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has formal education assumed progressive attitudes or adopted telic programs.

Since formal education has developed an extensive literature of its own, and its function in passing on the social heritage is well understood, we may well confine our efforts to emphasizing the informal aspects of the subject. Informal education consists of the various influences and phenomena which are unconsciously assimilated through mere contact. The child imitates the speech, actions, customs, and habits of his parents. He is taught many lessons as a part of his general control and direction without any thought of their function as education. As a means of mutual understanding and without any consciousness of its value as linguistic training the child is laboriously taught to interpret and use language. He is aided in gaining bodily co-ordinations, he is stimulated to play, his sense activities are directed, advice is given, moral precepts are iterated, and suggestions are dropped as the rain, with absolute unconsciousness that these things embody the most fundamental educative lessons of life. Self-control, the ability to endure pain, and the importance of struggle and effort are instilled as a corollary of the daily nursery. Certain elements of vocational knowledge, religious practice, political traditions, and racial prejudice are absorbed through family conversation. So great are these early educative influences, mainly within the home, that it has been said that the child passes through the first third of his development before birth and the next third before the close of the fifth year. Likewise it is a Jesuit tradition that the child's religious status may be definitely fixed before he passes his seventh year.

When the child's circle of activity extends beyond the family rooftree another era of unconscious educational progress awaits him. He imitates the language, plays, and customs of his companions, emulates the spirit and attainments of his playmates, and absorbs the knowledge held in solution in his environment. He gets elementary lessons in biology through the observation of plants and animals, and learns something of geography, hygiene, folklore, the fine arts, and mechanical principles through efforts to satisfy his native instinct of curiosity. Building operations, methods of transportation, public utilities such as fire protection and police

control, mercantile transactions, churches, schools, lodges, and a thousand other physical and social activities fall under his scrutiny. Through tireless activity he increases his physical skill, mental ingenuity, and social adaptability. In short, before the days of formal schooling the child is well started in all the physical, mental, and moral co-ordinations which the educative process demands.

Thus it will be seen that while the primary groups, the home, the playground, and the local community, are not organized for conscious education, they have very large educational functions, both formal and informal. They are the sources of beginnings and have the most plastic period of life in which to make their influences effective. Nor must it be supposed that their educative importance ends with childhood. It extends throughout life, and while the wider social contacts of the intermediate and secondary groups increase in number and significance with advancing age, they must remain extensive in nature as contrasted with the intensive forces of the primary groups. The primary groups continue throughout maturity to form the nuclei around which other associations revolve and face-to-face contacts to determine life's most fundamental choices. Even the selection of a vocation or of a companion in marriage is most likely to be determined by informal primarygroup influences.

In later childhood and youth, however, the larger social groups gain increasing educational importance. The church, the gang, the cultural association, the business, charitable, and political organization, take on new significance. Instead of being an outside observer the boy or girl joins a number of these groups. Each demands loyalty and service and has inchoate or organized methods of enforcing its spirit and will upon the initiate. Within the group social pressure is the dominant factor. It comes down from above through officers and leaders and is exerted laterally by the rank and file of membership. The new member is thus molded into shape and required to assume his share of responsibility for the esprit de corps and work of the group. It is this informal use of group pressure which constitutes the chief educative value of mere organization and group solidarity. It has superior molding power because it unites precept and example, word and deed, learning and doing. In many ways the pedagogy of the informal group is superior to the pedagogy of the school.

But if the informal education of such groups as the church, the athletic or social club, the musical, art, dramatic, or literary society, and business and political associations are educative, what shall we say of the informal associations of the school ? Between the ages of six and fourteen approximately half of the time of the youth is spent in school, and the school influences extend into other phases of the pupil's life. If the formal education of the youth is continued beyond this period the school becomes even more of a dominating influence in his activities. In our ordinary thinking about the school, however, we overvalue the direct instruction of the teacher, the textbook, the reference library, and the laboratory. School spirit and loyalty, school athletics and playground activities, school organizations for social, cultural, and religious purposes, the extraclassroom contacts of teacher and pupil, and the continual association of the pupil with other pupils possessing different opinions, prejudices, habits, and ideals absorbed from different home environments do much to broaden, deepen, and stimulate the growth of the personality of the impressible adolescent. If these subsidiary influences are not favorable the school can be only partially efficient, regardless of the quality of the classroom teaching or the excellence of the equipment.

