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Political State of Germany in general.-Hanover.-Meeting of the

Diet.-Important Reforms carried.-New Constitution formed for the Diet.-Wirtemberg.-Popular Principles of the

King.--Assembly of the States.- Formation of a new Constitution.Triumphal Reception of the King by his Subjects. -Bavaria.--First Meeting of the States General.-Gracious Speech of the King.- Reduction of his Army.- Prussia.-Delay in the formation of a new Constitution.Free spirit of the German Universities.-Kotzebue appointed literary and political Agent of the Emperor of Russia.- His Assassination. -General Alarm.- Proceedings of the Diet at Frankfort respecting the Unidersities.Declaration of the Saxon Princes.--Foreign Students quit Jena.-- Attempt against M. Ibel.- Arrests and Exami. nations. --Secret Societies suspected.-Protestations against the Measures of the Prussian Police.- No Plot detected in Prussia. Coercive Measures of the Diet.Central Commission at Mentz.Severities against popular Writers in Prussia.--Sandt transferred to Mentz.- Persecutions of the Jews in many parts of Germany. Strong Measures of the Conference of Carlsbad in their favour. THE

HE intimate union of the the return of political tranquillity.

more important powers of It will be recollected, that this Germany, originally formed by arduous liberation was achieved, the necessity of combination not so much by the councils of against the ruler of France, and princes, or by the disciplined strengthened since by farther valour of regular armies, as by views of common interest and the generous disdain of a foreign security, has once more converted yoke which pervaded the whole this vast assemblage of states into population, and precipitated it in a body politic; and enables us, a mass upon its oppressor. In under many relations, to treat of the enthusiasm of their joy and the country as a whole.

gratitude, most of the German Over Germany, as over the sovereigns pledged themselves to rest of Europe, peace continues recompense the exertions and to reign; but a new impulse the sacrifices of their people given to the minds of men by the with the only gift worthy at once circumstances attendant upon of the occasion and of the re“ the war of liberation," as it is ceivers,—that of political freetermed, has effectually opposed dom :- In other words, they

promised promised to their subjects con- payment of the arrears of interest stitutions and a representative of the royal chamber, declaring system. The boon was eagerly then selves ready to pay such claimed; and in all those coun- arrears; a step which had the tries where national councils immediate effect of raising the were actually convoked, their value of the paper currency; all proceedings exhibited a frank confidence in which had preand bold spirit which recalls the viously been lost in consequence ancient times of German liberty. of the above decree. The states In other states, where the for- also petitioned that the army mation of a constitution was might be reduced from 30,000 to delayed from time to time, and 17,000 men; and this suggestion, no summonses were issued, ac- notwithstanding an unequivocal cording to general expectation, wish expressed from England to for the meeting of national as- the contrary, was so far complied semblies, the people, or at least with, that the standing force was the educated of the middling finally fixed at 20,000. The next class, grew jealous, gloomy and great question debated was :perturbed; a fanaticism of hatred whether the nobles - should share and revenge against the instru- in the liability of the third estate ments of despotism took posses- to contribute to the public bursion of many young and ardent thens ? The deputies of the minds, and in two instances broke nobility, apprehensive on this ocout in deeds of blood. The casion of being outvoted, sought German potentates became at

to evade a decision by quitting once exasperated and alarmed; the chamber; the deputies of the and the measures of chastisement third estate alone not amounting and repression by which they to 52, the number legally neceshave judged it necessary to en- sary for dispatch of business : counter the revolutionary princi- but this stratagem was defeated ple, form the chief theme of by one of the deputies of the historical narrative for the period third estate, who, placing his here treated, which we now pro- back against the door, detained ceed to survey more in detail. the 52nd member till the propo

HANOVER.—The states of the sition was carried in the affirmakingdom of Hanover were as- tive. The prince regent (his sembled in the month of January, royal highness the duke of and immediately proceeded to Cambridge), obtained the thanks recommend some very important of the chamber by declaring reforms. Torture was abolished that all the estates under the adon their suggestion, and the ministration of the chamber of regency consented to take into convents, should in future be consideration their proposal for separated from the civil list, and doing away the use of expurgaapplied exclusively to the suptory oaths in criminal Cases. port of schools and churches. 'They presented a remonstrance The chamber, however, expressed against a decree forbidding ac- a wish that these estates should tions to be instituted for the be placed under its superinten

dense,

dence, and that accounts of the The propositions from the employment of their revenue sovereign are to be addressed to should be annually presented to both chambers: if their decisions it. Near the close of the session, do not agree, an union is to be in April, a message was read from attempted by a commission the regent stating, “ That it is chosen by both, to which comnot the plan to make great missioners from the sovereign changes in the constitution, ac. may be added, to promote an cording to which the states have agreement. It is necessary in the right to grant taxes, and to propositions from the state that share in the legislation; partly both chambers should agree. because experience has shown In November, the provincial the utility of this ancient consti- assemblies met to elect deputies tution of the country, and partly to the general diet of the kingbecause constitutions introduced dom; which sat on Dec. 28th for upon merely theoretical prin- the first time in its new form as ciples will never be so advanta- two chambers. geous as those which have been Wirtemberg.-The sovereign gradually formed according to of this kingdom leans to popular the wants of the state."

principles, and in the struggle The following sketch has been between the privileged orders given of the most important rules and the citizens at large of which according to which the represen. his country has been the scene, tative assemblies of Hanover will has evidently taken part with the in future be constituted.

