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and passionate things, but much more frequently meaning nothing by the threatenings and slaughter which he breathed out, than to intimidate those on whose ignorance and simplicity argument seemed to be thrown away-in short, we can scarcely read with attention any one of the cases detailed by those who were no friends of Bonner, without seeing in him a judge who (even if we grant that he was dispensing bad laws badly) was obviously desirous to save the prisoner's life. The enemies of Bonner have very inconsiderately thrust forward, and perhaps even exaggerated, this part of his character, and represented him as a fawning, flattering, coaxing person,-as one only anxious to get submissions, abjurations and recantations which would rob the wild beast of his prey. That he did procure a considerable number of recantations, and reconciled a great many to the church of Rome, I have no doubt; some are incidently mentioned, and we may suspect that there were a great many more which are not recorded. Of course the Martyrologists are not to be blamed for this. Their business lay with those who did not recant. On several accounts we must not forget that a Book of Martyrs is a record of extreme cases. This is not the place to enter into details ; but I do not hesitate to express my belief not only that Bonner procured the abjuration of a great number, but that this was one of the causes of that bitter hatred with which the puritans regarded him. It was not, as I have said, the duty of their historians to record such matters; nor could it be agreeable to the party to have them published either on the mountains of Gath, or on their own hill of Zion. But certainly while the public sufferings of their stedfast brethren formed in every point of view the best subject for invective, against the papists, for example to the protestants, and for political agitation of the people, there was, among the leaders, a great fear of the Bishop's powers of persuasion; or as Fox oddly calls them “the subtle snares of that bloody wolf." 2

And while it may be proper to say that this phrase did not relate to traps set for fugitive heretics—for the person spoken of as then in danger of the subtle snares of that bloody wolf Bonner," was already in captivity, and had “been divers times before my lord in examination "—it is right to add that I do not recollect any instance in which Bonner was charged with any breach of faith, or promise, by prisoners whose lives he had saved by his old trade of persuading. I have found him reproaching some of them with broken promises; but on that point I do not recollect any retort. This however is rather anticipating; at least it will be more intelligible if we turn for a few moments from Bonner himself, to take a very slight and superficial look at his times; or rather at that particular period which preceded the time when he was called more particularly into public action and notice.

2 Vol. viii. 414.


HALF OF QUEEN MARY'S REIGN. It will enable us more clearly to understand some subsequent events to which our inquiry leads, if we first look at a brief list of some matters which occurred at the commencement of Queen Mary's reign. The reason for inserting some things of minor importance, while many of greater consequence are omitted, will be understood by all who consider that I am not professing to write a history, but merely to arrange in chronological order, those things to which our inquiry relates.


Thursday, July 6th.
On the death of her brother Queen Mary came to the throne.

Ferrar, Bishop of St. David's, had been " kept in prison a long time, and so remained when Queen Mary entered upon the government: upon which occasion he fell into the hands of the pope's butchers,” &c.—Strype, Cran. I. 263.

Sunday, July 9th. Were sworn unto Queen JANE, at Greenwich, “All the head officers, and the guard as Queen of England.”Stry. Mem. III. i. 4.

Ridley, Bishop of London, preached at Paul's Cross, "declaring there his mind to the people as touching the Lady Mary, and dissuaded them, alledging there the incommodities and inconveniences which might arise by receiving her to be their queen ; prophesying, as it were, before that which after came to pass, that she would bring in foreign power to reign over them, besides the subverting of all christian religion then already established," &c.— Fox, vi. 389.

Thursday, August 3rd. “Was the splendid day on which the Queen came riding to London, and so to the Tower." --Stry. Mem. III. i. 26.

Saturday, August 5th. “Cam out of the Marsalsay, the old bysshop of London, Bonar, and dyvers bysshops bryng bym home unto ys plasse at Powlles."Machyn, p. 393

Sunday, August 6th. John Rogers, prebendary of St. Paul's, “ made a godly and vehement sermon at Paul's Cross, confirming such true doctrine as he and others had there ta in King Edward's days, exhorting the people constantly to remain in the same, and to beware of all pestisent popery, idolatry and superstition."-Fox, vi. 592. See Words. worth's Eccl. Biog. ii. 304.

Sunday, August 13th. “Dyd pryche at Powlles Crosse doctor [Bourn) parson of hehnger [High Ongar) in Essex, the quen['s) chaplen and ther (was a] gret up-rore and showtyng at ys sermon, as yt (were] lyke madpepull, watt yonge pepell and woman [as) ever was hard, as herle-borle, and castyng up of capes ; [if] my lord mer and my lord Cortenay ad not ben ther, ther had bene grett myscheyff done."- Machyn, p. 41. The preacher, who was also a canon of St. Paul's, was apparently in great danger ; but rescued by Rogers (already mentioned) and John Bradford another of the canons, who pacified the tumultuous part of the assembly, and led Bourn between them to a place of safety.Fox, vi. 391. Stry. Mem. III. i. 32.

