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then, that she being criminall and giltie of treason against God committed, can apointe any officer pleasing in his sight? It is a thing impossible. Wherefore let men that receive of women authoritie, honor or office, be most assuredly persuaded, that in so mainteining that vsurped power, they declare themselues ennemies to God. If any thinke, that because the realme and estates therof, haue geuen their consentes to a woman, and haue established her, and her authoritie : that therfore it is laufull and acceptable before God: let the same men remember what I haue said before, to wit, that God can not approve the doing nor consent of any multitude, concluding any thing against his worde and ordinance, and therfore they must haue a more assured defense against the wrath of God, then the approbation and consent of a blinded multitude, or elles they shall not be able to stand in the presence of the consuming fier: that is, they must acknowledge that the regiment of a woman is a thing most odious in the presence of God. They must refuse to be her officers, because she is a traitoresse and rebell against God. And finallie they must studie to represse her inordinate pride and tyrannie to the uttermost of their power.

“The same is the dutie of the nobilitie and estates, by whose blindnes a woman is promoted. First in so farre, as they haue most haynouslie offended against God, placing in authoritie sucheas God by his worde hath remoued frome the same, vnfeinedly they oght to call for mercie, and being admonished of their error and damnable fact, in signe and token of true repentance, with common consent they oght to retreate that, which vnaduisedlie and by ignorance they haue pronounced, and oght without further delay to remoue from authority all such persones, as by vsurpation, violence, or tyrannie, do possesse the same.

"For so did Israel and Iuda after they reuolted from Dauid, and Iuda alone in the dayes of Athalia. For after that she by murthering her sonnes children, had obteined the empire ouer the land, and had most vnhappelie reigned in Iuda six years, Iehoiada the high priest called together the capitaines and chief rulers of the people, and shewing to them the kinges sonne Ioas, did binde them by an othe to depose that wicked woman, and to promote the king to his royall seat, whiche they faithfullie did, killinge at his commandement not onlie that cruel and mischeuous woman, but also the people did destroie the temple of Baal, break his altars and images, and kill Mathan Baales high priest before his altars.

“The same is the dutie as well of the estates, as of the people that hath bene blinded.

“First they oght to remoue frome honor and authoritie, that monstre in nature (so call I a woman clad in the habit of man, yea a woman against nature reigning aboue man).

“Secondarilie if any presume to defende that impietie, they oght not to feare, first to pronounce, and then after to execute against them the sentence of deathe. If any man be affraid to violat the oth of obedience, which they haue made to suche monstres, let them be most assuredly persuaded, that as the beginning of their othes, proceding from ignorance was sinne, so is the obstinate purpose to kepe the same, nothinge but plaine rebellion against God. But of this mater in the second blast, God willing, we shall speake more at large."—p. 52.

“Cursed Iesabel of England, with the pestilent and detestable generation of papistes, make no litle bragge and boast, that they haue triumphed not only against Wyet, but also against all such as haue entreprised any thing against them or their procedinges. But let her and them consider, that yet they haue not preuailed against god, his throne is more high, then that the length of their hornes be able to reache. And let them further consider, that in the beginning of this their bloodie reigne, the haruest of their iniquitie was not comen to full maturitie and ripenes. No, it was so grene, so secret I meane, so couered, and so hid with hypocrisie, that some men (euen the seruantes of God) thoght it not impossible, but that wolues might be changed in to lambes, and also that the vipere might remoue her natural venom. But God, who doth reuele in his time apointed, the secretes of hartes, and that will haue his iudgemetes iustified euen by the verie wicked, hath now geuen open testimonie of her and their beastlie crueltie. For man and woman, learned and vnlearned, nobles and men of baser sorte, aged fathers and tendre damiselles, and finailie the bones of the dead, aswell women as men haue tasted of their tyrannie, so that now not onlie the blood of father Latimer, of the milde man of God the bishop of Cantorburie, of learned and discrete Ridley, of innocent ladie Iane dudley, and many godly and worthie preachers, that cannot be forgotten, such as fier hath consumed, and the sworde of tyrannie most vniustlie hath shed, doth call for vengeance in the eares of the Lord God of hostes : but also the sobbes and teares of the poore oppressed, the groninges of the angeles, the watchmen of the Lord, Yea and euerie earthlie creature abused by their tyrannie do continuallie crie and call for the hastie execution of the same. I feare not to say, that the day of vengeance, whiche shall apprehend that horrible monstre Iesabel of England, and suche as maintein her monstruous crueltie, is alredie apointed in the counsel of the Eternall: and I verelie beleve that it is so nigh, that she shall not reigne so long in tyrannie, as hitherto she hath done, when God shall declare himselfe to be her ennemie, when he shall poure furth contempt vpon her, according to her crueltie, and shal kindle the hartes of such, as somtimes did fauor her with deadly hatred against her, that they may execute his iudgementes. And iherfore let such as assist her, take hede what they do."

p. 55.

