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privileges granted to one class of of this people, and perhaps still people are necessarily an injury more particularly in the indivito some other...

duals of German origin who are .." Emigrants from Germany, born in this country. or from any other country, have

« This sentiment of superiority not on arriving here any favour over all other nations, which to expect from the governments; never leaves them, and which has but in case they should desire to been so very displeasing to fobecome citizens of the state, they reigners who have visited our may flatter themselves with en-shores, proceeds from the opinion joying the same rights as the entertained by each individual, natives of the country. If they that in quality of a member of possess property, they may society there is no person in this reckon upon finding the means of country superior to him. Proud increasing it with moderation, of this feeling, he regards with but with certainty; if they are some haughtiness those nations poor, but laborious, honest, and among whom the mass of the know how to be satisfied with a people are regarded as subordilittle, they will succeed in gain- nate to certain privileged classes, ing enough to support themselves and where men are great or in-, and their families ; they will pass significant by the hazard of their an independent, but a laborious birth. But from this it also hapand paintul life, and if they can- pens, that no government in the not accommodate themselves to world has so little means of bethe moral, political, and physical stowing favour as that of the state of this country, the Atlantic United States. The governments Ocean will always be open to are the servants of the people, them to return to their native and they are regarded as such by countries. They must bend their the people, who create and decharacters to necessity, or they pose them. will assuredly fail as Americans “ They are elected to admi. in all their schemes of fortune; nister the public affairs for a they must throw off, as it were, short space of time, and when their European skin, never more the people are not satisfied with to resume it; they must direct them, they cease to maintain their thoughts rather forwards them in their functions. But if towards their posterity, than be the means of the government to hind them to their ancestors; do good are limited, the means they must persuade themselves of doing ill are limited also. Dethat whatever may be their own pendence here in the affairs of sentiments, those of their chil- government is precisely in the

will assuredly approach inverse ratio of what takes place more to the habits of the coun- in Europe. The people here do try, and will catch something of not depend upon those that go. the haughtiness, perhaps a little vern them; but the latter, as contemptuousness, which they such, depend constantly upon the have themselves remarked with good will of the people. surprise in the general character “ We know very well that of - VOL, LXI,

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the quantity of foreigners who of the small number of emi every year come to our country grants of fortune who endeato fix their abode, none of them voured to settle in our country, come from taste, or from any re- a considerable portion were disgard to a country to which they satisfied with our singular cusare totally strangers, and of which toms, and after a certain resithe Germans do not understand dence returned home. There are even the language. We know certainly some exceptions; and that they come here not for our in the most opulent and distinadvantage, but for their own; guished class of our fellow-citinot to labour for our prosperity, zens, we have the good fortune but to ameliorate their own con- to count some individuals who dition. Thus we expect to see would have acquired fortune and very few individuals of Europe distinctions, even had they not who enjoy in their own country passed into a new country, and ease, happiness, or even any gra- another portion of the world. tification, come and settle in We should feel great satisfaction America. Those who are happy in seeing yourself among this and contented remain at home, number, and that it would accord and it requires a principle of mo- with your dispositions and sentition not less powerful than want ments. I have the honour to be, to remove a man from his native Sir, &c. country, and the place where the “ John Quincy ADAMS." tombs of his ancestors are placed.

CHAPTER CHAPTER XVI.

SOUTH AMERICA.

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THE progress of that great disturbance from the mother

political operation, the suc- country beyond the menace of cessive enfranchisement of the invasion by the mighty armament vast provinces of Spanish Ame- which so long a series of impedirica from the control of the ments has still detained within mother country, and their forma- the harbour of Cadiz. Monte tion into a cluster of separate but Video, and the surrounding disallied republics, continues to trict on the northern shore of the render this portion of the western Plata, are held by Artigas, an in hemisphere an object of profound dependent chieftain with whom attention to every people of the the authorities of Buenos Ayres civilized world.

carry on by turns hostilities and On this ample scene, several negotiations. distinct centres of action are dis. The republic of Chili united in tinguishable, which it will be ex: a striet alliance with Buenos pedient slightly to indicate before Ayres, besides securing its own a more minute detail is attempted independence, has been enabled of the events of the year. to carry on offensive war against

The city of Angustura on the Spain by sea; and it was with the river Orinoco, has become the fleet of Chili that lord Cochrane capital of the republic of Vene- has attacked Callao, and placed zuela, of which Simon Bolivar is for some time the whole coast of the president. It was against Peru in a state of blockade. this state exclusively that the Macgregor, by whom Portobello Spaniards were enabled to carry was surprised and plundered, is on military operations during said to be avowed by none of the 1819, and the campaign of gene- new republics, and can therefore ral Morillo against the patriots be regarded in no other light of Venezuela, with the progress than a free booter, and the same of the latter in the kingdom of may be said of the person styled New Granada, will form the most commodore Aury. We now reprominent feature of the

ensuing turn to the principal seat of war. narrative. The United States of Venezuela.-Early in the spring, the river de la Plata, of which general Morillo the Spanish comBuenos Ayres may be termed mander-in-chief, quitted his head the soul, have experienced no quarters in the city of Caraccas

