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as in England, to discourage the growth of paupers on their estates; whether, as others imagine, it may be attained by banishing the middlemen, and interfering by summary process with the almost interminable, leases and exorbitant rents which so generally prevail ; or whether it will be secured by the introduction of manufactures, and the general extension of moral and religious education ; may admit of much discussion, and requires most serious deliberation. But, instead of any such proposals, we hear of nothing but the absolute necessity of “ Catholic Emancipation, and that deduced from the state of the Irish poor; as if the admission of Lord. Fingal to the House of Peers, and Messrs. O'Connel and Shiel to the lower House, would effect any alteration in the condition of the starving cotters of the south. The illogical nature of such a conclusion is perfectly obvious; and yet it has proved the most effective argument yet brought forward.

We offer no objection to the admission of Papists to their fair share of political power, provided any certainty can be obtained of their resting satisfied with a fair share. But it would be folly to forget, that this just and equal participation was once in their possession, and was forfeited by their attempt to abuse the confidence placed in them. It was found that they could not rest satisfied with any thing short of a Popish Establishment; and that, to gain this, there was no law which they were not prepared to evade, no restraint which they were not eager to break down. Experience, therefore, and nothing else, produced at last the restrictions under which they are now so impatient, and placed them, after a fair trial, in the situation of a sect whose existence might be allowed, but whose machinations must be guarded against.

It can never be possible to accede to their present demands in part. The principle, if acknowledged at all, must be carried into uniform effect. The highest, as well as the lowest, office in the state must be thrown open to them. What prevents, in that case, our seeing a Roman Catholic Monarch, with a cabinet of Papists, before twenty years have elapsed? And could we expect that such a government would be unmindful of “ the old religion,” or careless about its restoration? Or that the people would quietly part with Protestantism? A struggle, in such a case, must arise, of which the event could be none other than a deplorable one.

Since the above was written, a new feature has been given to the subject, by the decided part taken by the Duke of York against the pro. posed measure. His Royal Highness has stated most distinctly, in his place in the House of Peers, that, should he ever be placed in a situation to be called on for his decision, he shall feel himself bound to give it in the negative.' This declaration places the question in a new position. No one pretends to expect the passing of the Bill in the House of Lords during the present session. A dissolution of Parliament, which

may

be expected shortly, would probably strengthen the opponents of Emancipation in the lower House : and, before all these obstacles could be removed, and the measure finally agreed on by both Houses of Parliament, years must elapse, and changes must be expected. His Majesty has, perhaps with great propriety, retained his sentiments within his own breast; but we are sufficiently assured, that, whenever Providence may see fit to remove him, Protestantism will be steadily supported by either of the two Princes next in succession. And when all these circumstances are considered, we are inclined to retort upon our opponents their usual language, and desire them to say whether they really can entertain any hope that the question will ever be carried ?

WESLEYAN MISSIONARY. SOCIETY. May 2, Monday. The Annual Meeting will be held in the City Road Chapel. The Chair will be taken at Eleven o'clock.

CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.. May 2, Monday, The Anniversary Sermon will be preached in St. Bride's Church, Fleet Street, by the Rev. J. B. Sumner, M. A. Prebendary of Durham. Divine Service to begin at Half past Six in the Evening.;

May 3, Tuesday. The Annual Meeting will be held at Freemasons' Hall. The Chair will be taken at Eleven o'clock.

IRISH SOCIETY OF LONDON. May 3, Tuesday, A Sermon will be preached at St. Paul's, Covent Garden, by the Rev. F. Elwin, M. A. Service to begin at Seven o'clock in the Evening.

BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY: May 4, Wednesday. The Annual Meeting will be held at Freemasons'Hall. The Chair will be taken at Eleven o'clock.

PRAYER-BOOK AND HOMILY SOCIETY. May 4, Wednesday. The Anniversary Sermon will be preached at Christ Church, Newgate Street, by the Rev. J. Kempthorne, B. D. &c. Service to begin at Half past Six in the Evening.

May 5, Thursday. The Annual Meeting will be held at Stationers' Hall, Ludgate Street. The Chair will be taken at Twelve o'clock.

LONDON SOCIETY FOR CONVERSION OF THE JEWS. May 5, Thursday. The Anniversary Sermon will be preached at the Church of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, by the Rev. Geo. Hamilton, M. A. Service to begin at Half past Six in the Evening.

May 6, Friday. The Annual Meeting will be held at Freemasons' Hall. The Chair to be taken at Twelve precisely.

LONDON ASSOCIATION IN AID OF THE MORAVIAN MISSIONS. May 6, Friday. The Annual Sermon in behalf of this Association will be preached at the Church of St. Clement Danes, by the Rev. W. Borrows, M. A. Divine Service to begin at Half past six o'clock in the Evening.

LONDON HIBERNIAN SOCIETY. May 7, Saturday. The_Annual Meeting will be held in Freemasons' Hall. The Chair to be taken by H. R. H. the Duke of Gloucester, at Twelve o'clock.

BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY.. May 9, Monday. The Annual Meeting will be held at Freemasons' Hall. The Chair to be taken by H. R. H. the Duke of Sussex, at Twelve o'clock.

NAVAL AND MILITARY BIBLE SOCIETY. May 10, Tuesday. The Annual Meeting will be held at Freemasons' Hall. The Chair to be taken at Twelve o'clock.

CONTINENTAL SOCIETY. May 10, Tuesday. A Sermon at the Church of St. Ann, Blackfriars, by the Rev. Dr. Thorpe. Service at Half past six o'clock in the Evening.

May 16, Monday. _A Sermon at Great Queen Street Chapel, at Half past Six in the evening, by the Rev. E. Irving.

May 18, Wednesday. The Annual Meeing will be held at Freemasons' Hall, at Twelve o'clock.

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY. May II, Wednesday. Sermon at Surrey Chapel, at Half past Ten o'clock, by the Rev. Dr. Morrison. Another in the Evening; at the Tabernacle, Moorfields, by the Rev. Dr. Belfrage.

May 12, Thursday. The Annual Meeting will be held at Great Queen Street Chapel, at Half past Ten. A Sermon will be preached in the Evening at Tottenham Court Chapel, by the Rev. Mr. Hamilton.

May 13, Friday. A Sermon will be preached at St. Ann's, Blackfriars, by the Rev. Mr. Williams.

RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY. May 13, Friday. The Annual Meeting will be held at the City of London Tavern, at Six o'clock in the Morning.

AFRICAN INSTITUTION. May 13, Friday. The Annual Meeting will be held at Freemasons' Hall. The Chair to be taken by H. R. H. the Duke of Gloucester, at One o'clock.'

THE

AND

Church of England Magazine.

JUNĖ 1825.

MEMOIRS OF THE REFORMERS.

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OLAUS PETRI.

exposed the absurdities of Papal

superstition. While the deeds of those sove- To the latter class belonged the reigns of the house of Vasa, who subject of this memoir, who was patronized the Reformation in Swe- born of parents of moderate conden, have been faithfully detailed dition in the Nerician district of by the muse of civil history, the Sweden, and sent with his brother labours of those excellent men, Laurence to study under Luther raised up by Providence - to purify and Melancthon. On his return their national church, have occu- he became protonotary to Matthias, pied too limited a space in the an- bishop of Stregnass, a diocese in nals of Christian exertion. Amongst the neighbourhood of Upsal and these, Olaus Petri holds as distin- Stockholm; and, during a vacancy guished a station as John Taussan in the see occasioned by the death in the neighbouring kingdom of of that prelate, made use of his inDenmark.

fluence in inculcating the principles In the earlier part of the sixteenth of the Reformers, and persuading the century the seeds of Evangelic doc- clergy to read some writings of trine had been conveyed by German Luther, which he had brought back merchants to Stockholm, Sudkoping, with him from Saxony. This was and Calmar, principal cities of the about the year 1521 ; and his perSwedes on the coasts of the Baltic. severance is thus recorded by a Nor was this benefit confined to Roman Catholic historian. commercial intercourse. In the neglected no means of spreading army which assisted Gustavus I. to abroad the doctrine of his master, liberate his country from the tyran- during the disorder and troubles of nic yoke of Christiern II. of Den-' civil commotion—a season always mark, were some German auxilia- favourable to change, or the estaries, who industriously propagated blishment of new religions. The the Lutheran tenets. But if traffic young, ever greedy of novelties, and war were made to subserve the eagerly embraced these opinions.. cause of religious truth, much more He gained the majority of professmight the same result be expected ors and scholars of the university, from extended science. Many of who considered it in their turn merithe Swedish students, who had at- torious to become the heralds of tended the lectures in the university this doctrine. Every one wished to of Wittenberg, had imbibed a purer be instructed in these new opinions. system of faith, and on returning The doctrine of Luther passed into their native land had diligently sensibly from the schools to private JUNE 1825.

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houses. Different sides were taken and partly from the instruction of by members of families; some de- the brothers Petri. The monarch fending the Catholic religion as the gradually discovered his religious profession of their fathers, and mostly sentiments, and proceeded with that attached to it on the sole ground of caution which was necessary in the its antiquity; and others complain- circumstances of a new dynasty. ing of the abuses introduced into Nor was he led to this course by an the administration of the sacraments unworthy desire of seizing on the by the avarice of the clergy, and temporalities of the church, as attacking such abuses with ardour Maimburg would insinuate, but from proportioned to their interest in de- conviction and a sense of duty; crying them. Even females entered making himself acquainted with the into these disputes, either from va- reasons and arguments of the Renity, or in sincerity, and apprehen- formers before he took measures sion of missing the right way. for any, alteration of ancient rites, Every body set up for a judge of or shocked the prejudices of the controversy ; while the bishops who higher ecclesiastics. survived the massacre of Stockholm, Called to the supreme dignity in more attentive to the conquests of 1523, he refused to undergo the Gustavus than their diocesan du- ceremony of coronation, from an ties, disregarded the progress of unwillingness, among other consideLutheranism *.” In the concluding rations, to take an oath by which he sentence the author alludes to the would stand engaged to maintain detestable perfidy of the Danish the privileges of the Romish commonarch, who, promising amnesty munion. He lost no time in cultito the Swedes on their submission, vating the friendship of Frederick, was no sooner crowned in Stock- who had been raised to the Danish holm than he caused the chief sovereignty on the deposition of nobility, prelates, and citizens to be "Christiern, and for that purpose hanged or beheaded, among whom repaired to Malmoe, anticipating was the father of Gustavus.

