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5. Ful nedefull then were it, we had this respecte,
Before we receaue oght, or oght to reiect :
The thinge to decide so with ludgement and skill,
That trueth may be stickler, and not our one will.
6. Beholde here a trueth drawne forthe of her graue,
By power sore oppressed, and made a bonde slane:
Whose chains, thogh this Autor could not rent or teare,
Yet hath he forth broght hir, in to moste clere ayer.
7. With whome now to reason, whoso wil assaye,
Sbal learne how ill Rulers we oghte to obeye,
Whiche kill, how they care not, in their cruell rage,
Respecting their will more, then lawe, othe, or charge.
8. Whose fury longe fostered by suffrance and awe,
Haue right rule subuerted, and made will their lawe:
Whose pride, how to temper, this truthe will thee tell,
So as thou resiste mayste, and yet not rebell.
9. Rebellion is ill, to resiste is not so,
When right through resisting, is donne to that foo,
Who seeketh, but by ruine, agaynst ut to aigne
Not passinge what perishe, so she spoyle the gayne 17
10. A publick weale wretched, and to farre disgraste,
Where the right head is of cut, and a wronge in steed plaste
A brut beast vntamed, a misbegot then,
More meete to be ruled, then raigne ouer men.
11. A maruelous madnesse, if we well beholde,
When sighes shall assaut men to see themselues solde :
And yet when from slauery, their friends woulde them free,
To stick to their foes so, still slaues to be.
12. For France spiteth Spayne, which Englend doth threat,
And England proud Spanyards, with salte woulde fayne eat :
Yet Englande proud Spayne aydeth with men, ships, and botes,
That Spayne, (France subdued once) may cut all their throtes.
13. A people peruerse, repleate with disdayne,
Thogh flattrie fayne hide wolde their hate, and vile trayne.
Whose rage, and hotte luste, disceate, crafte and pride,
Poor Naples their bondeslaue, with great grefe bath tryed.
14. Lo, these be the byrdes which Englande muste feede,
By plantinge of whom, to roote out their seede
Their owne landes and lyues, by them firste devourde,
Their maydes then and wyues, most vilelie deflourde.
15. Is this not stronge treason, ye vnnoble bloudds?
To ayde such destroyers, both with landes and goods ?
But when they thus pinche you, and ye put to flight,
To what forte then flee you? or where will you light?

? So it stands ; but it seems as if the words “ spoyle the" should be transposed.

16. For Englande thus solde, for Spaniardes to dwell,
Ye maye not by right, possesse that ye sell.
They seinge your treason, agaynste your owne state,
Wil not with theirs truste you, which they know ye hate.
17. To Skotlande or France, yf ye then shulde cry,
Your vile deeds now present, they may well reply,
And Dutchland abhorth you : this then dotb remayne,
When Spaniards are placed, ye muste to newe Spayne.
18. But, ob dreadfull plague, and signe of God's wrothe,
On such noble Gnatos, stronge foes to Gods trothe.
Whom fonde feare hath framed, to prop such a staye,
As countrie and people, so seekth to betraye.
19. Which thinge herein proued, to be with out doute,
All such full well finde shall, as reade it throughout.
Yf then their hartes fayle them the right to defende,
Confusion remayneth for suche a meete end."

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Perhaps the reader may be disposed to agree in the quiet, but very pregnant remark which Strype makes after extracting the eighth and three following of these verses : “Such treating of the Queen as this was, did, no question, irritate her much, and provoke her to issue out such angry declarations of her mind, and resolutions of taking vengeance of 'all such like book-writers or book-readers."

Having, however, learned from Whittingham the authority, and from Kethe “the intent,” of Goodman's book, let us come to the book itself, which is of all others the most to our purpose for the first part of the subject, not only because it bears this triple voucher, but because it is written professedly on the general subject of obedience to rulers. Knox was the best man to tell people why they should not obey Queen Mary, but Goodman the best tutor for those who wished conscientiously to obey nobody. Here are some extracts of a general nature ;

8 Mem. III. ii. 132 ; where the 8, 9, 10, 11 verses are given. The seven verses which follow are at p. 104 of the same volume. The 8th verse is repeated more correctly in his Ann. II. i. 151 ; for in the former place it begins, “ Whom fury.” Indeed, whoever compares the above with Strype's quotations will perceive that they have several other corrupt variations. For instance, in v. 9, " right true resisting”-in v. 11, we will behold," and "What sighs shall assure men”-in v. 12, “ England doth treat-in v. 13, “Through flattery,” and “their head' and vile train”-in v. 15, "yea, unnoble;" beside many minor variations.

