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member of a subsisting associa- had been obtained of the existence tion of universities, and that in of secret democratic societies, consequence of a decree of its extending widely over the counsenate, it refused matriculation, try, in which the plan of convertafter the disturbances at Gottin- ing Germany into a republic, gen, to all students from that one and indivisible, had been place who were not provided decided upon. Revolutionary with a certificate of their conduct poems and daggers were reported while there.

to be found among the effects of “ 3. Butin changes which their the persons arrested, and the royal and serene highnesses will public were led to believe that an admit, they will not consent to atrocious plot would in time be any dispositions which would in- revealed, though for the present vade the interior constitution of it was judged prudent to refrain the universities, and destroy from the disclosure of particulars. their academical liberties by con. In the meantime the security and verting them into gymnasia, &c. happiness of private life was in

“ 4. The universities must pre- vaded ; no one knew what to fear serve their freedom of opinion and or whom to trust; secret dilainstruction.”

tions were listened to, persons The grand duke of Saxe were torn from the bosoms of Weimar subsequently declared their families without knowing his resolution to permit no their offence, and in some inforeigners to study at Jena, with. stances contrary to the laws, and out a recommendation from their it was remarked with sorrow, own government; in consequence, that the individuals arrested and the Prussian students were im- accused, particularly in Prussia, mediately recalled from this uni- were the same who had displayed versity, as were the Russian ones most zeal in the general rising from all those of Germany. against the French tyranny, and

An attempt made by a young who had earned for themselves medical student on the life of M. the proud title of deliverers of Ibel, president of the regency of their country. The senate of Nassau, augmented the general the new university of Bonn, panic; numerous arrests took made a public protest against place in several parts of Ger- the illegal seizure of the papers many, but especially in the Prus- of three of its professors by civil sian dominions; papers were functionaries, supported by a seized; professors of known military force, sent from Berlin ; popular principles were subjected and the chamber of justice at to severe examinations ; suspi- Berlin addressed three successive cion was particularly directed remonstrances to the minister of against the founders of a patriotic justice on the illegal violence of association called the Tugen- his proceedings. The police, bund, instituted in 1913, and the finding at last no proofs of the members of the more recent existence of a plot, offered their bursenschaft, or student's club. liberty to several of he persons It was affirmed, that information arrested; but on terms, it is said, which one individual alone thought its own hands. No sooner was fit to accept. Finally, a commis- the decision of the diet in favor sion appointed by the Prussian of the erection of this new and minister, prince Hardenberg, to formidable tribunal known at Ber. examine all the documents and lin, than the members of the difthe papers seized delivered to ferent supreme courts of justice him their report, stating in the met to protest solemnly against a most unequivocal manner, that measure which would so essenno man of any influence was con- tially infringe upon their jurisdiccerned in the secret associations; tion. In a body they desired an and also that these associations audience of prince Hardenberg, had not for their object the revo- and laid through him their comlutionizing of Germany. They plaints before the king. They readded, that though presumptions, presented, that by recognizing of different degrees of force the late decisions of the diet, and existed against several of the per. conforming to them, his majesty sons in custody, not one of them would renounce the most sacred could legally be put in a state of rights of a sovereign, not except accusation.

ing that of granting pardons ; and Thus then ended the cause of that the establishment of a tributhis alarm; but not its conse- nal at Mentz invested with the quences. These will best be power of trying Prussian citizens, traced from the Propositions of was incompatible with the dignity the minister of his royal and apos- of an independent state and in tolic majesty' to the diet at direct opposition to the laws of Frankfort ; the “ Circular of the Prussia. A memorial nearly to cabinet of Berlin,” the “ Edict the same effect was presented to of censorship for the kingdom of the king by his minister of state Hanover ; and that for the king- baron #umboldt, which was gradom of Prussia." (See State ciously received and transmitted Papers.) Of all the severe mea- to the court of Austria. Several sures of coercion indicated in the of the secondary powers, and the Austrian Proposition, that which grand duke of Baden in the numgave most offence to the German ber, testified their dissatisfaction. people, and which was even a The king of Bavaria published the source of discontent to several of decisions of the diet commanding the smaller princes, was the pro- all persons in authoritŷ, and his posed establishment of a general subjects generally, to conform central commission at Mentz, au- themselves to them ; — adding thorized to prosecute inquiries in however the following remarkable all parts of Germany concerning salvo :-“having regard to the sothe “ demagogical intrigues," vereignty which is guaranteed to supposed to be in action ;-to us by existing compacts and the examine any persons whatever act of the confederation, accordwitnesses on these subjects,--to ing to the constitution given by cause the arrest of suspected us to our faithful people, and acpersons, and to take the punish- cording to the laws of our kingment of political offenders into dom." Notwithstanding all op



position, the central commission, from time to time, probably in with the full powers originally the hope, which has not, it should projected, met for the first time seem, been realised, of extracting on October 15. It was composed from him some confessions tend of seven members, delegated by ing to implicate others in a crime the sovereigns of the following which he has repeatedly affirmed states.-Austria, Prussia, Bava- to be exclusively his own. ria, Hanover, Baden, Hesse and A circumstance equally extraNassau.