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at the head of about 10,000 men, success decided the destination and directing his course inland, of the troops at Margaretta. entered upon a toilsome route of The Spanish squadron of six many hundreds of miles with the large vessels and eight flecheras intention of reaching the banks of had been shut up by the Venethe Orinoco and dispossessing zuelan fleet of 15 ships of war, the independents of the city of in the port of Cumana, which was Angostura their capital. In the placed in a state of blockade; mean while, Bolivar, who had re- and in the mean time col. Ursler, ceived a very important accession with 300 English and German of force, principally from the ar- auxiliaries under gen. English, rival of English troops, prepared forming part of the expedition for a campaign comprising a ra- from Margaretta, effected a landther complicated system of ac- ing at Barcelona, and on July tion. An encampment was formed 18th carried the fortress called in the Island of Margaretta of the Moro, with the loss of only about 1,500 men, who were to 13 men.

to 13 men. Three Spanish ships remain there in readiness till cir- which came with troops in aid of cumstances should decide on the place were also captured, and what point of the coast a descent another division of general Urmight be attempted with most deneta's force from Margaretta, effect in support of the operations disembarked to the leeward of carrying on in the interior: ge- Cumana to form the siege of that neral Santander was dispatched place. Santander advancing into to the westward to oppose the the plains of Casanare, forming advance of a body of troops sent the western boundary of the profrom New Granada to form a vince of Parinas, encountered a junction with Morillo ; General Spanish division of about 3,500 Marino marched into the pro- men, over whom he gained a vince of Barcelona to intercept splendid victory, cutting to pieces the division of Morillo's army or making prisoners of the whole. which was destined for an at- Disappointed of this expected tempt upon Angostura ; and Bo- reinforcement, Morillo, notwithlivar in person, attended by Paez, standing some partial advantages at the head of a light cavalry with which he began the camarmed with lances, composed of paign, was gradually driven back, the free people of colour and the by the incessant harassing of an inhabitants of the plains, called enemy greatly superior to him in Llaneros, watched the motions of cavalry; and retreating northMorillo himself. On every point wards and westwards, received, the efforts of the Venezuelans on July 26th, a defeat at a place were crowned with success. Ma- called Columboso, a short disrino totally defeated the force tance from the mouth of the lake opposed to him at a place called of Maracaibo. Cispero or Centaura, in the neigh- In the state of feebleness and bourhood of Barcelona, and con- destitution to which the army of centrating his forces advanced Morillo had thus been reduced, upon that important city. This Bolivar was enabled to avail him

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self to the utmost of the victory whole of our infantry showed of Santander, by which an unob- themselves in a column on structed course was opened into height commanding his position. . the kingdom of New Grenada; a The enemy's van had ascended province already ripe for revolu- part of the road, following our tion, from the inhabitants of advance, and the remainder of which he received frequent depu- his army was below, about a quartations, congratulating him on ter of a league from the bridge, his victories, and offering him and showed a force of 3,000 men. supplies of men and money. De- Our battalion of Cazadores of parting from the cautious and the van sent out a company of defensive system which he had skirmishers, and with the rejudged it necessary to preserve mainder in column attacked the in the early part of the campaign, enemy's Cazadores, and drove the president directed his march them back precipitately to a wall, from Varinas towards Santa Fe from whence they were also disde Bogota, the distant capital of lodged ; they then passed the New Grenada. His own bulle. bridge, and took up a position on tins will best record his success. the other side, and in the mean

while our infantry came down, BATTLE OF BOJACA,

and the cavalry marched along Fourth Bulletin of the Liberating the road. Army of New Granada.

The enemy made a movement Yesterday, at day-light, our by his right, which was opposed advanced corps giving notice that by the rifles, and the British comthe enemy was in march by the pany. The battalions, first of road of Šamaca, the army was Barcelona and Paez's Bravos, put under arms; and as soon as with the squadron of the cavalry it was ascertained that he in- of the upper plain, marched by tended passing the bridge of the centre. The battalion of the Bojaca, in order to open direct line of New Granada, and the communication, and be in con- Guides of the rear, joined the tact with the capital, we marched battalion of Cazadores and formed by the high-road to prevent him, the left. The columns of Tunja or force him to give battle. and Socorro remained in reserve.

At two in the afternoon, the The action began at the same enemy's first division reached the instant all along the line, general bridge, where he saw only our Anzoategui directed the operaadvance of cavalry. Not then tions of the centre and right; he able to ascertain our force, and ordered a battalion to be attacked believing those opposed to him which the enemy had sent out as were nothing more than a re- skirmishers in a glen, and forced connoitering party, he attacked it to retire on the main body, them with his Cazadores to clear which, formed in column on a the way whilst the main body fol- height with three pieces of arlowed up. Our divisions quick- tillery in the centre

and two ened their march, and to the corps of cavalry in the flanks, great surprise of the enemy, the waited the attack.

Our

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