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closed state must be substituted some sound machinery of internationalism. But Hobson asserts and reasserts that if the workers within each nation fail to capture their state, and through the state the new international arrangement, they will fall back helpless into the hands of a renewed and strengthened alliance of capitalist and militarist.

The book is designedly provocative and not exhaustive. It is a call to be on guard. May it serve as an antidote to national conceit, complacency, and manifest destinism. An unusually good index for so small a book makes it doubly useful.


Statistics. By WILLIAM B. BAILEY, Ph.D., and John CUMMINGS,

Ph.D. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1917. Pp. 153. $0.60.

This volume of the National Social Service Series was prepared to meet the needs of social workers, students, and others who desire a knowledge of the elementary methods of statistics. The processes of statistical investigation are set forth in their natural sequence in seven chapters with titles as follows: "Gathering the Raw Material," "Editing Schedules,” “Tabulation," "Ratios," "Averages,” “Graphical Representation,” and “Correlation.”

This arrangement, together with the admirable clearness and ease of the text, makes this book delightful reading to one who is familiar with the illustrative references, which are abundant and well chosen. These authors, like Bowley, succeed in combining effectively practical wisdom with theory. They have condensed much material within the narrow limits of a volume of this series. It is to be feared, however, that the text is too condensed for beginners. If the authors were to prepare a volume of ample size with a free use of subtitles and a generous supply of illustrative material, including tables and graphs, it would make a notable textbook.


The Theory of Environment. By ARMIN H. KOLLER. Menasha,

Wis.: Banta Publishing Co., 1918. Pp. 104. $1.00.

This slender book, described in the subtitle as “An Outline of the History of the Idea of Milieu and Its Present Status," compiles the opinions of various authorities, some reliable and others unreliable, on a long list of books dealing with the subject of geographic environment. These opinions are for the most part quoted in the original German or French, as the case may be. There is scant evidence of first-hand knowledge of the material on the part of the author himself. He derives his data or estimates quite frankly from prefaces, book reviews, or historical sketches written from some particular standpoint, generally sociological. Consequently contributors to the science of anthropogeography receive notice quite disproportionate to their value. An Arab historian of the fourteenth century gets two pages, quoted from Flint. Jean Bodin, a brilliant but little-known authority of the sixteenth century, is elaborately discussed in six pages. Strabo, von Richthofen, and Ellsworth Huntington each get one short sentence, while Ratzel, who raised anthropogeography to the rank of a science, receives one meager page of comment. Important names like those of Peschel, Wilhelm Götz, Chisholm, and Mackinder are ignored. The author makes little attempt to trace the evolution of the science or to evaluate the contributions of the various geographers to its development.


The Unmarried Mother. By PERCY GAMBLE KAMMERER. With an

Introduction by WILLIAM HEALY. Criminal Science Monograph No. 3. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1918. Pp. xiv + 342. $3.00 net.

Our ordinary method of reaching hasty conclusions regarding the unmarried mother from a few cases that have come incidentally to our attention is no longer justified, for during the last decade several monographic studies of the problem of illegitimacy have been presented. In addition to these we now have available a very thorough and exhaustive examination and classification by Kammerer of five hundred “cases" secured from private societies and one state board.

This is an inductive study of case histories, somewhat in the fashion of Healy's researches. Sixty-nine of the cases are summarized in the book as illustrations. It is to be regretted that the other cases are not made available so that the reader could verify the conclusions of the author.

The three most important causes are found to be bad home conditions, bad environment, and mental abnormality. Bad home conditions are the most important, appearing 194 times as a major factor and 158 times as a minor factor. Bad environment is ranked as third in importance, but the author includes in this term only a few of the elements of environment, such as “contaminating employment conditions," “vicious neighborhood,” and “away from home without protection.” Mental abnormality was found to run through so many of the other classes that it was not presented statistically as a separate factor, but the author states that it ranks with bad home conditions and bad environment in its importance. Chapters are devoted to other factors, such as bad companions, recreational disadvantages, educational disadvantages, early sex experiences, heredity, abnormal physical condition, sexual suggestibility, abnormal sexualism, mental conflict, and assault, incest, and rape.

The general point of view is that these environmental and hereditary conditions affect the mental attitude of the mother, and the problem of control is the problem of preventing or modifying this mental attitude. The book contains many valuable suggestions with regard to the methods by which this may be accomplished. In an appendix there is an outline of legislative enactments deemed desirable as one means of solving the problem of illegitimacy.


La Guerra e la Popolazione. By FRANCO SAVORGNAN. Bologna:

Nicola Zanichelli, 1918. Pp. ix+146. 3 lira.

