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Now al shauen crownes to the standard,
Make rome, pul down for the Spaniard.
* Lay shame aside, let honesty go,
Beare out al matters be they vntrew :
Say trew men be traitors & the Qu. foe,
Banish al truethe and falshode renew.
Now al shauen crownes to the standerd,

Make rome, pul down for the Spaniard.
“ Our iust must we haue, who can sai nay,

This god once said to our father Caine,
The world is our reigne and worldlie staie,
We shal not decaye but alwais remaine.
Now al shauen crownes to the standerd
Make rome, pul downe for the Spaniard.

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" The author to Englande his

naturall countreye.
England repent whiles thou hast space,
If thou couldest repent as Niniuie did,
Then sholdest thou be sure of gods grace
And so might thy enemies quite be rid.
But if thou be blinde, and will not see,

Then hasteth destruction for to destroi the," But to come to Bradford's own part of the work. He dedicates it thus,

“ To the right
honorable lords &c. the erles of Arun-
-dell, Darby, Shreusebury & Pembrok,
their true and faythfull seruaunt wi-
sheth, as to al other of our nobilitie in
crease of grace in gods fauour, wyth
perfect honor, and the preseruacyon
of their most honorable estates and
country. Thoughe ye reioyce not in
readyng my foolyshe reasons, yet
geue God thankes, that I haue
discouered suche detesta-

ble treasons." And then, after a passage which has been already partly quoted, he says;

“I wil write nothing to disturbe the trew and most godly state of oure religion, whiche the Quenes maiestie moste graciouslye setteth out at thys present, and wherein god hath preserued me: nor yet, to disturbe the quiete estate of the commonwealth : But in shewing what is pretended to the contrarye, declare vnto you the way, if it please you to folowe my counsell, how to preserue youre lordeshipes, ard the whole realme, from most miserable bondage and captiuite. I purpose to declare a part of the naturall disposicion of Spaniardes : certayne of their premeditate mischeues, and pretensed treasons, not onely agaynst your most honorable persons, but also agaynst the whole realme: so farre, as I haue heard, seene and proued, for the space of two or .iii yeres in their companye. My frendes putte me to learne their language and compelled me to live amongest them, because I myghte knowe perfectlye, whether their nature were so vyle, as men reported, or not. And I assure your lordshipes, and all my frendes, that the vileste reporte, that ener I heard Englishmen speake, by the worste of all Spaniardes, is nothinge to the vilenes which remaineth amongest the best of that nacion, except the kings maiestie. Ye wil say the noble men be very ciuill persons. In very dede I haue not seen so muche vertue in all the reste, as in that most noble Prince the duke of Medenazelye. A Prince, vndoubtedly, endewed with perfect humilitie, trueth, loue, charite and all other prince like vertues.”Sig. A. viii.

It will be observed that Bradford writes as if he were under a suspicion that his reader's opinion of the character and proceedings of the Spaniards, formed on actual observation, might be somewhat different from what he wished to inculcate, ye wil say the noble men be very ciuill persons. Indeed, the reader cannot fail to observe in subsequent extracts, that the evils and abominations of the Spanish alliance were matters of prediction rather than of fact.

"But wherfore should I spend my time, in showing so mani of their vile condicions, as I knowe moste perfectly. For me thinke I heare some noble man starte at these fewe principall pointes saying: * What a vyle knaue is this, that raileth so muche against the Quenes frendes. Would to god that wer trewe: we know moste perfectly, they loue her treasure faithfully, and her crowne hartely. But if her grace worke prudently, she shall perceiue spedely, they loue her person fainedly. I haue not spoken the worst nor the most, lyke a rayler, but showed a small nomber of rype rotes, from the which spring a thousand moe mischeffes, for out of eueri rote spring .vii. braunches, and out of euery braunche doe spring .vii. worse wormes or stinkinge serpentes of more mortall poison, then either the rotes or spitful braunches. As for example, take their pompynge pryde, and ye shall proue their purpose once obteined, thei wil treade your heads in the dust, and compel you to liue at home porely, without bearing rule in the commen wealth. Thinke you, to live at home in your country: no they knowe perfectly you woulde then haue all people vpon your part and make insurrections, to driue them out of the lande: they wil prouide for this matter, and put you to death louingly, before you make such controuersye, that they may gather vp againe their great giftes, vpon youre treasures, and maintaine their gorgious garmentes, with their false brybrie : their fine Spanishe brauerye with oppression of the pore people, and bye their lustye liueries with exceading great excises. There be many other braunches, but I shewe these for a brefe example, that ye may by your wisedomes picke out the rest. And yet if ye pull of every braunch vii. serpentes, ye shal finde a deuelish companie.