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“CHAP. VI. How it is not inough to denye wicked commandements of all kinde of Rulers, except we withstand them also, euery man accordinge to his vocation, in doing the contrary.

As by this answere afore mentioned, we haue bene taught not to geue place to the vnlawfull commandementes of Magistrates, in what auctoritie so euer they be, because it is nothing but rebellion in the iudgement of God: euen so may we learne by the same answere and example of the Apostles, how God requiereth more at our handes, that is, to withstande their preceptes, in doing the contrary: euery man accordinge to his office and estate wherein God hathe placed him."Goodman, p. 63.

"For thogh the Apostle saith: There is no power but of God: yet doth he not here meane anie other powers, but such as are orderly and lawfullie institute of God. Èther els shulde he approue all tyranny and oppression, which cometh to anie common welth by means of wicked and vngodlie Rulers, which are to be called rightlie disorders, and subuersions in common welthes, and not Gods ordinaunce. For he neuer ordeyned anie lawes to approue, but to reprove and punishe tyrantes, idolaters, papistes and oppressors. Then when they are suche, they are not Gods ordinaunce. And in disobeying and resisting such, we do not resiste God's ordinaunce, but Satan and our synne, which is the cause of such. Or els, if we shall so conclude with the wordes of the Apostle, that all powers what so euer they be must be obeyed and not resisted, then must we confesse also, that Satan and all his infernall powers are to be obeyed. Why? because they are powers, and haue their powers also of God, which cannot touche man any farther than God permitteth. But S. Iames geuethe vs, contrarie commandement, saing : Resiste the deuel and he will flee awaye from you.”— Goodman, p. 110.

In like case may we conclude of Princes and Magistrats, thogh they be rough and frowarde : yea, thoghe before God they are wicked, vngodlie, and reprobate persons (as was Saule) yet so longe as their wickednesse brasteth not out manifestly agaynst God, and his Lawes, but outwardly will see them obserued and kept of others, punishing the transgressors, and defending the innocent: so longe are we bounde to render vnto such, obedience, as to euill and roughe Maisters : because we may not take Gods office in hande to iudge of the harte any farther then their outwarde deedes do geue manifest testimony. Otherwise, if without feare they transgresse Gods Lawes them selues and commande others to do the like, then haue they lost that honor and obedience which otherwise their subiectes did owe vnto them: and oght no more to be taken for Magistrates but punished as priuate transgressors, as after I haue promised to proue.”Goodman, p. 118.

"But where as the kinges or Rulers are become altogether blasphemers of God, and oppressors and murtherers of their subiectes, then oght they to be accompted no more for kinges or lawfull Magistrats, but as priuate men: and to be examined, accused, condemned and punished by the Lawe of God, wherunto

they are and oght to be subiect, and being conuicted and punished by that Lawe, it is not mans, but Gods doing: who as he dothe appoynte such Magistrates ouer his people by his Lawe, so doth he condemne aswel them as the people transgressing agaynste the Lawe. For with God ther is no respecte of persones, as here after folowith more largely.”—Goodman, p. 139.

“Neither is this ynough, rather to suffer iniurie and losse, then that thou wouldest be a worker of iniurie to others by any means : but more ouer it is thy parte to be a withstander of euil, and a supporter of the Godly, to the vttermoste of thy power, as thou hast partly harde all ready, and partly shalt heare now folowing. For as God hath not creadted vs for our selues, but to seke his honor and glorie, and the profit of our neighbour, especially of such as be of the householde of faithe: euen so are we indetted to God, to bestowe all those gyftes, be they spiritual or corporal, wherewith God hath blessed vs to the self same end, stryuing agaynst all impediments, helping, defending, comforting, and deliuering to the vttermoste of our power all such as we are assured do feare God, and stande in nede of our ayde and supporte. Otherwise we shewe our selues to haue more compassion vpon brute beastes, as our neighbours oxe, asse, or shepe, which Gods Lawe dothe charge vs to helpe, saue, or drawe forthe of the diche, althoghe it were the beaste of our enemie.

