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* again, constantly standing to his professed religion, gave "answer in words as followeth: 'My lord,' quoth he, "neither you, nor any other of your religion, is of the catholic church; for you be of a false faith: and I doubt

not but you shall be deceived at length, bear as good a face as ye can. Ye will shed the innocent blood, and you

have killed many, and yet go about to kill more, etc.'

When a husbandman of Essex, aged thirty, was thus publicly addressing the Bishop of London, sitting as a judge in his court, it is more natural to wonder at the patience which bore with it, than to blame the mistaken and impotent good-will that still persisted in endeavours to procure an abjuration; and it is not necessary for us to enter into the further particulars of the case. It is more to the purpose to notice that of,

(20.) THOMAS HAUKES, gentleman, who tells his own story", with many very interesting particulars, and with a degree of self-complacency, and undisguised abomination of all papistry, which make his testimony respecting Bonner's temper, and mode of dealing with a rather provoking prisoner, particularly worthy of attention. I sincerely wish the reader would study the whole of it; for I believe it was the reading of this case, many years ago, which first raised in my own mind a suspicion that the bishop was not altogether such a person as Fox and some others would have us suppose him to have been. I could not avoid feeling that the young man, vaunted of by Fox as one who might

seem to nobilitate the whole company of other holy mar'tyrs, and as a bright star to make the church of God and

his truth, of themselves bright and clear, more gloriously "to shine by his example,” was, in his conduct and carriage, very unlike a humble Christian ; while I could not escape the impression, that within the rough exterior of the bishop there must have been something more or less resembling that charity which is not easily provoked, nay even suffereth long, and is kind. Such an effect must, I think, be produced by the study of the history in Fox; and perhaps a few extracts, if they do nothing more, may show what I mean; though of course the prolixity, and repetition, which we are anxious and constrained to avoid, is a very impor

6 Fox, vii. p. 97.

tant feature in the case. It is not that the bishop let a forward young man say his say out, once or even twice, and then despatched him; but, that, after such a beginning, he had him on his hands for near a twelvemonth.

It seems that Thomas Haukes "entered service with the Earl of Oxford" (in a way which does not preclude his being qualified as “gentleman ” in his history) during the preceding reign; and that when, on the change of religion, his patron conformed, he was not so accommodating, but quitted the Earl's service and lived at home. But,” says Fox, “ what paradise? in this world shall a man find so secret for • himself, whither that old wicked serpent' (the law of the ' land, I suppose] 'cannot creep, whereby he may have some 'matter to overthrow the quietness of the godly?” From what I can learn of Thomas Haukes' character I should not think that he was a person who concealed his opinions, or wished particularly for shade and secrecy; but Fox proceeds :

“Now in the mean season (as it happened) Haukes, keeping bis house at home, had born unto him a young son, whose baptism was deferred to the third week, for that he would not suffer him to be baptized after the papistical manner ; which thing the adversaries not able to suffer, laying hands upon him, did bring him to the earl of Oxford, there to be reasoned with, as not sound in religion, in that he seemed to contemn the sacraments of the church.

“The earl, either intending not to trouble himself in such matters or else seeing himself not able to weigh with him in such cases of religion, sent him up to London with a messenger, and letters; and so, willing to clear his own hands, put him in the hands of Bonner, bishop of London; the contents of which his letter sent to Bonner be these.

"A Letter of the Earl of Oxford to Bonner. “Most reverend father in God, be it known unto you, that I have sent you one Thomas Haukes, dwelling in the County of Essex, who hath a child that hath remained unchristened more than three

7 So it stands in Mr. Cattley's edition, and perhaps correctly; for I have not the edition of 1583 which he professed to follow. The edition of 1597, which I suppose to be the best text of the Martyrology, reads "place" instead of "paradise," and it is followed by the edition of 1641, the only other black letter edition to which I can conveniently refer. These éditions furnish other various readings in the account of Thomas Haukes, some of which will be noticed as they occur. Of course I shal not be understood as representing the two editions as of equal authority, having already said that I suppose the earliest of them to contain the best text that exists.

weeks; who, being upon the same examined, hath denied to have it baptized as it is now used in the church; whereupon I have sent him to your good lordship, to use as ye think best, by your good discretion."-vii. 98.

Soon after this we meet with a “Private Talk or Conference between Haukes and Bonner," in which after some introductory conversation about the baptism of his child, and other matter, Bonner inquired whether he knew Knight and Pygot, and the conversation proceeded thus :

Haukes. · Knight I know, but Pygot I do not know.'

"Bonner. 'I thought ye were acquainted with him: it seemeth so by your judgment. What preachers do ye know in Essex ? '

« Haukes. I know none.'
"Bonner. 'Do ye not know one Baget there ?'
Haukes. “Yes forsooth, I know him.'
« Bonner. What manner of man is he?'
Haukes. 'An honest man, so far as I know.'
" Bonner. 'Do you know him if you see him ?'
Haukes. “Yea, that I do.'

"Then said he to one of his servants, 'Go call me Baget hither.' And then he said to me, 'You seem to be a very proud man, and a stubborn.'-He that brought me up stood all this while by, Haukes. What should move your lordship so to say ?'

Bonner. 'Because I see in a man that came with you, much humility and lowliness.'

Haukes. 'It seemeth your lordship speaketh that to me, because I make no courtesy o to you :'-and with that came Baget. Then the bishop said to Baget: 'How say ye, Sir ? know ye this man?'