from such alliance the best religious One of those who were first en- as well as political results. But lightened by the instrumentality of while he pursued these prudent Olaus Petri was Laurence Ander- measures, Rinck and Knipperdoling, son, archdeacon of Stregnass with some fanatical Anabaptists man of talent, judgment, and autho- from Holland, came to Sweden, rity, who raised no obstacle to those and, perceiving in the new sovereign bold discourses which he addressed

a pious zeal for the work of reforto the people on the errors of the mation, obtruded themselves into time, or to the theses which_he the sanctuary of St. John at Stockmaintained in the schools. The holm, pulling down the images and disputes which followed reached the musical instruments in the most ears of the king, whose favour was violent and tumultuous manner. conciliated by the engaging manners On the return of Gustavus to the and wise conversation of Anderson. capital he inquired into these comThis dignitary was raised to the motions, and, having ascertained Office of Chancellor, and in that their heretical origin, commanded capacity aided the cause of Refor- the ringleaders to quit the kingdom mation, to which Gustavus himself forthwith; and rebuked some persons was secretly attached, partly through who were attached to the Protestant information received from Germany, faith for their lukewarmness in

suffering such proceedings, and af* Vertot, Hist. des Revol, de Suede, fording a handle to the Romanists, P. i. p. 175.

who were ready to involve all the

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professors of evangelical truth in added, " that he could not but be one common censure *.

greatly astonished at the clamour To prevent, however, the further which had been raised against wedprogress of this mischief, he resolved lock, thus honourably contracted, to visit the different provinces, al- when such indulgence had been laying the tumults, and calming the shewn to the multifarious lewdness minds of the populace; associating of the priests." with himself Olaus Petri, whose au- The Reformer, in concert as it thority and influence as a divine should seem with his friend Andermight be useful in recommending son and his brother Laurence, unthe principles of Protestantism. He dertook a version of the New Testawas now pastor of the great church ment into the Swedish language. at Stockholm, and had fully com. from that recently published by mitted himself against the Popish Luther in Germany. When the party by entering the bonds of wed- bishops took offence at this prolock, which appeared to them such ceeding, Gustavus exhorted them a profanation of the sacred order to form a version of their own, that the King found it expedient to though he was conscious that the take him under his special protec- real ground of their displeasure was tion, to secure him from the effects jealousy of the increasing intelliof their resentment. Gustavus, after gence of the people ; observing, that the publication of various decrees, such a measure appeared to him tending to abridge the pomp and the more necessary as new disputes luxury of the principal clergy, find- were daily arising about the doctrine ing his treasury much exhausted, of faith, which could be settled by proceeded still further to summon no better means than an appeal to a meeting of the bishops, and de- Scripture itself; and that this was manded a tenth of the revenues of a reason for its translation into the the church. This proposal excited vernacular tongue, especially as considerable murmuring in the many of the clergy had so little hierarchy; and John Braske, bishop knowledge of Latin that they filled of Linkoping, ventured to address the ears and understanding of the his sovereign in a letter filled with faithful with false interpretations. bitter complaints. The King re- The bishops, who perceived the plied, that “he knew very well daily diminution of their authority, how rich the clergy and monastic concealed their alarm; and, with foundations had become from accu- the approbation of John Magnus, mulating the public property of the lately made archbishop of Upsal, kingdom ; and therefore they ought prepared to obey the royal injuncnot to take it ill, if, in a season of tion, giving different portions of the urgent necessity, they were called work to the several colleges of caupon to supply the exigencies of the nons. To that of Upsal were comstate, and to avert the imminent mitted the Gospel of Matthew, and ruin of their country, if, in fact, the Epistle to the Romans ; of Linthey were required to refund a por- coping, the Gospel of Mark, and the tion of those very treasures, which Epistles to the Corinthians; of Scara, in so many different ways they had the Gospel of Luke, and the Epistle drawn from the throne and the na- to the Galatians; of Stregnass, the tional treasury.". Referring, more- Gospel of John, and the Epistle to over, to the observations of the pre- the Ephesians ; of Aros, the Acts late on the marriage of Olaus, he of the Apostles; of Abo, the Epistles

to the Thessalonians and Timothy; * Baaz." in Inventario Suco-Gothico. 1. ii. c. ii. p. 158; Puffendorf Hist.

to the Dominicans, the Epistles to Suec. p. 281.

Titus and the Hebreve; to the

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