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“Interrogatories ministered to the Lord Paget” in particular, by the bishop; three of which are as follows:

“5. Item, Whether the sayd Lorde Paget incontinentlye ypon the attaintment of the late Duke of Northfolke, did not do a message from the kings maiesty to the said bishop, that he would be content, that maister Secretary Peter might baue the same hundreth pounde by yere of the sayde bishops graunt, that the sayde Duke had.

“6. Item, Whether after the sayd B. had aunswered himselfe to gratifye the kinges maiestye to be content therewith, the sayd Lord Paget made relation thereof, as is said, to the kings maiesty. Who answered, that he thanked the Bishop very hartelye for it, and that he mighte assure himselfe, the kinges maiesty was his very good Lord.

“7. Item, Whether the sayd Lord Paget knew the sayd Bishop to haue bene in the counsell within xiii. dayes of the kinges departure to be there mouth to mouth to common (commune] with the Ambas. sadours, or no.”—Fox, p. 798, 1st. Ed.

Here I must beg the reader's attention to dates, and his excuse if I repeat them. The letters between the bishop and the king respecting the exchange of land which I have already given bear date respectively the 2nd and 4th of December. The Duke of Norfolk was arrested on the 12th of that month, “ The bill of attainder was read for the first time on 'the 18th of January, and on the 19th and 20th it was read a second and third time. And so passed in the House of 'Lords: and was sent down to the Commons, who on the * 24th sent it up also passed. On the 27th, the Lords were

ordered to be in their robes, that the royal assent might be 'given to it; which the Lord Chancellor, with some others joined in commission, did give by virtue of the king's letters patent. And it had been executed the next morning, if the king's death had not prevented it.” :

The reader will see that, strictly speaking, the attainder of the Duke of Norfolk had scarcely been completed during the life of Henry VIII., and therefore, that when Gardiner speaks of occurrences after that attainder, he is speaking of a period obviously later than any at which any quarrel or disgrace with the king could have taken place. Paget's assurance, however, did not fail him; he replied

“To the v. and vi, articles, the sayd lord Paget answereth, that after thattainder of the Duke of Norfolke, (as he remembretb) in the vpper and nether house of the parliament, the late kyng of

2 Burnet, Hist. of Reformation, i. 332.

name.

moste worthy memorie, willed hym the sayde lorde Paget to require the sayde byshops graunt of the hundreth poundes, mentioned in the articles : but in suche sort his maiestie willed it to be requyred, as he loked for it rather of dutie, then of any gratuitie at the byshops hand: to whome the sayd lord Paget sayeth of certayne knowledge (as men may knowe thynges) he the sagde kyng woulde have made request for nothyog, beyng the sayd byshop the man at that time, whome the sayde Lorde Paget beleueth, his maiestie abhorred more then any man in his realme : whiche he declared greuously at sondrie tymes to the sayde lorde against the said B. euer namyng him with such termes as the said lord Paget is sory to

And the said lord Paget thynketh, that dyuerse of the gentlemen of the pryuie chamber are able to depose the same. Neuerthelesse it may be, that he the sayde lorde Paget, did vse another forme of request to the said B. then the said king wold haue lyked yf he had knowen it: which if he dyd, he dyd it rather for dexteritie, to obteigne the thyng for his frend then for that he had such speciall charge of the sayd kyng so to do: And also the sayde Lord Paget saith, that afterward it myght be, that he vsed such comfortable words of the kynges fauourable and thankefull acceptation of the thyng, at the sayde byshoppes hande, as in the article is mentioned : whiche if he dyd, it was rather for quyete of the sayde Byshoppe, then for that it was a thyng in dede.

"To the seuenth article, the sayd Lord Paget sayth, that it may be, that the sayd bishop' was vsed at the time mentioned in the article, with the Ambassadours, for the counsels mouth, because that none other of the Counsell that sate aboue hym, were so well languaged as he, in the french tonge. But the sayde Lorde Paget beleueth, that if the sayde kyng that dead is, had knowen it, the Counsell would haue had litle thankes for their labour.”-Fox, 1st Ed., p. 816.

The unfortunate bishop had clearly met with more than his match. What could be do with such a man but remind the Commissioners that in his case, as in that of some others who had not been sworn, “the sayde othe-geuing

was not by speciall consent remitted, but especially and expressly by the parte of the sayd byshop requyred," and that therefore “their deposition by thecclesiastical lawes hath no such strength of testimonie, as the Judge should or might for the knowledge of truthe, haue regard to “them. He added, however, and it seems to me to show both that he knew his enemy, and that he did not fear

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"The sayde byshop dare the more boldely alleage this exception ; and so much the rather, that the Lord Paget hath in his deposition euidently, and manifestly neglected honor, fayth, and honestie, and sheweth hym selfe desirous beyond the necessarie aunswere, to that it was demaunded of him, (onely of ingrate malyce) to hyndre, as muche as in him is, the sayd byshop, who was in the sayd Lordes youth, his teacher, and tutor: afterwarde his maister, and then his beneficiall maister, to obtayne of the kynges maiestie that dead is one of the roomes of the clerkshyp of the Signet for him : whiche ingrate malice of the sayd Lord Paget, the sayde byshop sayth in the depositions manifestly doth appeare, as the sayde byshop offereth hym selfe readie to proue and shewe. And moreouer the sayd byshop against the Lord Paget allegeth at such tyme, as the said Lord Paget was produced against the saide byshop, the same Lorde Paget openly in the presence of the iudges, and other there present, sayde howe the sayde byshop did flie from iustice, whiche made him notoriously suspected, not to be affected indifferently to the truthe (as semed him, and without cause therein to speake, as enemy to the sayde byshop."-Fox, 1st Ed., p.

864. Much that is interesting might be added on this point, from the evidence in this process; but perhaps what has been given from it, and from other sources, may lead us to believe that Bishop Gardiner did not indulge in vain boasting, when, in his letter to the Protector Somerset, he referred with affectionate recollection to old times, and his old master, and boldly added, “NO MAN COULD DO ME HURT DURING HIS LIFE.

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ESSAY XVII. .

GARDINER AND BONNER. No, I.

66

DE VERA OBEDIENTIA."

Every one who has paid attention to the examinations of the reformers, as they are recorded by Fox in his Martyrology, must have observed how frequently they were characterized by a spirit of retort and recrimination which, though it might sometimes be very smart and clever, certainly was not more politic than it was Christian. It seems

as if common sense might suggest that the argumentum ad hominem is not for one who stands at Cæsar's bar, and who is being tried, not by the man, but by the law. A prisoner who is indicted for stealing a horse, will not entitle himself to an acquittal by proving that the judge has stolen two. And, indeed, though he may be

3 Fox, 1st Ed., p. 736.

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