“As for example. When ye bee trodden vnder foote, marke my woordes well, euery skurueie knaue shal come to your house and take the best part, leauing you the worste. Ye must obeie him like a Senioure, ye must geue them the best beddes, and take the worste pacientlie for youre selfes : for you haue lord Dannes come againe of them, and thei shall putte youlin rememberaunce of the miseres that your parentes suffered vnder them, whiche ye haue forgot, thei are so long past.

“The worste of them shall bee better estemed, with the kinge and his counsel, than the best of your realme, ye must be gladd to geue them place not of curtesie, but of perforce: they must be set in the higheste place, and you in the loweste. If one of them be appointed in your house, by the kinge or his counsel, or els receyued for his moneie, the house must be his and not yours.

“And yet will he departe without taking leaue or paying for lodeging.

“Some man will sai, that it is not true : for they have paide euerie man iustly the vttermost pennie. 1 speake not of that, whiche thei haue done in Englande, but of that which the most parte of them dooe in these countries, and thei wil dooe, when they maie beare rule, euen amongest you in Englande.

“And yet, I thinke, there be some, that paid not verie iustlie for al things when thei were amongest you laste. For I myselfe knowe manye worshippeful menne, which, if thei durst, woulde take their othe, and seke for recompence, that lodged, ye that lodged Spaniardes, in their house a yeare and more, and lette them haue halfe a dossen beddes and chaumbers with all thinges perteininge to them, a greate parte of their fyre wood, and such other stuffe for buttery and chereles kitchen, &c. And yet the Spaniardes at their departing would nother paye for many thinges that were stollen, nor for many things that were lost, as thei said, nor for many thinges that were broken and rente, nor to speak plainly, for many thinges which were so ” [instead of a few words omitted, read filthy from their diseased state], " that no man could lye in them afterwardes. I know diuerse of them, that paide their accoumptes so iustlye, & toke their leave so honestly : that their hostes knew not of their departing, but left the bakers, bruers, bouchers, woodmongers and coliers, one of them to paie anothers skore. Yf thei departed stoutly in these dayes, when they dissembled al goodnes, when thei trusted to winne the gouernaunce of the realme and the crowne with gentlenes and good condicions : what wyll thei doe, I praye you, when they haue the crowne indede? But to returne ye muste geue them leaue to speake when you must holde your peace, ye must cap to them in all places where ye see them, although it be not your custome, or rather thers indede yet he is a very rusticall beast, that doeth it not to them: for ye know, the worste of them is a Senior : ye must preferre them in all thinges, and geue all the names of honor, excepte maiestie, to the vilest slaue amongest them.”-Sig. B. ii. b.

“Some of their false flattering fauorers will saie, that all men maie perceiue perfectly, that I slaunder Spaniardes wrongefullye : for they haue holpen many synce their comming into England. But remember I tolde you they counterfeited condicions, because they mighte seme like voto vs, and the more easely disceaue vs.

"For that whiche thei haue done in Englande, was no part of their nature, but the greatest part of dissimulation, and a plane preparacion to disceaue our nobilite. For wherefore should tħei seke to maintaine our nobilite, and the honor of the realm in his own estate : doe ye thinke, if thei obtaine the crown, they will mainteine the nobilite and the realme vpon their own charges : were it not better for them to destroie the nobilite and bring the kingdome, which thei loue so well, to their own commodities ?. Sig. B. v. b.

The following prediction of what the English court was to become when the Spaniards had quite got their own way, is too graphic and too much to our purpose, to be omitted.

“Ye haue heard many enils, but god is witnes I cannot for shame write or declare the vile, shamefull, detestable, and moste abominable reportes, whiche they haue spoken by the Quens maiestie: and yet her grace thinketh them to be her very frendes : but this one trueth I will shew couertlie, and wrappe it in as cleane cloutes as I can, desiring all men and the Quenes highnes herself most humblye, to take it after their words. The Spaniards say,

if they obtaine not the crown, thei may curse the time that euer their kinge was bounde in mariage to a wife, so vnmete for his maiestie by natural curse of yeres, but yet if the thing maye be brought to passe, which was ment, in the mariage in a king, thei shal kepe old riche robes, for high festifal daies. If there be any man that doth not vnderstande this saying of Spaniardes, let the Quenes highnes, so long as her grace wil haue any fauourable frendship of the kinges maieste, kepe her selfe as heigh in auctorite & as rich, as she is at this present, or els her grace shall perceiue perfectly, as she maye partly at this present, that Spaniards naturally loue fresh wares, yong deintie dishes, and chaunge of new things.

