lina. Similar overtures have been made everything except the negro question, in the past by Republican Presidents to already possesses the allegiance of the Southern Democrats-pre-eminently by manufacturers of the South. President Hayes in the appointment of Postmaster-General Key from Tennessee—but the present instance was excep
The comment which tional in that the appointment was strongly
The Negro Question
Disappearing recommended by one of the Democratic
speech evoked at the Senators of the State from which the South showed how strong was the posiappointment was made, and was received tion he had adopted.
tion he had adopted. His colleague, Sen within the State as significant of a new ator Tillman, of course condemned it, but order. Hardly had this appointment been Senator Tillman is the foremost repremade than Senator McLaurin, who had sentative of economic radicalism in the recommended it, made a speech before the South. On the other hand, Senator Tillman's predecessor, ex-Senator Butler, the better reason for remaining with their party representative of the old régime in Caro- than that the South was solidly Democratic. lina politics, warmly commends the posi- In case the promised division in the race tion of Mr. McLaurin. “We have passed vote takes place South and North, it will the point,” he said, " when the white peo- help both races in both sections by placple from necessity were arrayed on one ing political life upon a rational basis. side to protect their civilization, with the negro race on the other, and we can now afford to divide upon paramount political The Texas Oil Excitement
The recent oil disissues.” Ex-Senator Butler, it may be
coveries in Texas said, strongly champions the course of have produced an excitement in that State the Administration in the Philippines, which recalls that produced by the simibut his view of the readiness of Southern lar discoveries in western Pennsylvania a people to divide upon new issues is in all generation ago. During the past three respects corroborated by Southern Demo- months, says an Austin despatch of last crats who criticise this policy. Congress week, two hundred new oil companies man Livingston, of Georgia, for example, have been incorporated, the capitalizasays: “ Among the bankers, railroad men, tion of a single company often exceeding cotton manufacturers, and others inter
a million dollars. In nearly all cases ested in big business enterprises in the part of the stock has been put on the South, there are some who believe in the market, at prices sometimes as low as ten policies of the Republican party.” ...
cents a share, and visions of sudden wealth The negro question has kept them in the have made epidemic among even the very Democratic party, but, that out of the way, poor a form of gambling usually confined they are Republicans in their theories." to the well-to-do. According to the New Still more enphatically, Congressman York “Evening Post,” some of these comBankhead, of Alabama, declares that panies in their advertisements of stock do “there are many men of wealth and social not even mention the location of their and business prominence in the South properties, while others try to give an who affiliate with the Democratic party impression of solidity by adopting names under protest. ... With the negro out like the Rockefeller Company or the of politics, I believe the time would come Stevenville Standard Oil Company. In when Alabama would be divided between both of the last named the investor may two great parties of nearly equal strength, acquire a share for ten cents, as against and that elections would be determined the eight hundred dollars he would have there by the candidates and issues of the to pay for a share in the original Standard hour." Mr. Bryan himself recognizes the Oil Company. Of course the “ investstrength of the elements at the South ments” are gambling pure and simplewhich are against the principles he advo- and especially simple. When the oil cates. In last week's issue of the “Com- properties have value, the owners try to moner” he says, in comment upon Senator develop them themselves, with the aid of McLaurin's speech :
a few financiers and men skilled in the Some leader will arise to give direction business. The amount of capital required element for which Mr. McLaurin speaks. rarely put upon the market except at a and force to the aristocratic and plutocratic is not often large, and therefore stock is There is such an element in every community, higher figure than any one who has and now that the race question no longer looked into the property is willing to pay. States, it will doubtless manifest itself. Sen- Those who buy the stock for speculation ator Tillman has already taken up the gage are entirely at the mercy of the managers, of battle thrown down by Senator McLaurin, who can take part in the game knowand will doubtless be able to marshal a con- ing exactly how the cards are placed. influences are at work in other States where These obvious considerations, however there is greater danger of their success. A are insufficient to stop a craze when white Republican party in the South may every one knows that oil has been found bring some compensation, in that it is likely in enormous quantities, and that some to divide the colored vote in the North and answer the argument of those Northern Re- people have suddenly become rich. It is publicans who have been able to give no possible that the Texas oil territory will