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132 “MINISTERS OF GOOD ESTIMATION” [ESSAY olde and greater priuileges) aide him with men money and shippes : as allready they have offred and promised, as diuerse credible lettres haue declared. Than shall they inuade Englande, and shalbe by shiploades (if no worse happen vnto you) carried into newe Spaine, and ther not lyue at libertie but bicause ye are a stubburne and vnfaithfull generacion, ye shalbe tyed in chaynes, forced to rowe in the galie, to digge in the mynes and to pike vp the golde in the hotte sande. And so with sorowe to your soppes, your three mannes songs shall be, Alas, and weale awaye. Than shall ye knowe the pride and lordelynesse of the Spanyardes, though for a while til they maie get the ouer hande, they crepe and crouche, fede men with swete wordes (Baso las manos) and women with confettes, swete wynes, pleasaunt perfumes, gaye apparail, and suche like vayne toyes : but whan they be ones alofte, ther is no nacion vnder the cope of Christ, like them in pride, crueltie, vnmercifulnesse, nor so farre from all humanitie as the Spanyardes be : which thing the realme of Naples, the Dukedome of Milane, the citie of Siena, many partes of Duchelande, and the lande of Iulike Cleuelande and Geldre lande can to theyr coste right well testifie.”- Pol. Pow., Sig. L. iij. b.

Goodman, speaking with reference to judgments which he had just denounced, says,

And iustly maye the Lorde to all this do you, seinge he gaue you not this dignitie, makinge you Counsellers, Noble men, Rulers, Justices, Mayers, Shireffs, Bayliffs, Counstables, or Gaylers to exalt your selues agaynst his Maiestie, and to fight agaynst Christe and his members : but to humble your selues in his presence, to promote his glorie, and to defende all those whom he committed to your charge. How commeth it then to passe, that ye haue thus betrayde him and his people, in banishinge his truthe to receaue falsehod, and haue changed Religion in to superstition, true honoringe of God, in to blasphemous idolatrie, and now (to finishe your procedinges) are readye to sell your subiects for slaues to the prowde Spaniards, a people with out God.”—p. 95.

And a few pages farther on he breaks out;

"Gods worde she abhorreth, Antichriste hathe she restored, her fathers Lawes contemned, her promesse broken, and her brother Godly kinge Edwarde as an heretique condemned, not thinkinge it ynoughe to expresse her tyranny vpon them that liued, except she shewed crueltie, or rather a raging madnesse on the bodies of Gods seruants longe before buried, drawing them forth of their graues to burne them as heretikes. And in fine vtterly abhorring the Englishe nation, hath ioyned her self to adulterous Philip, the Spanishe kinge: to whome she hathe, and dothe continually labor to betray the whole kingdome. And yet ye cannot, or will not see it, nether yet for all this be stirred vp to bridell her affections, and withstand her vngodly doinges, to promote the glorie of God, and to preserne your brethren, and your selues : but thinking to reteyne your promotions by flattery, do hastelie drawe Gods vengeance vpon your selues and others.

“For do you thinke that Philip will be crowned kinge of Englande, and reteyne in honor Englishe counsellers? Will he credite them withe the gouernment of his estate, who have betrayed their owne? Shall his nobilitie be Spaniardes, with out your landes and posses, sions? And shall they possesse your promotions and lyuinges, and your heads vpon your shulders ? Come they to make a spoyle of the whole Realme, and leaue you and yours vntouched? Where is your great wisdome become? Your subtile counsels and policies, where of your bragge so muche, to whome these thinges be hid, that euerie childe espieth?”—p. 99.

The “ Supplicacyon to the Quenes Maiestie," which has been already mentioned (p. 85), begins thus ;

"A supplicacyon to the quenes Maiestie.