Baget. 'Yea forsooth, my lord: '-with that Baget and I shook hands. Then said the bishop to Baget, 'Sir, this man bath a child which hath lain three weeks unchristened (as I have letters to show); who refuseth to have it baptized, as it is now used in the church :how say you thereto ?'

Baget. “Forsooth, my lord, I say nothing thereto,' [with low courtesy to the hard ground.]

Bonner. 'Say you nothing thereto? I will make you tell me whether it be laudable, and to be frequented and used in the church or not.'

" Baget. 'I beseech your lordship to pardon me: he is old enough; let him answer for himself.'

Bonner. 'Ah, sir knavel are ye at that point with me?' 'Go call me the porter,' said he, to one of his men: 'Thou shalt sit in the stocks, and have nothing but bread and water. I perceive I have kept you too well. Have I made thus much of you, and have I you at this point?'

& Rector of Fordham since 1554; which he seems to have held until 1558.- Newcourt.

9“No more courtesy," ed. 1597.

" Then came the bishop's man, and said, 'The porter is gone to London :' then said the bishop to Baget, 'Come with me,' and he went away with him, and commanded me away, and bade one of his gentlemen to talk with me (who was one of his own teaching) who desired, amongst other 10 things, to know of me, with whom I was acquainted in Essex, and what men they were, that were my teachers.

Haukes. “When I see your commission I will make you answer.' -And then immediately came the bishop again : but ere he came, his man and I had much talk. Then the bishop sat down under a vine in his orchard, and called Baget to him, whom he carried away, and brought again ; and called me also, and said to Baget: 'How say ye now, sir, unto baptism? Say whether it be to be frequented and used in the church, as it is now, or no ?'

Baget. Forsooth my lord, I say it is good.'.

Bonner. 'I befool your heart ; could ye not have said so before? Ye have wounded this man's conscience. Then the bishop turned to me and said, 'How say ye now, sir ? This man is turned and converted.'

Haukes. 'I build my faith neither upon this man, neither upon you, but only upon Christ Jesus; who (as Paul saith) is the founder and author of all men's faith.'

"Bonner. 'I perceive ye are a stubborn fellow. I must be glad to work another way with you, to win you.'

Haukes. Whatsoever ye do, I am ready to suffer it : for I am in your hands to abide it.'

"Bonner. “Well, ye are so; come on your ways; ye shall go in, and I will use you christianlike : you shall have meat and drink, such as I have in my house: but in any wise talk not.'

Haukes. 'I purpose to talk nothing but the word of God and truth.'

Bonner. 'I will have no heresy talked on in my house.'

Haukes. "Why, is the truth become heresy ? God hath commanded that we should have none other talk in our houses, in our beds, at our meat, and by the way, but all truth.'

Bonner. 'If ye will have my favour, be ruled by my counsel.' “ Haukes. Then I trust you will grant me my request.' Bonner. What is that?'

Haukes. 'That your doctors and servants give me none occasion: for if they do, I will surely utter my conscience.'

Then commanded he his men to take in Baget, and let not Haukes and him talk together. And so thus we departed, and went to dinner; and I dined at the steward's table. After dinner, bis chaplains and his men began to talk with me. But amongst all others, there was one Darbishire, principal of Broadgates in Oxford, and the bishop's kinsman, who said to me, that I was too curious ; 'for ye will have,' said he, 'nothing but your little pretty God's book.'

Haukes. “And is it not sufficient for my salvation ?' 'Yes,

10 16

Amongst all other," ed. 1597.

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said Darbishire, it is sufficient for our salvation, but not for our instruction.'

Haukes. 'God send me the salvation and you the instruction.' And as we thus reasoned, came the bishop, who said unto me, 'I gave you a commandment, that you should not talk.'

Haukes. 'And I desired you, that your doctors and servants should give me none occasion.' Then went we into his orchard again, he and his doctors and I."-vii. 99.

The Bishop then enquired, whether he would have any objection to have his child christened according to King Edward's book; and, on his stating that such was his desire, the Bishop endeavoured to convince him that the forms were the same as to what was essential. After this he asked:

Bonner. Will ye be content to tarry here, and your child shall be baptized, and you shall not know of it, so that you will agree to it?'

Haukes. "If I would so have done, I needed not to have come to you: for I had the same counsel given before.'

"Bonner. "You seem to be a lusty young man ; you will not give your head for the washing; you will stand in the defence of it for the honour of your country. Do you think that the queen and I cannot command it to be done, in spite of your teeth!'

Haukes. "What the queen and you can do, I will not stand in it: but ye get my consent never the sooner.'

Bonner. Well, you are a stubborn young man : I perceive I must work another way with you.'

Haukes. “Ye are in the hands of God; and so am I.'

Bonner. “Whatsoever you think, I will not have you speak such words unto me.'-And so we departed until evensong time; and ere evensong was begun, my lord called for me to come to him into the chapel, and said ; Haukes ! thou art a proper young man, and God hath done his part unto thee; I would be glad to do thee good. Thou knowest that I am thy pastor, and one that should answer for thee. If I would not teach thee well, I should answer for thy soul.'

" Haukes. “That I have said, I will stand to it, God willing : there is no way to remove it.'

"Bonner. Nay, nay, Haukes, thou shalt not be so wilful. Remem. ber Christ bade two go into his vineyard : the one said would, and went not; the other said he would not, and went.' “ Haukes. The last went.'

Bonner. “Do thou likewise, and I will talk friendly with thee." -Fox, vol. vii. p. 101.

After some talk on part of the sixth chapter of the gospel of St. John, which issued in the bishop's saying, “I trust that you be sound in the blessed sacrament," and Haukes's

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1 “I would not,” both ed

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