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mum of restriction in sex matters, depending on sex education to eliminate their evils. Dr. Parmelee's scholarly proficiency in social evolution forbids us to class him with that group of amateur Bohemians who, because they are not quite sure of themselves, resort to vehement utterance on sex matters, but his unreticent treatment of the more material aspects of the problem leads us to suspect that he has consciously adopted the Shavian program of “shocking civilization into common sense.” Although his own knowledge of Freudian ideas is ample, he is likely to be accepted and quoted chiefly by those persons who illustrate the principle that, like learning, a little Freudianism is a dangerous thing. For most of these the need is not more liberty but more control. That much of the coercive control which society at present exercises is unintelligent and even brutal is not to be denied, and Dr. Parmelee has presented this side of the subject with striking force. Like other "advanced” thinkers on sex problems, he is convinced that a radical economic readjustment would make a larger degree of liberty not only innocuous but beneficial. But, like others too, he neglects to notice the disintegration which occurs among primitive groups and among the special classes in advanced societies where economic and social pressure is relaxed.
The radical fault of the book is that it emphasizes the degree rather than the spirit and purpose of control.
U. G. WEATHERLY INDIANA UNIVERSITY
The Secret of Personality. By GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD. New
York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1918. Pp. ix+287. $1.50.
Four preceding volumes of Professor Ladd forming a series in which he discussed the problems of knowledge, duty, faith, and hope are followed by this fifth book, in which the search is continued for some scientific assurance for the existence of a metaphysical soul and for some scientific information concerning the nature of it. There is no break with the point of view set forth in the other four books from which numerous quotations are cited. The effort is rather to elaborate the same argument from a slightly different point of view. That there is a soul is held to be proved by the social character of our thought, by the witness of language, by the fact of will and character, and by the evidence furnished by the tendency to reason, to follow conscience, and to love beauty. There is no doubt, therefore, of the existence of the soul. Concerning the nature of the soul, however, neither science nor philosophy has any helpful word. Faith in immortality offers the only clue (p. 275). The modern social psychology as set forth by Dewey and Mead is ignored in the argument.
ELLSWORTH FARIS UNIVERSITY OF IOWA
The Psychology of Marriage. By WALTER M.
By WALTER M. GALLICHAN. (England.) New York:
New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1918. Pp. xi +300.
This work is not a scientific discussion of marriage from a psychological standpoint. It is rather a summary of present teachings respecting sex passion and sex relationships. The justification of the title in the author's mind doubtless would lie in his assertion that the passion of sex love “is not solely the stimulus to love between the sexes and to the continuance of the race. It is the source of socialized living, the origin of most moral codes, the basis of altruism, the motor-force of the highest human activities, and the spring of exalted conduct.”
With this thought in mind, the author, basing his conclusions on the study and experience of many years, discusses in nine chapters the problems of sex education, adolescence, courtship, and marriage; the evils of prostitution and sex diseases; and the social dangers arising from improvident marriages, high birth-rates accompanied by heavy deathrates and maternal ignorance.
The work as a whole is not intended as a textbook nor is it in any sense an original contribution to the psychology or the sociology of marriage, but it is full of sound advice and is well worth reading for eral information.
J. Q. DEALEY BROWN UNIVERSITY
The School and Other Educators. By JOHN CLARKE. London:
Longmans, Green & Co., 1918. Pp. x+228. $1.75 net.
The "other educators” considered are family, companions, "society at large," and church, but the main theme is the compulsory minimum, as it is, and as it ought to be.” Moral and cultural values stand foremost. Chapter x is on "The Place of the Classics.” “To be acquainted with literature and art is preferable to knowledge of bookkeeping or commercial arithmetic.” Contrary to Rousseau, "the poor man is the one who just does need education .... even though he remain a 'hand' all his life, his life must be rendered humane and contented.” The distinctive feature of this book is its attempt to bring this older view into harmony with the unfolding interests of the young:
The essential and permanent things of life are late in coming. The body takes precedence of the spirit in growth, development, and decay. Education has to observe and wait upon function. High moral truth is quite beyond the child's grasp, information bearing directly upon occupation is for the most part in the same category..... The succession of development is the base line along which the educator works. An old head cannot be put on young shoulders. Knowledge of infinite value must yet wait its turn; meantime the foundation is being laid on which it can be securely built (pp. 113-15).
F. R. Clow STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
The Control of the Drink Trade. By HENRY CARTER. London and
New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1918. Pp. 304. $2.50.
This book presents a responsible study of the liquor question in England from the beginning of the war. Its author is a member of the Central Control Board which came into being in the summer of 1915, after the proposal of drastic regulation or possible prohibition through government purchase had been defeated by a group of extremists who could not countenance official complicity in the sale of liquor.
