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CHAPTER XIII.

NETHERLANDS.-Law respecting trade with Sweden.-Speech of the

Minister to the States General on closing the Session at Brussels. Royal Speech on opening the Session at the Hague. SWEDEN.Negotiations respecting the Payments due to Denmark.- Final arrangement of this Affair.-Parga and the Ionian Isles.-Cession of Parga to Ali Pasha by the British.Tax opposed by the Legislative Assembly of the Seven Islands.Insurrection in Santa Maura.

THE kingdom of the Nether- being put to the vote, was passed

lands furnishes few subjects unanimously. of historical notice, on account On May 22nd the session was of the state of tranquil happiness closed by the minister of the inwhich it appears to enjoy. Early terior with the following speech, in the month of March, the pro- which he delivered in both lanject of a law relative to the com- guages. mercial relations of the country High and Mighty Lords, with Sweden, and the reciprocity The King, in ordering me to to be exercised towards that close in his name the session of power, occupied the attention of the States-general, has at the the States-general assembled at same time commissioned me to Brussels.

testify his satisfaction at the conAll the sections agreeing in stant and assiduous care which the principles which dictated this you have shown in the thorough law, declared that the discussion investigation of the various prowas open. Count Hogendorp, in jects of laws which have been an excellent speech, supported laid before you, and of which the project. He quoted the opi- several were of high importance. nion of the celebrated Chaptal, I shall not enumerate them ; but formerly minister of the interior it is agreeable to the king to be in France, who rejects every able to inform you, even before system of prohibition as injuri- your session is closed, that a very ous to nations; he would have interesting law, that on the naan unlimited freedom of com- tional militia, has been put into merce, which, said he, cannot full execution, and that the rebut be to our advantage. sult answers the hopes which his

No other member desiring to majesty entertained. speak, M. Fulck, minister of co- “His majesty thinks that lonies and trade, explained the equally satisfactory information grounds of the project, which, may soon be given you respecting the other laws which you that economy has been studied have since had before you. He as much as possible. He laments, will rejoice at it, because his am- however, that the army is so exbition is the prosperity of the pensive, and wishes that this state, and in his heart, the pros- branch could be diminished, but perity of the nation is inseparable the position and relations of the from his own happiness.” kingdom make it necessary to

His excellency concluded by follow the example of other recommending to the members powers. The state of the sinkworthily to employ the interval ing fund will be laid before the till the next session in maintain. Assembly: though but a few ing that spirit of concord which is years have elapsed since it was the basis of the general welfare established, its good effects have and happiness.

been already felt. Some meaThe next session of the states sures will be proposed to remove was held, according to the ap- the few differences which still pointed rotation at the Hague,

the Hague, exist in the duties and privil when an opening speech was of the inhabitants of the Netherread in the name of the king, of lands in all parts of the kingdom, which this was the substance. including the Grand Duchy of

“ This sitting will be of the Luxemburg. The harvest has highest importance, as the States- been, in general, uncommonly general will have to discuss mea- abundant. Important manufacsures which will complete the tories show an increasing actiedifice of the constitution. His vity, and though industry and majesty has the satisfaction to trade in general still suffer from announce, that the most cordial the unnatural excitement prefriendship continues to exist with viously given them, and the surall foreign powers, and that all of prising revolutions in political them are animated with the most circumstances, those who comardent desire of peace; so that pare our situation with that of there is every reason to presume,

other countries find no reason to that all the nations of Europe envy them or to lament our own. will continue to enjoy entire tran- The good effects of the new adquillity. In this sitting the pro- ministration of our colonies graject of the codes for the Nether- dually develope themselves. The lands will belaid before the States. intercourse with them becomes According to the fundamental law, daily more extensive. this great work will be laid before “ Deeply penetrated with the the Assembly in distinct parts. sense of my obligation in all the Every free and independent nation acts of my government, always requires a national legislation. The to have in view the interests of moment will be most important the Netherlands in general, and when the whole can be proclaimed never to prefer that of a part to as the law of the State.

that of the whole, I shall con“ His majesty then proceeds to tinue with calmness and firmness the finances, in which he says, to pursue the path which I have the Assembly will be convinced, proposed to myself, convinced that it will lead to the real happi. ness of our beloved country, and Parga and the Ionian Isles. and the co-operation of your high mightinesses. I hope I shall The cession of a 'small Chrisalways continue to find the proof tian republic on the

• 2

that

western coast that you

do justice to my senti. `of Greece, by his Britannic maments and intentions.

jesty to Ali Pasha the Musulman Sweden. The completion of despot of Albania, a transaction the stipulated payments from the much canvassed in the English king of Sweden to the king of parliament, appears not unworthy Denmark, as a compensation for of mention in the general histhe possession of Norway, was tory of this year. The circuma source of some embarrassment stances which led to this transacto the former country. The king tion were the following: Parga, of Denmark, early in the year, the sole relic of the Venetian complained to the sovereigns of dominions on the continent of Russia and Prussia, then met at Greece which was able to baffle Aix la Chapelle, of the delay down to the year 1800 the conwhich had occurred in the liqui- quering arms of Ali, gave admitdation of this debt, and repre- tance some time afterwards to a sentations were in consequence French garrison, the French havaddressed by these potentates to ing at this time succeeded in esthe king of Sweden. Very acri- tablishing themselves as succes monious discussions between the sors to all the possessions of the respective courts are said to have republic of Venice. In the year ensued, and at one period formi- 1814, being again attacked by dable difficulties were opposed to their implacable enemy Ali, and the amicable adjustment of the finding this garrison an insufficient business. Subsequently, the me- defence, the Pargiotes, after rediation of Great Britain was pelling the assault by their own called in, and lord Strangford, the valour, found it expedient to British minister at Stockholm, seek the protection of Great carried on negotiations there for Britain. This was accorded them some time in the names of his by general Campbell the comown sovereign and of the king of manding officer on that station; Denmark: these were at length and a body of English troops successful, and an arrangement were received into the town, on was acceded to, satisfactory alike the express condition that it to the contracting and to the should share the fate of the Seven mediating powers, by which Den- Islands. Some time after, this mark was to receive a smaller treaty received the approbation sum than had at first been stipu- of the Prince Regent. lated, but by instalments at In the congress of 1815; in shorter intervals and securely utter oblivion as it should appear, guaranteed. [See Public papers.] of the engagement entered into Immediately after the termina- with this devoted republic, it was tion of this affair, the king set stipulated on the part of Great out for Scania.

