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Ah! miser ille tuo quanto felicius ævo
Perditus, at propter te, Leonora, foret!
Aurea maternæ fila movere lyræ !
Sævior, aut totus desipuisset iners,
Voce eadem poteras composuisse tua;
Flexanimo cantu restituisse sibi.
Claraque Parthenopese fana Acheloiados;
Corpora Chalcidico sacra dedisse rogo?
Mutavit rauci murmura Pausilipi.
Atque homines cantu detinet atque deos.
IX.-IN SALMASII HUNDREDAM.5
d For the story of Pentheus, a king of Thebes, see Euripides's "Bacchæ," where ho sees two suns, &c., v. 916. But Milton, in “ torsisset lumina," alludes to the rage of Pentheus in Ovid, “Metam." iii. 557:
Aspicit hunc oculis Pentheus, quos ira tremendos
Fecerat.-T. WARTOX. e Parthenope's tomb was at Naples: she was one of the sirens.-T. WARTOX.
i Pausilipi. The grotto of Pausilipo, which Milton no doubt had visited with delight.-TODD.
$ This Epigram is in Milton's “Defensio" against Salmasius; in the translation of which by Richard Washington, published in 1692, the Epigram is thus anglicized, p. 187:
Who taught Salmasius, that French chattering pye,
Who threaten'd once to stink the pope to death.-T. WARTON. h King Charles II., now in exile, and sheltered in Holland, gave Salmasius, who was & professor at Leyden, one hundred Jacobuses to write his defence, 1649. Wood asserts that Salmasius had no reward for his book: he says, that in Leyden, the king sent Dr. Morley, afterwards bishop, to tho apologist, with his thanks, “but not with a purse of gold, as John Milton the impudent lyer reported.”—“Athen. Oxon.” ii. 770.T. WARTON.
This Epigram, as Mr. Warton observes, is an imitation of part of the Prologue to Persius's Satires.-TODD.
Minatus uno est dissipare sufflatu,
Quis bene moratam, morigeramque, neget?
XII.-APOLOGUS DE RUSTICO ET HERO.m
Legit, et urbano lecta dedit domino :
Malum ipsam in proprias transtulit areolas.
i This is in the “Defensio Secunda." It is introduced with the following ridicule on Morus, the subject of the next Epigram, for having predicted the wonders to be worked by Salmasius's new edition, or rather reply :-"Tu igitur, ut pisciculus ille anteambulo, præcurris balænam Salmasium.” Mr. Steevens observes, that this is an idea analogous to Falstaff's—“Here do I walk before thee," &c., although reversed as to the imagery. -T. WARTox.
j Mr. Warton observes, that Milton here snecrs at a circumstance which was true : Salmasius was really of an ancient and noble family.--Todd.
k"Cubito mungentium," a cant appellation among the Romans for fishmongers. T. WARTON.
Christina, queen of Sweden, among other learned men who fed her vanity, had invited Salmasius to her court, where he wrote his “ Defensio.” She had pestered him with Latin letters seven pages long, and told him she would set out for Holland to fetch him if he did not come. When he arrived, he was often indisposed on account of the coldness of the climate; and on these occasions, the queen would herself call on him in a morning: and locking the door of his apartment, used to light his fire, give him breakfast, and stay with him some hours. This behaviour gave rise to scandalous stories, and our critic's wife grew jealous.—It is seemingly a slander, what was first thrown out in the “Mercurius Politicus," that Christina, when Salmasius had published this work, dismissed him with contempt, as a parasite and an advocate of tyranny: but the case was, to say nothing that Christina loved both to be flattered and to tyrannize, Salmasius had now been long preparing to return to Holland, to fulfil his engagements with the university of Leyden: she offered him large rewards and appointments to remain in Sweden, and greatly regretted his departure; and on his death, very shortly afterwards, she wrote bis widow a letter in French, full of concern for his loss, and respect for his memory. Such, however, was Christina's levity, or hypocrisy, or caprice, that it is possible she might have acted inconsistently in some parts of this business.T. WARTOx.
