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that the book of “ Laudes” bearing the date of 1491 was not really a native of the city of Hamburgh? Especially because, though I have more particularly insisted on the fact that no book is known to have been printed therefore before that time, we must also bear in mind that there is no proof, so far as I know, of anything having been printed there for forty-five years after.

ESSAY XVIII.

GARDINER AND BONNER. No. II.

DE VERA OBEDIENTIA."

THE circumstances stated in the preceding Essay are, perhaps, sufficient to throw some degree of suspicion on the work which has been handed down to us as the joint production of those two well-known prelates, Gardiner and Bonner.

Briefly recapitulated, so far as is necessary for the purpose of carrying on our argument, the matter stands thus:We are told that in the year 1535, Bishop Gardiner published a treatise, “De vera Obedientia," in London. That in 1536 it was reprinted at Hamburgh, with a recommendatory preface by Dr. Bonner, then Archdeacon of Leicester, and afterwards Bishop of London.

This may naturally, for various reasons, appear to reflecting persons a very singular proceeding; but waiving, for the present, all other considerations, let us go to the particular point at which we arrived in the preceding Essay, and which was this-namely, that it was, to say the least, very strange that this new edition of the Bishop of Winchester's book, thus patronised and prefaced by the Archdeacon of Leicester, should have been printed at a place where there had previously been so very little printing of any kind. I stated that no bibliographer whose works I had the opportunity to consult, had mentioned any book whatever as having been printed there before the year 1491.

This, considering how many presses had by that time been set up elsewhere, and how many years they had been in active operation, may be considered as not a little remarkable. Still more wonderful, however, it must appear to every considerate reader, that if one book was printed there in 1491, so little should have been done for so long a period after that time. True it is that things may have been done which were not recorded, and which are unknown merely because they had no chronicler. Books may have been printed at Hamburgh in the beginning of the sixteenth century which were unknown to Panzer, but certainly not enough to affect the argument; and with his Annals before me, I ventured to express an opinion that no book was printed there during the forty-five years which succeeded 1491—that is, until this very year 1536, when the joint production of Gardiner and Bonner is said to have been printed. In stating this opinion, however, I felt that whoever should look out my authorities might think that they did not fully support my statement, though I did not burthen the matter with details. Indeed those details would not be worth entering into at all, if it were not that beside their reference to the particular case before us, they have a more general, and an important, bearing on the subject with which we are engaged.

As we have seen what Panzer gives as occurring at Hamburgh before the year 1500, (which is only the single volume of 1491, said to have been printed by artists otherwise altogether unknown,) let us turn to the second part of his Annals', and see what he states respecting the period immediately following—that is, up to the year 1536, being the forty-fifth after the flight of the Brocards from Hamburgh.

In the first place,—and I grant in contradiction of the opinion which I have stated,-he gives under the year 1527 (only the thirty-sixth of the Brocardian Hegira) one single book which he found to have been supposed by some persons to be a production of the Hamburgh press. At the same time, neither he, nor anybody else, has ever pretended that it bore upon it any name of place or printer. Indeed, I do not know that it is thought to exhibit anything in type, or workmanship, or any internal evidence whatever, by which

1 Vol. vii, p. 117.

the place of its origin might be decided. But there is, I grant, one circumstance (forming, however, I submit, an obviously insufficient ground for this opinion) which has led some persons to think that this book was secretly and clandestinely printed in the particularly non-printing city of Hamburgh. So strange it is that at every step of this inquiry we meet with some petty mystery. The first book which we come to after thirty-six years of total barrenness, is only supposed to have been printed there, if indeed the mere supposition is still entertained by any body. And of all the books in the world, what book does the reader suppose it was that broke the long slumber of the Hamburgh press ? Not a new edition of the " Laudes ” in Latin-the Proconsuls and Consuls had changed all that,—but Tyndal's New Testament in the English tongue. All that Panzer has to say of the

year is this:

"MDXXVII. "1. PENTATEUCHUS et NOVUM TESTAMENTUM anglice ex versione Gulielmi Tyndal. 1527.

Maitt. II. p. 685.".

It is hardly worth while to trace the authorities for this, because it is probable that those who suggested, or accepted, Hamburgh as the place where that work was printed, were not aware of any improbability, and only took it for granted that, as Tyndal was said to have got away from England to Hamburgh, and also said to have printed his testament soon after that time, he had, as a matter of course, printed it at that place. To those who were probably not aware of any thing to suggest a reason why a book might not as probably be printed there as anywhere else, this was quite natural; but after what we have just seen, and considering how much more easy, and how much less expensive, it would be to send a manuscript to some one of the many places where there certainly were printers and presses at work, than to introduce secretly into a town in which there seems to have been no printing, (or, to say the least, none for six-andthirty years,) all the materials and persons requisite for the clandestine printing of a book in a foreign language, which, after all, for anything that appears, might just as well have been printed elsewhere--considering, I say, all this, we may, perhaps, very reasonably doubt whether Tyndal's Testament XVIII.] ÆPINUS DE ECCL. ROM. IMPOSTURIS. 295 should stand where Panzer has placed it? If, however, this book was really printed at Hamburgh in 1527, it must stand by itself, an isolated fact, a sort of little Eddystone in the barren sea of time; for three years elapse before we come to a notice of another supposed book. The next article in Panzer is—

“ MDXXX. "2. JOANNES HEPINUS de Romanae ecclesiae imposturis. Epistola data est Hamburgi MDXXX. octavo Cal. Jun. 8.

