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is thrown. The idea of thus making up prayers,


professedly addressing such matter to the Almighty, appears to me in the highest degree revolting. But the simple fact is, that this is what was then written and circulated by a man of station and influence in the party-what then found readers,—what is even now not so universally disliked but that it has admirers, and has been recently reprinted as matter worthy of preservation, not merely in an historical and antiquarian point of view. We may, therefore, safely assume that it was not without readers, admirers, and influence when it was written. Our business, however, is to inquire whether, supposing all contained in these extracts to be quite true and good,-supposing that the Queen and her Council and Bishop Gardiner were, in themselves, and in all their circumstances, just what Becon supposes and describes--whether this mode of writing about them was likely to have any effect on their feelings and course of action ? was there any good in writing thus ? Was it really a holy and Christian love of the truth which led men who had been happy enough to escape into quiet resting places, to send over such missiles as could only aggravate the fierceness of persecution on the one hand, and the wildness of fanaticism and the wilfulness of rebellion on the other ?

“But now the shepehardes, yea, rather the wolfes, which are braste into thy shepefolde, and with violence haue vniustly thrust out the faythfull and fatherly pastores out of their cures, are lordely, cruel, bloud-thyrstye, maliciovs and spyteful agaynste thy shepe.

“They are such wolfs as spare not the flocke but scatter and destroye the flocke.

They are theues, robbers, murtheras & soule slears. thei fede them selues with the fattest & clothe them selues wythe the fyneste wolle, but thy flocke thy noryshe not, the foode, wherwith they pasture thy shepe, is the drowsye dreams and idle imaginacions of Antichriste.

“In stead of the preachyng of thy lyuely worde, the fede thy flocke wythe latin mumblynges, wythe dume Images wyth Hethnyshe cerymonies wyth vayne syghtes, and suche other apysh toys.

“In sted of the ministracion of the holy and blessed Communion the fede thy shepe wythe vile stynckyng, abhominable deulyshe, blasphemus & Idolatryous Masses.

“And vnto thes vnwholsome and pestilent and poysonfull pastures the dryue thy shepe, wyll they nyl they. & if any of thy flocke refuse to come and taste of those their pestilent poysons & poisonful pesti. lences, bim they accite to appere befor that greate wolfe, whose face is lyke vnto the face of a she beare that is robbed of her younge ones, whose eyes continually burne withe the vnquencheable flames of the deadly cockatrice, whose teethe are lyke to the venomous toshes of the rampyng lyon, whose mouth is full of cursed speaking & bitternes, whose tong speakithe extrem blasphemes agaynst the & thy holy annointed, whose lippes ar ful of deadly poisonne, whose throte is an open sepulchre, whose breathe fomethe & bloweth out threatenyng & slaughter agaynst the disciples the Lorde, whose harte without ceasyng imaginethe wickednes, whose handes haue a delighte to be embrued with the bloode of the Sainctes, whose fete are swifte to shed bloode, whose whole manne bothe bodye and soule go alwaies vp & down musyng of myschyff.

“This wolfe, o Lorde, is so arrogante, baultie and prowde, seyng the gouernement of the whole Realme is committed vnto hym, that he hathe caste awaie all feare of the. He makethe boste off hys awne witte learnyng and pollecye. His wayes are alwaye fylthye, thy iudgementes are farre out of his sygbte, he defyethe all hys enemies, For he saythe in his hearte : tushe, I shal never be caste downe, theyr shall no harme happen vnto me. He syttethe lurking lyke a lyon in his denne, that he maie priuely murther the innocent & sucke hys bloode.

“Whan suche, o Lorde God, as will not obeye their popish and deuelyshe procedyngs, are broughte before that grevous wolffe, they are miserably taunted, mocked, schorned blasphemed, as thi derely beloued sone was in Bishope Caiphas howse, and afterwarde cruely committed to preson, to the towre, to the flete, to the marshalseas, to the kynges benche, to the Counters, to Lollardes towre, to Newgate &c. Where they are kepte as shepe in a pynnefolde appointed to be slayne.