Wednesday, August 16th, “Was master John Rogers preacher commanded to keep himself prisoner in his own house at Pauls;"_Fox, vi. 393; and the same

3 The work here quoted is “The Diary of Henry Machyn, citizen and merchant-taylor of London, from A.D. 1550 to A.D. 1563,” recently published by the Camden Society. The public are much indebted to Mr. J. G. Nichols, for the ability and pains with which he has edited one of the most valuable records of the interesting period to which it relates ; and which has been hitherto scarcely known except by the frequent references which showed how much Strype was indebted to it, while those who knew how ill-qualified he was to read, and to copy, MSS. felt that they could not place full reliance on his extracts. In this particolar case, without meaning to take any liberty with his author, Strype has so altered the statement that readers (especially if they knew anything, and reflected at all) might well be puzzled and misled. Many a student, I dare say, has read the following passage with an uncomfortable consciousness that he could not name the captive prelates who were said to be set at liberty at this time. He has wondered what Strype could mean when he said (evidently following the words of Machyu), "Now came out of the Marshalsea, Bonner the old Bishop of London, being brought home unto his place at St. Paul's, and together with him divers other bishops were set at liberty from their confinements.”—Mem. III. i. 27. The “dyvers bysshopes” it is obvious were not liberated captives, but brethren who went to the prison merely to bring out the bishop of London, and conduct him as a guard of honour and brotherly congratulation "unto ye plasse at Powlles."

day master Bradford was committed to the charge of the lieutenant of the Tower.- 1bid. 392. This was under the idea that the influence which they obviously possessed over the seditious part of the populace, indicated some connexion or sympathy.

Friday, August 18th. A Royal proclamation was issued which prohibited preaching.– Fox, vi. 390. But he afterwards assigns it to the 21st of this month, p. 538, where he seems to be following Machyn, who says “The xxi day of August was a proclamasyon that no man shuld reson aganst her grases magesty and her conselle doyng the wych she wyli doe to the honor of God and ys moder," p. 42 ; but whether this was the same proclamation that is given at length by Fox I do not know.

Saturday, August 19th. "A Letter was sent unto Sir Henry Tirril, Anthony Brown, and Edmund Brown Esquires, praying them to commit to ward all such as should contemn the Queen's order of religion or should keep themselves from church, there to remain until they be conformable, and to signify their names to the council.”—Fox, vi. 538.

Tuesday, Aug. 22nd. The council dispatched letters requiring the attendance of Bishops Coverdale and Hooper. -Fox, vi. 393.

Sunday, August 27th. Cranmer was “cited to appear the week following before the Queen's Commissioners in the bishops Consistory within Pauls.”Fox, vi. 538.

Tuesday, August 29. Bishop Hooper appeared before the Council.-Fox, vi. 393. See Aug. 22nd.

Friday, September 1. Bishop Hooper was committed to the Fleet.- Fox, vi. 393. 647.

Monday, Sept. 4th. The Council dispatched letters requiring the attendance of Bishop Latimer.- Pox, vi. 393.

Thursday, Sept. 7th. Cranmer "set forth a letter which was also printed in purgation of himself.” It is given at length in English by Fox, vi. 539 ; and in the original Latin by Burnet.

Wednesday, Sept. 13th. Bishop Latimer appeared and was committed to the Tower.- Fox, vi. 393.

Thursday, Sept. 14th.
Cranmer was committed to the Tower.- Fox, vi. 394.

Saturday, Sept. 16. There were “ Letters sent to the Mayors of Dover and Rye, to suffer all french protestants to pass out of this realm, except such whose names should be signified to them by the french ambassador.” -Fox, vi. 394.

Sunday, Oct. 18t. The Coronation. A pardon proclaimed to all but those in the Tower, and the Fleet, and 62 other persons.-Fox, ibid.

Sunday, Oct. 8. Thomas Mountayn parson of St. Michaels in the Tower Royal "did minister all kynd of service” according to the order set forth by King Edward ; "the whole parish being than gathered together," with “many other godly citizens.” His own account of his proceed. ings may be read in Strype, Mem. III. i. 104. The circumstance is only mentioned here as one of those which illustrate the state of things at the period.

Sunday, Oct. 15th. Lawrence Saunders preached at Alhallows Bread Street. See before, p. 269, 271.

Monday, Oct. 16th. The Convocation began ; "in the which convocation master Philpot being present according to his room and degree, with a few others sustained the cause of the gospel manfully against the adversary part. "-Fox, vii. 606.

Wednesday, Dec. 13th. Is the date of the Queen's precept to the Bishop of London for dissolving the Convocation.-Fox, vi. 411.

Friday, Dec. 15th. “ There were two proclamations at London; the one for the repealing of certain Acts made by King Edward, and for the setting up of the Mass, for the 20th of December then next following: the other was that no man should interrupt any of those that would say Mass.”—Fox, vi. 542.


Saturday, Jan. 13th. "Dr. Crome for his preaching on Christmas Day without licence was committed to the Fleet."-Fox, vi. 413.

Friday, Jan. 26. “Began wachyng at every gatt in arness, for tydyngs cam the sam tym to the quen and her consell, that ser Thomas Wyatt, ser George Harper, ser Hare Ysseley, master Cobham, and master Rudston, and master Knevetts, and dyvers odur gentyllmen and commons wher up, and tha say because the prynche of Spayne commyog in to have owre quen, for they kepe Rochaster castell and the bryge and odur plases."- Machyn, p. 52.

Saturday, Jan. 27.
Master Rogers committed to Newgate.-Fox, vi. 543.

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