The educational value of extra-curricular influences in school life will be made apparent by a detailed study of any particular school system, or by an analysis of the opinions of the alumni of any famous school concerning the factors which had the greatest influence in molding their characters. Everyone is familiar with the traditional influence of the great English public schools upon their graduates. Wellington's oft-quoted statement that Waterloo was won on the cricket fields of England is paralleled by hundreds of references to the dominating nature of "school life" in shaping the lives of great men.

Graduates of our best academies and colleges seldom refer to what they learned, but to what they grew into in the atmosphere of their Alma Maters. Talent for organization, the will to succeed, breadth of sympathy, understanding of human nature, social adaptability, the joy of human struggle, the instinct and practice of leadership, and a wide variety of personal qualities and ideals come not from the classroom, but from the athletic field, the dormitory, the club, the fraternity, the literary society, the school paper, the Young Men's Christian Association, the debating league, school politics, and social gatherings. In fact, if we take their word at face value, most men of character and influence owe their success to “college life" rather than to their college studies.

Moreover, just here lies the greatest weakness of the American public schools as compared with the best private schools. They are generally lacking in traditions, school organization, and esprit de corps. Public-school teachers are as fully trained, are more specifically trained, and are not inferior in personality to teachers in private schools of the same grade. Nor are public-school buildings and equipment inferior. But they do lack something in the traditional molds for habit formation and the selective organization for stimulating chosen ideals found in such old preparatory schools as Exeter, Andover, Groton, and St. Paul's. With increasing age and an enlarged alumni, with the rise of athletics, with playground and music supervisors, and with wisely sponsored literary, art, religious, and social organizations something of the same cultural traditions and ideals may be fostered. Alongside this increased social pressure the democratic stimulus of undifferentiated social classes, the tolerance bred of clashing ideals, and the socializing effect of widely differing vocational and philanthropic ambitions should still persist. Likewise the telic breadth of state vision should demand and provide a wider range of opportunities for educational selection than could be expected in a private school. It is the mixing of cultures in the crucible of democratic school groups that inspires confidence in the future of the public school.

A not less illuminating method of getting 'at the value of the informal education of social heredity might be made by tracing the origin of our specific ideals. Whence come our patriotism, our party allegiance, our religious predilections, our business standards, our sex chivalry, our social etiquette and savoir faire, our selfcontrol, our co-operative spirit, and our altruism? Where do we get our taste in food, clothing, furniture, and houses, our sex knowledge, our occupational and marital choices, our chums and our amusements ? Certainly most of these things are not determined by any formal instruction, but are breathed in through the social atmosphere of our native environments. To what extent has the teaching of civics aided in driving out the political bosses or in eliminating grafters? How many men have changed their party alignments as a result of the teaching of government in our schools? How much more patriotic, or chivalrous, or altruistic are our college graduates than our ordinary citizens? As a matter of fact party affiliations are usually formulated in the home, confirmed in playground squabbles, and sealed in the party caucus. Church membership is ordinarily decided before the age of discretion without any element of judgment based upon knowledge entering into the situation. Social etiquette and our general tastes are copied from the home or the larger community environment. Our sex knowledge is picked up on the streets or in stealthy conferences with the more or less depraved. Our chums and amusements are selected from local associations, and our standards of business honor and of workmanship are fixed quite largely by our occupational associations.

Taken as a whole, it would be safe to say that in all relations in life where feeling reactions are more important than intellectual decisions the unconscious education of the folkways, traditions, conventions, customs, and organized institutions of society gained through informal contacts with our fellows and our environment has more influence in molding our characters and determining our destiny than has formal education. This holds true for all classes but more particularly for the masses whose school days are limited. It would not do to overlook the fact that organized education tends to enable us to control our feelings, that it adds refinement to our sentiments and strengthens our characters; but likewise it would not serve the truth to overlook the fact that much of our most useful knowledge, much that enters into our best judgments, is acquired through informal and haphazard contacts. The truth seems to be that as civilization advances formal education increases its reach and power over the social heritage, but as yet we have not attained, for the masses of the people at least, a stage where we can

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