"Are we then bound to do this to ynreasonable and brute beastes, yea to any thing belonging to our neighbour, and shall we be afrayde to do the like to him self, what tyme he is in necessitie? Yf his shepe or other of his cattel were readie to be deuoured in our presence of wolues, or suche wilde beastes : are we not bounde as wel in conscience as by the Lawe of God, to driue the wilde beaste awaye and saue his cattel, who can deny this to be our duetie ? Can we be excused then in suffringe the soules and bodies of the children of God our brethren, to be moste pitifully distroyed of Gods enemies, by false doctrine and cruel murthering, and put not to our handes and power to deliver them?"-Goodman,

P. 89.

“You haue synned moste greuouslie agaynst the Lorde: knowe your transgressions, and with teares confesse them, euery man vnfaynedlie vnto the Lorde, who is redie to mercie and slowe to anger. You haue despised an abused the worde of his dearely beloued Sonne Jesus Christ, the Author of saluation, in the dayes of our Godlie kinge Edwarde (which is the cause why God hath thus plaged vs with a tyrant) seke after the worde agayne and receaue it with all reuerence. By geuing auctoritie to an idolatres woman ye haue banished Christe and his Gospell, and in his place restored Antichriste with all his infections, wherin your owne consciences condemne you of euil. Then in takinge againe the same auctoritie from her, you shall restore Christe and his worde and do well. In obeyinge her, ye haue disobeyed God. Then in disobeying her, ye shall please God. Because you haue geuen place to her and her counsells, you are all become idolatrous hypocryts, and also traytors to your owne Countrie: then by resisting her and her wicked decrees, you must be made true worshippers of God, and faithfull Englishemen.”Goodman, p. 103.

These extracts may suffice as to the general theory of obedience and disobedience; and the following will illustrate the writer's doctrine as to the source of power, and the duty of those by whom, according to his account, “princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth.” The beginning of his eleventh chapter is very clear on the subject of the “ Sovereignty of the People.”

“CHAP. XI. It apperteyneth not onely to the Magistrates and al other inferior

officers to see that their Princes be subiect to Gods Lawes, but to the comon people also : vherby the tyrannie of the Princes and rebellion of the subiects may be auoyded.

"To resiste euill and to mayntayne goodnesse, to honor God truely and to expel idolatrie, euery man will confesse to be a good and godly acte and cannot but highlie commende the workers therof, as men acceptable to God, and worthie members of a comon welthe: but when men consider the daungers and displeasures, which commonly happen to such, then is there great curtesie made who first shall take the enterprise in hand: and longe disputations made whither it be their duetie or no: and to what sortes of men it doth belong, as thogh any were exempted out of that nomber which do professe the Name of God.Goodman, p. 142.

“But as touching the comon and symple people, they thinke them selues vtterly discharged, whither their Prince be godlie or vngodlye, wise or foolishe, a preseruer of the comon welthe or ells a distroyer, all is one to them, they muste be obedient, because they are ignorant, and muste be led themselues, not meete to leade others. And because their doinges are counted tumultes and rebellion (except they be agreable to the commandmentes, decrees, and proceadinges of their superior powers and Magistrates, and shal in doing the contrary be as rebells punished) therfore of all others (say they) we haue least to do, yea nothing at all withe the doinges of our Rulers. Yf they rule well, we shall fare the better: if they be vngodly they haue the more to answere for their vngodlinesse. What haue we to do with their matters ? Thus do all sortes of men from the highest to the louest slyppe their heades out of the coller: and as careles persones not passing which end goeth forwarde, geueth the brydle wholie to their Rulers till destruction remediles ouerfilowe all.”

p. 145.

Of the thirteenth chapter it might be sufficient, so far as regards our immediate purpose, to give the title ; but it begins with one of those singular admissions which the writers of Goodman's party could not always avoid, and we may as well take it in by the way, for it is very illustrative

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