It carries an undercurrent of appeal against that curious attitude of so many of these who are pledged to economic reform-whether from the point of view of labor or of the intellectuals-of indifference and even hostility to any effectual measures for restricting a vast social waste. The author, however, is not conscious of the approaches which are being made to complete proof of the absolutely injurious effect upon the human system of alcohol as a beverage, and of its damaging effect on the germ cell out of which the new generation must get whatever life may mean to it. He is, so far as ultimate measures are concerned, inclined to make allowance for “legitimate” business interests and "reasonable enjoyment.
It is clear that very marked gains in administrative method, in the reduction of drunkenness, in the enhanced efficiency of labor, and in the advance of public sentiment have been secured through the policy of the Control Board. The sale of liquor for consumption both on and off the premises has been limited to from four and a half to five and a half hours daily, including the first half of the afternoon and the evening up to 9:30 P.M. The stronger drinks are required to be diluted, and treating is forbidden. In one large munition-making district the Board has taken over the business entirely. It has provided some seven hundred industrial canteens, nearly all offering only temperance drinks.
The decrease in convictions for drunkenness fell by 28 per cent in 1915, by 56 per cent in 1916, and by 66 per cent for the first quarter of 1917. After all other influences are given due consideration, there remains a highly important result of regulative method and one that places England in a much more creditable place than has ordinarily been allowed her in this country in discussions of the war-time bearings of the liquor question. It is an interesting fact that every carefully considered restriction seems to get its proportionate result.
Some light is thrown upon what is the one resultant obstacle to war-time prohibition in this country—the presumed likelihood of some sort of revolt among workingmen if deprived of liquor. There seems to have been no serious complaint against any of the regulations and restrictions of the Board; but in some parts of the country the reduction in the amount of beer required by the Food Administration was mildly resented. On the whole, actual American experience, showing that even in a great industrial center like Detroit prohibition comes in as quietly as morning succeeds night, is confirmed in England.
The upshot of the work of the Board is that it is now at last an established part of the fabric of English common sense that men can be made sober by an act of parliament. So much ground having been gained, the English reconstruction program cannot but be considerably affected by the manifold and decisive economic gains and the broad popular approval which follow the advancing prohibition tide in the United States.
ROBERT A. Woods BOSTON, Mass.
Child Behavior. By FLORENCE MATEER. Boston: Richard G.
Badger, 1918. Pp. 236. $2.00.
This little book deals with “child behavior," not in the general sense, but in that used by the "behavioristic" school of psychologists, to mean, that is, the reaction of the organism regarded as a machine, upon appropriate stimulus. It is mainly a report of a careful and intelligent series of experiments carried out by the author upon the comparative reaction of normal and of weak-minded children to a conditioned stimulus -a reaction, that is, which follows not on its natural stimulus, but on one that has been artificially associated with the natural one. Thus the Russian physician, Krasnogorski, reported in 1907-8 a series of experiments with young children, by which he satisfied himself that reflexes naturally following on the sight of food, such as swallowing or opening the mouth, could be excited by some stimulus that had been associated with the food, as the sound of a pipe, the touch of a camel'shair brush. The clinical value of the experiment would consist in the establishment of a difference in this respect between the normal child and one with latent abnormality. Dr. Mateer, who is psychologist of the Massachusetts School for the Feeble-Minded, repeated the experiments very fully, and believes that the test may be useful as supplementing others now in use.
A notable trait of her book is the clear perception of the need of personal understanding and good, sympathetic handling of the child in all such experimentation, a matter important not only to the child, but to the success of the experiment
MELICENT W. SHINN NILES, CALIFORNIA
Fatigue Study. By F. B. GILBRETH and L. M. GILBRETH, Ph.D.
New York: Sturgis & Walton, 1916. Pp. 159. $1.50.
Socialized interpretations of even industrial processes are illustrated in this simple, brief manual. By ingenious educational methods (home libraries, fatigue museums, and surveys) the Gilbreths would influence industrial groups to think in terms of fatigue elimination. They would develop social attitudes in the workers toward cutting out fatigue affecting any member of the group in any way.
Their fatigue study is made scientific by a remarkable series of measurement devices. As consulting engineers the Gilbreths have developed motion study to a high efficiency and treat unnecessary fatigue as waste motion.
Their aim is to increase “happiness minutes” by adjusting the working group to work. This adjustment involves anti-fatigue devices, habits operating with least fatigue, and the proper distribution of fatigue-recovery periods, made attractive by rest and lunch rooms, recreation under a staff of betterment workers, and increased wage. The book asks that the public demand such fatigue prevention.
WILLIAM L. DEALEY PROVIDENCE, R.I.