“I thinke the Quene will blame me, for showing this one trueth, but by that time her grace shall be glad, to tie horsses vnderneth her chamber windowe, to suffer vile stinking donghils at her priuie chamber staires, to see her garde chamber garnished about with plaine wals, finely furnyshed with riche pallets, of strong corse canuas, wel stuffed with strawe, the wals most comly colored with coles, to see sitting among her graces yemen, curriers, carmen, and cobblers, woodemonges, vintners, and waggeners, pointers, pinners, and pedlers, showemakers, surgeaunts, and sadlers, bokebinders, bakers, brewers, with al kinde of lowsie loiterers, and euery one a bagge, a budget, or a bottell hanged open beefore him, tyed vnder hys arme, or bebinde vpon his backe, more like a moste misordered hospitall' then a kynges garde chamber, that nother her highnes, nor any of her nobilitie, can passe that way. For indede the garde in the kinges courte be suche bawdye, burly beastes, that they neuer come in the kinges chappell, excepte for necessitie when straungers come to the courte and abyde the smell of suche a stinkinge stue.

“Her grace will say I speake not all. When her pallice gates shal stand open, without porters, that not only beggers, slaues, and all kinde of wretches, but also oxen, kine, hoggishe olde swinne, shepe and lambs, goats, kiddes, and rammes, cattes, dogges, geese, ducks, cockes, and hennes, with ail other suche good houshold stuffe, may enter into her courte, and standing, rubbing, rowteing, diggeng, deluing, and donging, before her chamber windowe, like a good fermers house in the countrey, when her highnes hall shall be one daye hanged with riche arreisse, and halfe a year after, ether shut, and locked vp, or els furnished finely with spinners, silketwiners, weuers of laces, ropmakers, coblars, and bochers of olde hosen, moste shamefullie without all order, and be glad to kepe within her most princelike palice a vile stinking baudy tauerne, that euerye one of these fore saied craftesmen, and all other baudes, beggers, slaues, and vile dronken wretches, maye bie within her courte breade, beare, nuttes, apples, and chese, and fetche wine and water out of the kinges courte, by iiii. penny pintes, and that with the dearest, accordinge to the olde, auntyente, and moste honorable customes of the Emperours maiesties courte, and the kinges maiesties palaies here in flaunders, her maiestie shal wel perceiue, that I kepe many thinges secret whiche I am ashamed to declare.

“ Ye will thinke I speake the worste, but when the Quenes grace shalbe glad to fetche her wine out of the tauern by eight pense, and a halfe peny the quarte: as the king and bothe the Quenes doe here in this courte, her highnes shall well know, that I cold show much worse orders, and manye thinges more vile, more shamefull, and more dishonorable than these, and by that time all these thinges be wrought ordinarely, in the court of Englande, ye shall smell them more vnsauerly. Al men that be here continuallye, doe see muche more and many worse thinges, then I write.

“But if these things wil not make your lordships worke wiseli and be circumspect in delivering the crowne, looke further vpon youre proceadinges, and when your lordships shal be glad, if ye might escape so well, to be at the Spanishe counsels commaundement, and wander with Spaniardes from one countrey to another, and where ye liue at this present with all plentiful prouision in your own houses, be compelled to lie in good tiplinge houses, & rost halfe a capone to your supper and kepe the rest for your dinner, with a pinte of white wine and water, a pigges petitooes, a younge shepe trotters, halfe a loine of leane mutton and iiii. or. v grene sallettes, as the best of the kings counsell do liue daily, ye wil say, woulde to god we had kept the crown in our owne handes, for the right and lawful heires of the realme to whom it belongeth by iust and lawfull discent, and bene trewe to our countrye, so that we might have reigned still and lyved more honorable in reste, wealth, and quietnes, then any nacion in the world.”—Sig. E. iv. b.

One might, indeed, transcibe the whole book; but I will at present give only one more extract from it. I have

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