ordinary and disgraceful in the The king of Prussia evinced annals of modern Germany, was peculiar zeal in carrying into the persecution of which the Jews effect the system thus founded in were the victims during the year Germany. Several professors of 1819. The motive of the injuPrussian , universities were dis- ries and insults inflicted on this missed from their posts; the unfortunate people is somewhat papers of M. Goerres, author of obscure ; but it seems to have a work intituled “ Germany and been some sentiment more akin the Revolution," were sealed up, to political or commercial jeaand the city of Frankfort was lousy than to the ancient relisomewhat imperiously required to gious antipathy. seize all copies of the work and The condition of the Jews in to give up the author. With the Germany had received the most former part of this mandate the important amelioration within the senate of Frankfort complied, nor last twenty years. Buonaparte, did it apparently demur to the on entering Germany, had effaced latter ;-M.Goerres however was the ancient stigma impressed enabled to escape into France. upon the race by declaring them A commission was appointed at 6 citizens and members of soBerlin to examine into charges of ciety :" Yet, during the late war, high treason and where it should hoping to obtain from the legitiappear necessary to transmit the mate sovereigns of Germany a prisoners to Mentz. It should confirmation of the privileges thus seem however that the integrity granted them, the Jews had freely or the patriotism of the commis- offered their property, and even sioners prompted them to liberate their lives for the defence of the most of the persons brought be- country; and in return, had obfore them, some of whom were tained strong testimonies of apalso to receive a public repara- probation from several of the altion of character. Meantime, the lied princes; and from the king new constitution for Prussia was of Prussia, the rights of citizens, affirmed to be in a state of dili- with eligibility to all offices. gent preparation, but no public These acquisitions of civil privimeasures have yet been taken to leges when combined with their bring it into action.

extensive command of capital, The assassin Sandt was trans- enabled the Jews in some comferred to Mentz in safe custody, mercial towns to assume a port but his trial has been postponed which their Christian neighbours

regarded regarded as presumptuous and town; but a few wealthy families offensive; à cry was raised still lingered, and the magistrates against them, and but for the were asked whether it was inpowerful and prompt protection tended that their longer abode extended by the German sove- would be tolerated. These aureigns, the fury of the people thorities referred the question to would apparently have quenched an assembly of the people; but itself in their blood. The senate scarcely had the debate comof the free town of Lubeck had menced, when some of the citibeen the first to mark its animo- zens collected together the empty sity against this people by rein- waggons standing in the market, forcing an edict of 1788, forbid- and ended the doubt by compelding all strangers to carry on com- ling the remaining Jews to pack merce of


kind within Lubec; themselves and their goods into (see State Papers). A prohibi- them and causing them to be tion which is stated to have been transported over the frontiers. followed up, with regard to-the At Hamburgh, Frankfort, Jews, by measures of great harsh- Wurtzburgh and other free towns ness and insult. The police offi- in Germany, popular tumults occers were ordered to search all curred in which the Jews were inJews openly in the streets, and to sulted, plundered and menaced. burst open

their houses and take At length these outrages atpossession of all their property, tracted the attention of the higher sealing up even the common ne- powers ; and a notification, signed cessaries of life. The senate fur- by all the envoys assembled at ther decreed, that any person the conference of Carlsbad, was acting for, or in any shape trans- forwarded to the resident minisacting business with a Jew, should ters at the towns where these for the first offence be fined ; and scenes had been acted. They for the second, should be further were hereby directed to remonvisited with imprisonment and strate with the local authorities; loss of citizenship ; and that any and to claim for the Jews that clerk, porter or menial servant equal protection which every goliving with a Jew, should be im- vernment is bound to afford to prisoned and expelled the town. all its subjects without distincThe next expulsion of this un- tion ; they were further to state, happy race was from the town of that a repetition of the offence Meiningen. This place, it seems, would subject these authorities had long enjoyed the privilege of themselves to the punishment due admitting no Jews within its to accessories,-deprivation of walls ; nevertheless a considerable rank and office: nor would the number had established them- chastisement stop here; the place selves there on sufferance; a itself would be subjected to milisudden resolution of the magis- tary occupation, either by Austria trates to inforce again the old re- or Prussia, and perhaps, eventugulations, had compelled the ally, to accession to some neighlower order of these to quit the bouring state. The king of Ba



varia and the grand duke of Ba- no means to repress. It was obden respectively, issued strong served in some places, that the edicts for the protection of the interposition of troops of the line Jews in their dominions, declaring on these occasions, rather inflamed the districts responsible for all the than appeased the fury of the damage done to their property : people; but the landwehr were the students of Heidelberg gal- more successful in restoring orlently sallied forth armed for their der. Before the end of the year protection in a violent tumult the ferment appears every where which the magistrates had taken to have subsided.

Vol. LXI.



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