latter. The states-general asIn the second chamber will be sembled at Stutgard in January ; the members of the board of and prince Paul, the king's brotaxes who are not noble; 3 ther, whose property had long deputies from the administration been sequestered, whilst he himof ecclesiastical property; the self lived in a kind of banishment deputies of the smaller abbeys; at Paris, received a notification one deputy from the university of that his revenues would be reGottingen; 29 from the cities ; stored, and that he was expected and 22 from the possessors of to appear at the opening of the free estates who do not belong diet in quality of heir apparent. to the equestrian order. The It seems that the pretensions of hereditary land-marshal (and in the mediatised princes and nobihis absence the president of the lity, who lately held directly of chief board of taxes), presides the empire, opposed some obover the united chambers. Each stacles to the reconvocation of chamber proposes three of its the states; and the king appointed members, from whom the sove- a commission to treat with them reign selects one to be its presi- respecting their claims. They dent. The diet meets every did not at first evince a very year; the members are elected for tractable spirit; but the per6 years, but may be re-elected: severance of the king surmounted no persons will ever be admitted all difficulties; and in September, to hear the debates.

the plan of a constitution was ac

cepted cepted by the representative as- and union which pervaded his sembly with few or no modifica. country. This union was, at a tions. The king soon after re- later period of the session, somepaired to Warsaw, to meet the what disturbed by a difference emperor of Russia, and was suc- between the king and the states cessful in obtaining his powerful respecting army-estimates. It guarantee for the new constitu- ended in the rejection by a great tion; which was now understood majority of the deputies of a to be secured from the inter- proposed augmentation of taxes ference of the greater powers of for the support of the troops ; Germany. A well earned triumph and the king has probably been awaited his return to Stutgard. compelled, in consequence, to Two obelisks were erected by the reduce his military establishment. magistrates, inscribed, “ To the Such was the situation of the defender of the country.” “ To principal among the secondary the father of his people.” The powers of Germany in the early citizens drew his carriage into part of the year : In the meanthe city with shouts of Long time, little progress appeared to live the king !” and an altar was be made in the formation of a erected before the palace with constitution for Prussia ; no resuitable inscriptions. The king presentative body was there sumreceived these testimonies of moned to deliberate on the state attachment with the most frank of the nation; and circumstances and cordial expressions of cor- soon occurred in another quarter responding sentiments; and shak- which, by casting an odium on ing hands with the first burgo- the supporters of democratical master, bade him tell all faithful principles, appeared likely to opcitizens that he would gladly do pose a formidable and permanent the same to each of them.

barrier to the further extension The king of Bavaria had of popular privileges. granted a constitutional charter The ardent spirit of liberty to his subjects in May, 1818; which, since the late war, in but the states-general were not which they had taken an active convoked for the first time till part, had prevailed among the February in this year. The king, professors and students of the in his speech from the throne, German universities, had for warmly expressed his satisfaction some time attracted the jealous in having at length attained the notice of more than one of the object of his constant wishes great continental potentates. It during a reign of 20 years; the became an object of importance establishment of a constitution in the opinion of the emperor of calculated to promote the happi- Russia, to receive frequent intelness of his people. He declared, ligence of their motions, and that in such an assembly as that generally, of the state of public before him, he beheld a support opinion, of morals, and of literato his throne and a blessing to his ture in Germany. For this purpeople; and ended by drawing a pose, he engaged the noted lively picture of the tranquillity dramatic writer Kotzebue, long attached to the Russian service, sitting at Frankfort held, it is but now returned to his native said, several secret deliberations country, to become his official on the means of restricting the correspondent and to transmit to universities to their true objects, him full and frequent reports of on which subject M. Von Henall that was passing. "In the rich, minister of the ducal and performance of this office, M. grand ducal houses of Saxony, Kotzebue had provoked the was instructed to make the followvehement resentment of the ing declaration to the diet:students, who accused him of The erroneous opinions on the calumniating the principles and present state of the German unidesigns of his countrymen to a versities which have been recentforeign potentate, whose inter- ly expressed in writings, in some ference they naturally regarded sense official; the attacks made with as much indignation as against the institutions existing in alarm.-Apprised of their hostility these bodies, particularly at Jena ; and dreading its effects, M. and the importance of deliberating Kotzebue was preparing, it is on the changes useful to be insaid, to quit Manheim and re- troduced into establishments of turn to Russia, when a young learning destined to form the fanatic named Sandt, a theologi- youth of Germany, have detercal student of Jena, obtained mined his royal highness the admission to him on pretence of grand duke of Saxe-Weimardelivering letters, and stabbed Eisenach, and his highness the him to the heart. Having thus duke of Saxe-Gotha and Altencompleted his purpose, the burg, to bring the subject before assassin walked calmly into the the diet, and to order the followstreet, and falling on his knees, ing declaration, which contains with his hands raised to heaven, their opinion on this subject, to exclaimed; “ Vivat Teutonia!" be inserted in the protocol :and plunged a dagger in his “1. The state of the German bosom. Ře was instantly seized, universities is an object of and the wound not proving general interest to all the governmortal, was conveyed to prisonments of Germany, and on this and strictly guarded. This catas. account ought to be submitted to trophe inspired general conster the deliberation of the diet. nation in the German courts; it “2. Their royal and serene highwas regarded as the work not of nesses will cheerfully lend their a solitary enthusiast but of a aid to bring about a general body, a tremendous association, agreement on certain principles bound together by secret ties of academical discipline, and will and sworn to pursue the accom- support all measures useful and plishment of its political objects practicable for facilitating the through all crimes and all dangers. direction of the interior governDiligentinvestigations were every ment of the universities. Thus where set on foot, in which the impressed, they have seen with Prussian government took the pleasure that the university of lead. The general diet, then Jena considers itself as forming a

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