On this point, too, Goodman and Traheron were equally explicit ;

“The counsellers, whose office is to brydle the affections of their Princes and Gouuernours, in geuing such counsele as might promote the glorie of God, and the welthe of their contrie by this persuasion of obedience, haue hitherto sought, and yet apearinglie do, how to accomplishe and satisfie the yngodly lustes of their vngodlie and vnlawful Gouernesse, wicked IESABEL : who for our synnes, contrarie to nature and the manyfeste worde of God, is suffred to raigne ouer vs in Goddes furie, and haue therby moste wickedlie betrayed Christe, their countrie, and themselues (so muche as lieth in them) to become slaues to a strange and foren nation, the prowde Spaniards."Goodman, p. 33.

"Turne thyne eyes now to thy counsel England, how fierce tygres, how cruel wolues, how rauening beares, how lecherous goates, how wilie foxes, or to speake plainly without figure, what periured traitors to god, and to the, what murderers, what oppressors of the poore, what voluptuous Sardanapales, what adulterers, how vile flatterers shalt thou finde amonge them? It were a smal faulte, and a verie peccadulia in them to dissemble the truth of religion. Tbei raile vpon it, they tosse it with scoffes and mockes, they bloodely, and tyrannously persequute it. It might be wincked at, if thei toke bribes, only to oppresse the cause of a few poore men, thei take bribes to betraie the hole realme. It might be passed ouer with silence if thei had murdered but one man a peece, the blood of innumerable sainctes crieth vp to heauen against them and the groninges of manie thousandes oppressed ar beard euerie where. It might perchaunce be perdoned, if they spent but some weekes in pleasures, they wallow continually in vile voluptuousnes, and wanton daliance, and waste al their vnbappie daies in beastlie delites, nether can chaunge of women, nor women only satisfie their filthie abominable desires. Breifely there be no vices in the world whereof you maie not see great buddes, or rather great bounnies, and bunches in them. Here I maie not lette scape the pristes of Calece, a foule broode of thy henne. Papistes they were," &c.Traheron's Warning to England, (see before p. 84.)

To return, however, to what is more precisely our present subject—the treatment which the Queen herself met with from these parties—perhaps enough has been given from Knox, and it may be time to enforce his doctrine by one or two extracts from his friend Goodman.

" The nexte rule to be obserued is, that he shulde be one of their brethern, meaninge of the Israelits: partlie to exclude the oppression and idolatrie, whiche commeth in by strangers, as our contrie now is an example : and partlye, for that strangers cannot beare such a natural zeale to straunge realmes aud peoples, as becomethe brethern : but chieflie to auoyde that monster in nature, and disordre amongest men, whiche is the Empire and gouernement of a woman, sayinge expreslie: From the myddle of thy brethren sbalt thou chose thee a kinge, and not amongist thy sisters. For God is not contrairie to himselfe, whiche at the begynninge appoynted the woman to be in subiection to her housbande, and the man to be head of the woman (as saithe the Apostle) who wil not permitte so muche to the woman, as to speake in the ssemblie of men, muche lesse to be Ruler of a Realme or nation. Yf women be not permitted by Ciuile policies to rule in inferior offices, to be Counsellours, Pears of a realme, Iustices, Shireffs, Baylieus and such like : I make your selues iudges, whither it be mete for them to gouerne whole Realmes and nations ?

“ If the worde of God can not persuade you, by which she is made subiect to her housbande, muche more to the Counselle and auctoritie of an whole realme, which worde also appoynteth your kinges to be chosen from amonge their brethern, and not from their sisters, who are forbidden as persons vnmete to speake in a congregacion, be you your selues iudges, and let nature teache you the absurditie therof.

“And thus muche haue I of pourpose noted in this matter, to let you see to all our shames, how farre you haue bene led besydes your commun senses and the manifest worde of God, in electing, anoynting, and crowninge a woman to be your Quene and Gouernesse, and she in verie dede a bastarde, and vnlawfully begotten. But be it that she were no bastarde, but the kinges daughter as lawfullie begotten as was her sister, that Godlie Lady, and meke Lambe, voyde of all Spanishe pride, and strange bloude: yet in the sick. nesse, and at the deathe of our lawfull Prince of Godlie memorie kynge Edwarde the sixt, this shulde not haue bene your firste counsele or question, who shulde be your Quene, what woman you shulde crowne, if you had bene preferrers of Goddes glorie, and wise counselours, or naturallie affected towardes your countrie. But firste and principallie, who had bene moste meetest amengest your brethern to haue had the gouernement ouer you, and the whole gouernement of the realme, to rule them carefullie, in the feare of God, and to preserue them agaynst all oppression of inwarde tyrants and outwarde enemies. Wher bie you might haue bene assured to eskape all this miserable and vnspeakable disordre, and shamefull confusion, whiche now by contrarie counsele is broght worthely vpon vs.”Goodman, p. 51.