Britain that the whole continent

of

of Greece should be ceded to ceedings, tending to show the fea the Porte, in other words to Ali rocious and faithless character of Pasha. When it was first ru. Ali, who continually threatened moured at Parga that the town to enter the town by force, withwas to be delivered up to their out paying a single farthing, two ancient enemy, the most dreadful commissioners were at length apprehensions were entertained named, one by this barbarian and by the inhabitants, and an earnestone by the British, before whom supplication on the subject was every individual citizen of Parga addressed to the British officer was brought up for the purpose commanding the garrison ; who of declaring whether he preferred answered in March 1817, by or- to remain in his native town, or ders of sir Thomas Maitland, to emigrate. They unanimously lord-commissioner for the Ionian answered, that “ they were reislands, that as he had not yet re- solved to abandon their country ceived the regular instructions of rather than stay in it'with disho his government, he could give nour; and that they should disinter them no definitive answer ; but and carry along with them the that they might depend on his bones of their forefathers.” doing all in his power for their The commissioners soon disaadvantage, provided they did not greed, as might be expected, in forfeit their claim to his protec- their valuations; both were sution by any acts of violence or perseded and all proceedings bloodshed. From this reply, the were suspended till May 1818, substance of the arrangement when new commissioners were thus became apparent, and as no named, before whom the Parone could doubt the cruelty with giotes repeated their former rewhich Ali was disponed to treat solution, and between whom the the place on its coming into his former differences arose. The power, sir Thomas Maitland au. Pargiotes, reduced to the utmost thorised the British commander distress, sent a statement of their to exhibit a letter in which he case with proper documents to “ pledged himself that the place be laid before the British parliashould not be yielded up till the ment; but unfortunately the foproperty of those who might reigner whom they employed did choose to emigrate should be not hold himself entitled to make paid for, and they themselves be any formal application. The cause transported to the Ionian islands.” was indeed taken up by some vo

An estimate of the whole pro- luntary advocates in both houses perty of the people was then of parliament, but their generous made by the commander, who efforts came too late; and the calculated that it would amount sacrifice was consummated beto between 400,0001. and 500,0001. fore any specific proposal for A more particular valuation their relief could be submitted to raised the sum total considerably the legislature. higher, yet by some chicane, less “ In June 1819, general Maitthan a third part was finally land, in consequence of the deawarded. After a variety of pro- preciation of property by the

neglect

neglect and despair of its owners, the people embarked in silence ; finally declared the compensation and free and Christian Parga is to be paid by Ali for the Turkish now a strong hold of ruffians, regovernment to be 142,425l. sterl= negadoes and slaves." ing; and, shortly after, intimated The consummation of this deto the citizens, that he was ready plorable sacrifice took place early to provide for their transporta- in the month of June; and imtion to the islands.

mediately afterwards sir Thomas « As soon as this notice was Maitland set sail for Ancona, given, every family marched so- whence he was to proceed to lemnly out of its dwelling, with- Rome, for the purpose of negoout tears or lamentation ; and the tiating with the pope a kind of men, preceded by their priests concordat for the Catholic clergy and followed by their sons, pro- of the Ionian isles. The close ceeded to the sepulchres of their of the session of the Ionian parfathers, and silently unearthed and liament, prorogued by the lordcollected their remains,—which commissioner immediately prethey placed upon a huge pile of vious to his departure, had been wood which they had previously marked by the hitherto unpreceerected before one of their dented circumstance of an oppochurches. They then took their sition, and that too a successful arms in their hands, and setting one, on the part of the

represenfire to the pile, stood motionless tatives, to a measure of the goand silent around it, till the vernment. An additional duty whole was consumed. During of 5 per cent on the export of this melancholy ceremony, some currants, which had been unani. of Ali's troops, impatient for pos- mously voted by the senate, comsession, approached the gates of posed of six members, was rethe town; upon which a deputa- jected in the legislative assembly tion of the citizens was sent to by a great majority; as a meainform our governor, that if a sure manifestly ruinous to that single infidel was admitted before important branch of the produce the remains of their ancestors of the islands, which, so burwere secured from profanation, dened, could not sustain a comand they themselves, with their petition with the currants of Pafamilies, fairly embarked, they trass, permitted by the Porte to would all instantly put to death be exported under a very trifling their wives and children, and die impost. Before the stand thus with arms in their hands,--and made by the representative body not without a bloody revenge on in behalf of the purses of their those who had bought and sold constituents, it appears that setheir country. Such a remon- veral new taxes had received the strance, at such a moment, was sanction of the legislature, some felt and respected as it ought by of which being regarded by the those to whom it was addressed. peasantry as an intolerable opGeneral Adam succeeded in

pression, stopping the march of the Musul.

Edinburgh Review, No. lxiv. The pile burnt out,-and Article 1.

mans.

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