“And as thys cruel and bloudy wolf dealeth with the poore lambes, euen so do the residue of that letcherous litture. He with all other of that wolfyshe kynde, hunger and thyrste nothing so greatly, as the deuouring of the bodies, and the sucking of the bloude of thy poore and innocent lambes.

Ah, Lorde, whyle the vngodly haue the ouerhande, the poore are moste wretchedly handled. They are prayes vnto the wolfes.

"Arise, therefore, o Lorde God, lyfte vp thine hande, and forget not the poore, whiche geueth them selfe ouer into thy hande, and committeth hym vnto thy defence. Breake thou the arme of the vngodly and malicious, search out the wickednes, whiche he hath done, that he may shortly perish from the lande of the living.” -Sig. C. vii.

“Thou callest thy self a iealous God, why than doest thou suffer thy people, thy congregacion, thy flocke, thyne heritage, to be thus seduced & ledde awaye from the vnto all kynde of itual fornication, and abhominable whordome by that Antichriste of Rome, that greate Baal, that stoute Nemroth, that fals prophet, that beast, that whore of Babylon, that sonne of perdicion, and by hys abhominable adherentes, Cardinalles, Archebisshoppes, Bisshoppes, Suffraganes, Archedeacons, Deanes, Prouostes, Prebendaries, Commissaries, Parsonnes, Vicares, Purgatorierakers, Priestes, Monkes, Friers, Chanons

Nonnes, Anckers, Anckresses, Pardonners, Proctors, Scribes, Officialls, Sonners, Lawers, Massemongers, Canonisters, Papistes, Antichristes, Mammonistes, Epicures, Libertines, with all the rable of beastlye hypocrites that haue receued the beastes mark, which do nothing els than seke, how they may establishe their Antichristian kyngdom, by suppressinge thy holy worde, and leadinge thy people into all kynde of blyndenes, errours and lyes.

“ Thou callest thy self a Lorde, and thou sayeste, that thou wilt gyue thy glory to none other, nor thy grayse vnto grauen Images, howe commeth it than to passe, that thou suffrest thy glory so too decaye in the realme of Englande, so many to steale awaye thy prayse and honoure, by sayenge their idolatrous and develishe masses, by ministeringe a sorte of Heythenish and Jewishe ceremonies, by prayenge vntoo dead sainctes, by blottinge oute of the temples, thy holy lawe there written, according to tby commaundement, for the edifyenge of thy people, and by settinge vp in the steade therof Idols and Mawmettes, cleane contrary to thy blessed worde?

“Thou callest thyself a Lyon & a consuming fyre and threatenest vtter destruccion vnto tbin aduersaries, whi suffereth thou than these Antichristes thus to ryse, rore, & rage, against the testament of thy most dere sonne, to beat doune thy trueth, to call thy holy lawe heresy, to banishe the preachinge of the Gospel, and the true vse of the Sacramentes, & to seke the destruccion of so many as vnfaynedly loue the and thy blessed worde.”—Sig. A. iv. b.

“Thus seist thowe (0 moste mercifull father) Howe miserabli the face of the Chryste common weale of England is beyond all measure defamed.

“Thus seist thone, howe thy godly doctrine and most holy ordinances are ytterly abolyshed, and menes tradicions set vp in the place of them.

“Thus seist thowe, howe thy glorie & honore that is due to the alone is attributed and geuene to an Idole of bread and to their wicked Maumets.

“Thus seist thowe, howe the Saluacion, whiche is thorow faithe to be hoped & looked for onlye in the glorious passion, precius deathe, & triumphant Resurrecion of thy most dere son and our alone Sauiour & Lord Jesus Christ is nowe reposed in the sinfull merites of hipocrites, in the intercession of Saintes, in ceremonies, in the obseruances of menes idle imaginacions &c.

“Thus seist thow, how thy holy worde is set aside, and mans doctrin hathe the vppermost hand.

“Thus seist thow how thy holy mysteries are to moch filtheli defiled of the swynyshe Papistes.