“In moste humble wise Complaynyth ynto your highnes, that wher as tbis noble realm off England, hath of long tyme out of mynd bene the most fre contre in all Christendome, Now is lyke to be brought in to bondag and slauery of such a nacyon as all the world both hatyth ann abhoryth. The only occasion ther off is our ynthankfulnes, as our preachers and true prophetes declarid vnto vs in the tyme off your brother, that most vertues prynce king Edwardthe vj. That yff we wold not be thankful for that great benyfyte off godes holy worde, then truly preachyd among vs. God wold take away our sayd vertues king, and set vp a strang king raygne ouer vs, for our vnrepentant hartes, who shuld bring in agayn, popery, ydolatry, and all abhomynacyons, as it is com to passe this day."

Much more to the same effect might be quoted from this work, especially from the “Exortacyon to the lords and comons of the Parliament house” which it contains; but I will at present give only two short extracts ;

"I cannot hold from you my natiue contremen what I haue herde in other contres, with what policys and feches, the bisshopps and clergie of this realm, vse for the stablishment of ther kingdom which yf it come to passe wylbe the vtter decaie, subuercion, and distruction, of this poble Realme of England. They intend by one crafte or other, that the prince of Spaine sbalbe crownid King of England, as is aforesaid, and to haue this noble realme of England to hym and to hys heires, and so contrary to the statutis made in the other perlyaments, dysinheryte all the reightfull heyres of the Realme. And after he hath gotten that quyetlye, then they will not leane to prycke hym forward, and to cawse this noble Realm of England, to be brought into bondage and slauerye, lyke as the emperoure hath done Naples, Myland, and hys nether contres of Flanders, Holland, Seland, Brabant, Fryseland and Lytzelburg, &c.” --Sig. C. iv, b.

“A lamentable case, that neuer a noble man in England wold serne for the quenes Maiestie, but that England must be fayne to bestowe all ther treasure and ryches, to bring in a stranger to raine

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ouer them, who with the bisshoppes aduise and helpe will bring this noble realme in to beggery and vyle slauerie: And yet for all this, when he hath goten that he hath sought (that is) the realme into bys hands, then it will appere, that he will sett asmich by here, as men sett by ther old showes : Is not the quene and all Englishmen bound to curse such a wickid gardener, for bringing in to this realm, such weeds, as will not only ouer grow, and distroye, the noble and good corne, of this noble realme, but weede out the welth, ye vtterly rote out the hole state theroff in euery degree. This is a plage aboue all plages, which is com vpon vs, for our vnthankfullnes, acording as our trwe prophets and preachers, declarid to vs. Yf we wold not amend our Iyues, and knowledge the tyme of our visitacion."-Sig. C. vi. b.

There is another book of the year 1556, entitled "A 'trewe Mirrour or Glase wherin we may beholde the wofull state of thys our Realme of Englande. Set forthe in a • Dialogue or communicacion betweene Eusebius and Theo'philus,” from which, though it is anonymous, and I do not find any account of it except a mere transcript of the title in Herbert's Ames," I am tempted to add one or two extracts, because it is written with more moderation than most of the works which I have quoted, and I think that the reader will find in the passages laid before him, some things strongly confirmatory of the opinions which I have expressed.

Eusebius. But yet (ye shal not be offended with me for that I wil say) there were of your sort, which are called the newe learnynge many euil men.

Theophilus. It was most trew brother Eusebius and canno be denyed. For there were in hel no veryer deuils then many of them were that professed the gospel, for otherwyse there could haue ben no couler of these lyes and slaunders that are now spred, as is said before. For it was Iudas that bare the pouche, and it was Iudas that betraied hys master: and many Iudasses in England vnder the pretence of religion robbed both kynge and realme these iudasses filled their own pouches, and made themselues rich, and noble, and they care not who rule so long as they may geat and enioye their possessions.

Eusebius. Well brother Theophilus here are no more but you and I, and I dare be bolde herein to tel you my mind. For I know you vnderstand in it as muche as I, and more to, and I dare say you do with a great a gref behold it and sorow it as any English heart wil doe. I heare say the king of Spayne shal at last be crouned kyng of England, what say you to that ;

Theophilus. Alas brother Eusebius what should I say to it: If

5 Vol. III. p. 1595.

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god haue determyned, who maye wythstande: we muste commyt it to his good pleasure and wyll.