1 From Milton's “Defensio Secunda," and his “Responsio” to Morus's Supplement. This distich was occasioned by a report, that Morus had debauched a favourite waitingmaid of the wife of Salmasius, Milton's antagonist.-T. Wartox.
m This piece first appeared in the edition 1673.—TODD.
Hactenus illa ferax, sed longo debilis ævo,
Mota solo assueto, protinus aret iners.
Damnavit celeres in sua damna manus;
Parva licet, grato dona tulisse animo !
Nunc periere mihi et fætus, et ipse parens."
XIII.-AD CHRISTINAM SUECORUM REGINAM, NOMINE CROMWELLIA
BELLIPOTENS virgo, septem regina trionum,
Christina, Arctoi lucida stella poli!
Utque senex, armis impiger, ora tero:
Exequor et populî fortia jussa manu.
Nec sunt hi vultus regibus usque truces. These lines are simple and sinewy. They present Cromwell in a new and pleasing light, and throw an air of amiable dignity on his rough and obstinate character. They are too great a compliment to Christina, who was contemptible, both as a queen and a
The uncrowned Cromwell had no reason to approach a princess with so much reverence, who had renounced her crown. The frolics of other whimsical modern queens have been often only romantic; the pranks of Christina had neither elegance nor even decency to deserve so candid an appellation. An ample and lively picture of her court, politics, religion, intrigues, rambles, and masquerades, is to be gathered from Thurloo's “State Papors.”—T. WARTON.
I have quoted the English version of Milton's epigram to Christina: it appeared as follows, in Toland's life of the poet, fol. 1698, p. 39:
Bright martial maid, queen of the frozen zone!
Κρήνην σ’ αέναον πέτρης από δακρυοέσσης. Philosophus ad regem quendam, qui eum ignotum et insontem inter reos forte captum inscius damnaverat, την επι θανάτωι πορευόμενος, haec subito τoisit:
Ω"ANA, ει ολέσης με τον έννομον, ουδέ τιν' ανδρών
IN EFFIGIEI EJUS SCULPTOREM.
Γελάτε φαύλου δυσμίμημα ζωγράφου. - Milton sent this translation to his friend Alexander Gill, in return for an elegant copy of herdeeasyllables.-T. WARTON.
IN OBITUM PROCANCELLARII, MEDICI.
ANNO ÆTATIS 17.
Iapeti colitis nepotes.
Per tenebras Stygis ire certum est.
Æmathia jacuisset Eta :
Ense Locro, Jove lacrymante.
Ægiali e soror usa virga.
Eurypyli cecidisset hasta :
Cæse puer genetricis alvo: This Ode is on the death of Dr. John Goslyn, master of Caius college, and king's profosyor of medicine at Cambridge; who died while a second time vice-chancellor of that university, in October, 1626. Milton was now seventeen.-T. WARTON,
cQuem larva Pelidis, &c. Sarpedon, who was slain by Patroclus, disguised in the armour of Achilles. At his death his father wept a shower of blood. See Iliad. xvi.-T. WARTON.
d Si triste fatum, &c. “If enchantments could have stopped death, Circe, the mother of Telegonus by Ulysses, would have still lived; and Medex, the sister of Ægialus or Absyrtus, with her magical rod.” Telegonus killed his father Ulysses, and is the same who is called "parricida" by Horace.-T. Wartoy.
e Absyrtus is called "Ægialius" by Justin, Hist. lib. xliii. cap. 3, speaking of Jason and Æetes :-“Filiam ejus Medeam abduxerat, et filium Ægialium interfecerat."-TODD.
Machaon. Machaon, the son of Æsculapius, one of the Grecian leaders at the siege of Troy, and a physician, was killed by Eurypylus.-T. Warton.
6 Philyreie, &c. Chiron, the son of Philyra, a preceptor in medicine, was incurably wounded by Hercules, with a dart dipped in the poisonous blood of the serpent of Lerna.-T. WARTON.
h Nec tela te, &c. Æsculapius, who was cut out of his mother's womb by his father Apollo. Jupiter struck him dead with lightning, for restoring Hippolytus to life.-T. WARTON.