“That wicked woman, whom you vntruely make your Quene, hath (saye ye) so commanded. O vayne and miserable men. To what vilenesse are you broght, and yet as men blynd, see not? Because you would not haue God to raigne ouer you, and his worde to be a light vnto your footestepps, beholde, he hath not geuen an hypocrite onely to raigne ouer you (as he promised) but an Idolatresse also: not a man accordinge to his appoyntment, but a woman, which his Lawe forbiddeth, and nature abhorreth : whose reigne was neuer counted lawfull by the worde of God, but an expresse signe of Gods wrathe, and notable plague for the synnes of the people. As was the raygne of cruell lesabel, and vngodlie Athalia, especiall instrumentes of Satan, and whipps to his people of Israel.

“This you see not, blynded with ignorance : yea, whiche is more shame, where as the worde of God freethe you from the obedience of anie Prince, be he neuer so mightie, wise, or politike commanding anye thinge whiche God forbiddeth, and herein geuethe you auctoritie to withstand the same as you haue harde : Yet are you willingly become as it were bondemen to the lustes of a most impotent and unbrydled woman; a woman begotten in adulterie a bastard by birth, contrarie to the worde of God and your owne lawes. And therfore condemned as a bastarde by the iudgement of all vniuersities in Englande, France, and Italy : as well of the Ciuilians, as Diuines. For now are we freede from that leweshe yoke to rayse up seede to our brethern departing without issue, by the comynge of our Saviour Iesus Christe, who hathe destroyed the walle and distance betwixt the lewes and Gentiles, and hathe no more respecte to anie tribes (for conseruation wherof this was permitted) but all are made one in him with out distinction, which acknowledge him vnfaynedlie to be the Sonne of God and Sauiour of the worlde. For in Christe Iesus there is nether lewe nor Gentile, Grecian or Barbarous, bonde nor free, &c. And therfore it must nedes followe, that kinge Henrie the eight, in marying with his brothers wife, did ytterly contemne the free grace of our Sauiour Iesus Christe, which longe before had deliuered vs from the seruitude of that lawe: and also committed adulterous incest contrary to the worde of God, when he begate this vngodlie serpent Marie, the chief instrument of all this present miserie in Englande.

"And if any would saie, it was of a zele to fulfyll the lawe which then was abrogated, he must confesse also that the kinge did not marie of carnall luste, but to rayse vp seede to his brother: when the contrarie is well knowne to all men. Let no man therfore be offended, that I call her by her propre name, a bastarde, and vnlaw. fully begotten : eeing the worde of God, which cannot lye, doth geue witnesse vpon my parte. And moreouer, that suche as are bastardes shulde be depriued of all honor : in so muche as by the Lawe of Moyses they were prohibited to haue entrance in to the Congregation or assembly of the Lorde to the tenth generation. Consider then your vngodlie proceadings in defrawding your contrie of a lawfull kinge: and preferringe a bastarde to the lawful begotten dawghter, and exaltinge her whiche is, and will be a common plague and euersion of altogether : for as much as she is a traytor to God, and promis breaker to her dearest frindes, who helpinge her to their power to her vnlawfull reigne, were promised to inioye that religion which was preached vnder kinge Edwarde: which not withstanding in a shorte space after, she most falsely ouerthrewe and abolished. So that now both by Gods Lawes and mans, she oght to be punished with death, as an open idolatres in the sight of God, and a cruel murtherer of his Saints before men, and merciles traytoresse to her owne natiue countrie.”—Ponet, p. 96.

“If your IESABELL, thoghe she be an vnlawfull Gournesse, and oght not by Gods word and your owne lawes to rule, would seke your peace and protection as did Nabuchadnezer to his captiues the Iewes: then might you haue some pretence to follow Ieremies counselle : that is, to be quiete, and praye for her liffe, if she would confesse the onelie God of the Christians, and not compell you to idolatrie no more than did Nabuchadnezer: who acknowledged the God of the Iewes to be the true and euerlasting God, and gaue the same commandement throughout all his dominions, That what soeuer people or nation spake euill of the God of Israell shuld be rent in pieces, and his howse counted detestable. For (saithe he) Ther is no other true God that so coulde deliuer his seruantes, as he did Sidrach Misach and Abdenago.

“But because her doinges tend all to the contrarie, that is to

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