Maitt. Ind. I. p. 477." Why surely we might as well put down Dr. Brown's Fasciculus, which we have been talking of, as printed at Sundridge, in Kent, because the doctor's Epistola data est “Sundrigiæ nonis Octobr. MDCLXXXIX.” Dr. Brown was Rector of Sundridge, and Dr. Hück (who chose to call himself Æpinus) was pastor at Hamburgh. If either of these divines thought fit to write a letter, it is probable that he would write it at, and date it from, the place where he lived; and it is highly probable, that if anybody saw fit, for any reason, to forge a letter from either of them, he might be deep enough to think of this. But to put down a book as printed at a place, merely because the prefatory epistle is dated from it, is so monstrous, that it would not be worth while to say another word about the matter, were it not that the mystery of Hamburgh hangs over this book also, and involves a point or two which are worth our notice, because the genuineness of the literature of that period and the good faith of the men concerned in it, (especially of those belonging to the party of the Reformation,) is a very important matter with reference to our inquiry.

(1.) In the first place, did this author ever write any such book? He was a very well known man, and his works

? Maittaire, thus quoted as his only authority by Panzer, refers us only to Le Long's Bibliotheca Sacra; and Le Long (vol. ii. p. 337) quotes only “Hollandus in Heroologia Anglicana," which I have not at present opportunity to consult. Of course this matter has been more fully investigated since the days of Panzer; and whoever studies the informå tion respecting the history of Tyndals translation and editions of the New Testament, which has been zealously and ably collected by Mr. Offor, Mr. Anderson, and Mr. Lea Wilson, will need very little argument to persuade him of the probability that this work of Tyndal's was not printed at Hamburgh.

seem to have been popular. But I do not find this one mentioned either by his biographer or his bibliographerthat is by Melchior Adam, who wrote his life, or by Simler who allots him a very respectable space in his edition of Gesner's Bibliotheca. Both of them give lists of his works, but neither of them mentions anything that can be mistaken for this one. (2.) If Æpinus did write such a book, did he print it at Hamburgh, for that is our immediate question? It may be said, “Of course he would print it where he lived;" but there is one circumstance which strongly forbids this assumption-namely, that all his other works (as far as I have been able to find) were printed elsewhere.' Simler, as I have already said, gives a list of his works, and he distinguishes between those printed at Basil and those at Frankfort, but says not a word of any one having been printed at Hamburgh. Why did the Superintendent of Hamburgh send away his books from that place, to be printed elsewhere, long after the year 1530, (Simler gives no work earlier than 1541,) and why did other Hamburgh writers do the same ?-as it would be easy to show they did, if it were needful to follow up this point with further authorities. (3.) There is something worthy of notice in the title of this supposed Hamburgh book, or rather in the description of the author. His name, as I have already stated, was Hück, or (as he tells us, some people pronounced it) Hüch; and when, after escaping the danger into which the reforming zeal of his youth had led him, he saw fit to conceal himself, by hellenizing his name into àitteivos, he knew better than to prefix an aspirate'.

3 In the prefatory epistle to his “Commentarius in Psalmum XIX," printed at Frankfort, 1545, addressed to Joachim II., Marquis of Brandenburg, he gives a notice of his early life which, as the book is not common, may be worth extracting:

"Olim adolescens cum formabam juventutis studia, et gubernabam scholam in Marcbia, valde fælicem judicassem me, si in hac luce, nunc demum ibi exorta, mihi tum agere licuisset, vel etiam in gravi difficul* tate : sed Domino tum aliter fuit visum : dedi tum pro meis viribus operam ut Evangelium in Marchia innotesceret, sed Satanas cum suis mancipiis, monachis et sacrificis, tunc et meos, et plerorumque aliorum bonorum conatus, qui tum mecum eandem rem ibidem agebant, impedivit, et me falsis criminationibus delatum, apud Tuæ Cels. patrem, pru• dentissimum Principem, liberaliumque studiorum amantem, mendaciisque deformatum, detrusit in carcerem, objecit morti, et invisum reddidit Marchiæ præpotentibus, qui tum zelo quodam, Evangelicæ et incorruptæ

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