“ Thus seist thowe, howe all thynges in the temples be done without edifieng. Nothyng is herad in them but boyng, bellowyng and blearing (sic).

“Thus seist thowe, howe the fatherli Bishoppes and faithfull pastores are vniustli pat out of their cures, deprived of all that they haue, banyshed and handled like shepe appoynted to the slaughter, and in the steade off them whyte dawbed walles, paynted Sepulckers full of all filthines & abhominacion, blynde Phareseis, subtile Hypo. crites, vnlearned asses, Romyshe foxes, Rawenyng wolues, Lordly Tyrantes, and such Lyke pestilences are appoynted to rule ouer thy flocke."-Sig. D. ii.

“And that thy blessed worde may haue the more fre passag, take away from vs those Idolatrus Massmongers, those idle latyne Mumblers, those shauen Madianites, those Lordly loyterers, those Wolues, those Theues, Robbers, and Murtherars, whiche do nothyng elles than poyson thy flocke, whom thy moste dere Sonne purchased withe hys moste Precious dere hearte bloode, and mak hawocke of thy sely simple shepe by leadyng them awaye frome the, throwe their vayne sophistrie vnto the Dewill & the pope, from thy holy worde and blessed ordenances vnto the trifeling tradicions&croked yea cankered constitucions of Hipocrites : And in the stead of them place thow godly Byshopes, learned Preachers, Christen Ministers, faithful teachers, True spirituall Fathers, Louyng pastors euen suche as will diligently seke vpe the loste shepe, whom the woulyshe Papistes in the tyme of their tiranny haue most wrechedli scattered abrode.”Sig. Đ. vi.

But though I have thought it necessary to give these extracts relating to the change of religion in the country, and illustrating the mode in which that subject was treated by the writers of the Puritan party, yet they would do very imperfect justice to that part of the subject. There was another method of treating the matter which requires more particular notice, and of which I hope to speak in a separate essay.




WHEN the preceding essay went to the press it was my intention to proceed immediately to the consideration of what may be called the popular course pursued by the puritan party with regard to the change of religion in England. Argument is a fine thing for fine people; and learning is better than house or land, especially for those who

possess the means of comparison, and are therefore best qualified to judge of relative values. But where the energies of the million are wanted there is a more compendious


and effective method of rousing them, and one that was appreciated and well understood by the parties with whose proceedings we are concerned. It is indeed a curious matter, and one which has been, as far as I know, very little noticed. At all events it has not received the attention which it deserves. But as it is one which extends over a considerable period, and comprehends a good deal of matter, it has appeared to me best to say a few words on a point relating more immediately to the exiled party, while some of their proceedings having been recently subjects of discussion, are fresh in remembrance.

I have given copious specimens of the doctrine propounded or sanctioned by Knox, Goodman, Whittingham, Kethe, Traheron, Becon, and others, on the subject of female monarchy. I have shown the grounds on which these leading men of the party denounced it as monstruous," and I am not aware that as long as Queen Mary lived any one of them, or of their party, published one word of reply, or repudiation. It is obvious, therefore, that when they came to see the lady Elizabeth actually stepping into the throne, they must have felt themselves in an awkward predicament.

To refer to no other points which had been discussed, she was a woman as well as her sister; and no one who has read the foregoing pages can doubt that she would consider many of the passages which I have quoted, as capable of a very clear and unpleasant application to herself. Of course, if Mary was a thing accursed because she was a woman, so was Elizabeth ; and if the “regiment” of one of these creatures

monstruous," so would be that of the other. It must have puzzled the party extremely; and we cannot doubt that it was the subject of much thought and consultation ; and judging from the result, we may suppose that they who were most concerned in the matter came to a decision that, as what had been done could not be undone, and what had been said could not be unsaid, it would be best to put a good face on the matter-to throw John Knox, the most violent and notorious maintainer of the opinion, overboard at once and for ever—to say as little as possible about the way in which the subject had been treated by Goodman and others, of whom it could not be pretended that they were “Scots and “straungers”—and to say as much as could be said in the way of denial, explanation, apology, contradiction, &c.,


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