This is a rather popular study of the demographical effects of war by the professor of statistics in the University of Cagliari. Since it is based upon approximate figures only for the first two years of the Great War, its conclusions and forecasts necessarily have only a qualified value. Nevertheless, for both the sociologist and the statistician there is much of interest and value in the book. The author attempts to prove by statistics of comparative population, territory, and national wealth how time is the Allies' best friend, and how their victory is practically inevitable. To the sociologist one of the most interesting chapters in the book is his analysis of the factors of association. Here he follows Gumplowicz and finds a high degree of national and ethnic cohesion within the separate members of the Entente, which is opposed by the even greater cohesive bloc of the German-Magyar group united by the commoninterest formula, "Drang nach Osten." He gives some attention to the

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question of subject peoples and, while not proposing any dogmatic solution, rejects the Bolshevik formula of a plebiscite as unpractical and infantile.

The author reviews with considerable penetration the whole subject of war and human selection and draws two general conclusions: first, that primitive warfare was, on the whole, favorably selective of both individuals and groups; secondly, that modern armed conflict is dysgenic and antiselective because it not only destroys the best elements in the population but also depresses the standard of living for the survivors because of the huge destruction of property. On these points he follows, in general, Gumplowicz and the modern English eugenists, particularly Leonard Darwin. He stresses especially the dysgenic effects of venereal diseases spread during war time among both the soldiers and the civilian population and ends with a none too rosy outlook in his commentary upon a quotation from Benjamin Franklin to the effect that “wars are not paid for in war time; the bill comes later."

In analyzing the demographical effects of war he rejects flatly the theory that nature will at once and automatically begin to repair damages and losses by a higher birth-rate, particularly of males. He shows clearly a reduction in the marriage and birth rates in the warring countries since 1914, and, while naturally the figures are rather scanty for comparison with such periods as, say, the years after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, yet the general impression is that there is no immediate and automatic filling of the gaps. Indeed the French levies of as late as 1890 still bore the marks of 1870, since there was a shortage of some thirty thousand men below what the population might normally have been expected to produce for military service

that year.

As to economic recovery after the war, the author can find no absolute and uniform assurance, but concludes that it will vary with several factors in each state, such, for example, as demographic and economic constitution, reproductive capacity, and productive energy on the one hand, and the amount of the destruction of life and wealth entailed by the war on the other. There is also to be reckoned the psychological factor of the extent of victory or defeat and the terms imposed by the victor. In this connection a rather interesting forecast is made of the length of time necessary to recover losses in population suffered by four of the leading warring nations. According to this calculation Germany and Great Britain will require twelve years to make good their losses, Italy thirty-seven, and France sixty-nine. While these figures have no absolute value, they are at least highly suggestive. Perhaps in the case of France the relative disadvantage will be overcome if a sufficiently large number of our young men justify the popular report and remain as settlers in France. But since this whole question of population is one of quality rather than of quantity, the post-bellum problem of population will be essentially a problem in eugenics; not, therefore, of blind and headlong procreation, but of eugenic criteria based on intelligence, reason, and science. Thus the author ranges himself distinctly with the liberal eugenists, and his three most significant chapters, namely, "Selezione e Guerra," "Gli Effetti demografici della guerra," and "Il Problema della popolazione dopo la guerra," are distinctly broad-gauge essays on race eugenics.

The book is engagingly written and attractively printed with a fairly adequate table of contents but no real index.


Lawrence Social Survey. By F. W. BLACKMAR and E. W. BURGESS,

Department of Sociology, Lawrence, Kan. Pp. 125.

This survey, which has already influenced the social life of Lawrence, contains material of value to all interested in the social conditions of our smaller cities. It is clearly written, gives evidence of accuracy, and demonstrates courage. The first chapter, “Land and Its People,” has information regarding home conditions seldom found in surveys and very significant to the sociologists. The survey would have had added usefulness if it had contained a greater amount of graphic material for illustration and a summary of conditions and recommendations at the end.


Problems of Subnormality. By J. E. WALLACE WALLIN. With an

Introduction by JOHN W. WITHERS, PH.D. Yonkerson-Hudson, N.Y.: World Book Co., 1917. Pp. xv+485. $3.00.

Mr. Wallin's book on Problems of Subnormality treats of the following topics: the history of the recognition and treatment of feeble-mindedness; the scientific standards in use in identifying the feeble-minded, in deciding which of them should be excluded entirely from school, which of them assigned to classes for the feeble-minded, which assigned to classes

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