Eusebius. But do you not thynke it a plage :

Theophilus. Yes verely and an vtter desolacion of Englishe bloud."-- Sig. A. viii.

Theophilus. When kyng Henry was deade, kyng Edwarde hys sonne by the meanes of hys vncle then Lorde protectour subuerted al the Popes religion, put down masse and altogether, wherewithall they were well contented, and set forewarde the matter withoute any scruple of conscyence, I warrante you. And many goodly lawes they lette make, as wel for the mayntenaunce of that religion, as also for the preseruacion of a commen wealth, and before kyng Edwarde was fullye dead, they had concluded also with the Duke of Northumberlande, vnder pretence of the stablishing of that religion, and other goodly consideracions as it were to make hym kyng, contrary to al right, and contrary to all the statutes of parlemente and so woulde haue disheryted the Quene that nowe is, agaynste her fathers wil, agaynst theyr own lawes, agaynst al their othes and promise, and without any iust cause, at that time. And all this notwithstanding, when they sawe how the game would goe: they were contented to serue the Quenes wyll, and nowe haue they sworne backe agayne to the holy father I heare say: now agayne wheras the Quene goeth about not onely to breake her fathers wil and al such lawes and statutes as were made for the preseruacion and safegarde of thys realme, but is also determined of a selfe wyll to brynge England into the subieccion of a foren Prynce, they haue not onely consented and agreed, but are also chefe doers and procurers thereof, for god hath blynded theyr eyes, and theyr vnderstanding, so that they cannot see mor perceaue, their own destruccion, and yet euery child seeth and euery good heart mourneth at it full heuely.

Eusebius. Now surely Theophilus you haue spoken as trewe as the gospell, for if he be once stablished king, he may without contradiccion furnishe al the fortes in Englande with his owne men, for I would not thinke him wise to trust straungers so muche as his own countre men: when he hath therefore brought that to passe he may at all times bring an army either out of flaunders or spain, the shyppes being also at hys commaundement and thorow Englande may he goe at hys wyll and pleasure, who wil saye hym naye : Alas miserable case.

Theophilus. Nay nay Eusebius he shal nede none army to bryng this matter to passe, for if the Quene liue seuen yeres to an ende, he wyll so vse the matter that Englande shalbe easy inough to rule, for marke ye now how fast the gentle men go to the tower, yea and some to hanging also. And ye see the gentlemen for the most part be of this newe learnyng, and therfore ye know vnder pretence of religion there wilbe matters inough to ridde the most part of the nobilitie of Englande, and all thys shal we be made to doe within ourselues, we shalbe inueigled thus to doe one agaynst another by traynes and baites to seake one anothers destruccion, whereunto many are very prest, and al to do the Quene a pleasure. Marke how thys geare commeth to passe, for the Spaniard hath nothing to doe in al this (as we suppose) but rather getteth pardons, and showeth great fauour to Englyshe men, but ye may be sure they haue debated thys matter in theyr heades, and in all this they make the Quene serue their turne, and her own fancy also.”-Sig. B. i. b.

Let me, without at present burthening him with any other remarks on these extracts, remind the reader, that our inquiry is, how far the measures of the English government were influenced by the writings of the puritans. Had the king and his countrymen influence, or had they not? did they know of these writings, or did they not ? if they did, were they conciliated by them towards the party from which they emanated ?

ESSAY IX.

PURITAN POLITICS. No. V.

THE CHANGE OF RELIGION.

SUPPLICATION

GOODMAN – PONET-TRAHERON-THE

BECON.

In one of the preceding essays? I stated that those passages which it would be necessary to quote, in order to give an idea of the effect which the writings of the Puritans, and especially the Exiles, were likely to have on the government in England, might be conveniently distributed into four classes.

First, such as had, generally speaking, a revolutionary tendency, and were calculated to teach the lawfulness of insurrection and rebellion of subjects against their rulers.

Secondly, those which were particularly directed against Queen Mary, on the ground of her sex, her birth, or her personal character.

Thirdly, those which were intended to render odious the Spaniards, and the Spanish match. And

Fourthly, those relating to the change in religion, repre

i Sec before, p. 87.

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