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tains. The celebration of weddings, and the customs, connected with their funerals are very singular and differ greatly from those in other parts of Britain.

There are yet a great many remains of antiquities in England, of British, Roman, Saxon, Danish, and Norman origin; as: Stonehenge, on Salisbury plain, in Wiltshire, supposed to have been a place of worship belonging to the Druids, or a place of judgment, in the time of the Belgæ. Altars, inscriptions, military ways, and the remains of camps are ascribed to the Roman period. The most stupendous monument of Roman art was the wall of Severus. The remains of Saxon antiquities are chiefly those of castles, churches, abbeys and dungeons in several parts of the kingdom; one of the rudest castles is Coningsbury Castle, in Yorkshire. Vestiges of Danish camps, stones with Runic inscriptions, and several castles, supposed to have been built by the Danes, are still to be seen in the northern counties of England. Norman structures erected subsequently to the Norman invasion succeed numerous castles, distinguished by the solitary tower or keep, enclosed with a double wall, and defended by turrets and ditches. Among the venerable ecclesiastical edifices, are the Cathedrals of Durham and York, with Westminster Abbey.


Government of Great Britain.

(By R. Chambers.) The Government of Great Britain is conducted according to forms and principles which have come into operation in the course of many centuries. The Executive that is, the power by which the laws are en

- is entrusted by the nation to a hereditary monarch who rules under considerable limitations, and forms only one branch of the legislature. The legislature that is the power by which the laws are created, consists of three distinct but combined powers: 1) a House of Commons, composed of 658 Gentlemen, elected by certain portions of the people; 2) a House of Peers, composed of the hereditary nobles of England, the English Archbishops and bishops, a certain number of lords representing the Scottish and Irish peerage, a certain number of spiritual lords representing the Irish Hierarchy, and finally, 3) the King or Queen. The houses of Commons and Peers, otherwise styled the Lower and Upper Houses, form a compound deliberative body called the Parliament, which is liable to be called together, and prorogued and dissolved, at the King's pleasure.

These law-giving and law-executing powers combine, in one System called the British Constitution, a variety of political principles, which are usually found acting singly. The House of Commons, as a representation of the people, may be said to be founded on the principle of democracy, or people-sovereignty; the House of Peers, which is independent of direct popular controul, presents the principle of Aristocracy, or noble-sovereignty; while the king contributes the monarchical principle or sovereignty of one. It must be allowed, in explanation of a system so extraordinary that the particular portions of the constitution have not always borne the same relative power, and that principles naturally so inconsistent could never perhaps be combined at all except by a process extending over many ages.

In early times the king possessed the chief influence, while the Parliament, in general, was rather an obsequious Council of the sovereign than an independent body. At the revolution of 1688 the strength of the monarchy was diminished by a breach of the hereditary line, and the Parliament became the predominant power. the nobility and superior gentry had then the chief influence in both Houses of Parliament, it might be said, that the aristocratic principle had become ascendant. It continued to be so till the passing of the Reform bill in 1832, when, the power of

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electing the majority of the House of Commons being extended to the middle classes of the people, the democratic principle was, for the first time, brought into any considerable degree of force.

In 1837, at the meeting of the first Parliament of Queen Victoria, the number of members of the House of Lords was 441, namely: 3 princes of blood-royal, 2 English Archbishops, 21 dukes, 19 marquises, 112 earls, 19 viscounts, 24 English bishops, 4 Irish prelates, 193 barons, 16 representative peers of Scotland, and 28 representative peers of Ireland.

The House of Commons consists of 658 members; of whom 253 are chosen by counties, 6 by universities and 399 by cities, boroughs, or towns. England returns 471, Wales 29, Ireland 105 and Scotland 53. The number of persons entitled to vote in the election of these members is probably about a million; of whom about 600,000 vote for county members, 5000 for representatives of universities and 400,000 for members for cities, boroughs, or towns.

The qualifications of an elector for a member of the House of Commons in counties, are the having been entitled to vote on a freehold qualification before the passing of the Reform Act, the holding land in copyhold of the clear annual value of ten pounds, the possessing land or houses of ten pounds annual value in property, or on a lease of no less than 60 years in England, and 57 in Scotland, and the occupation of land or tenements in England for any period, and in Scotland for 19 years, at an annual rent of no less than 50 pounds. The qualification of an elector in boroughs is the occupation of a house of 10 pounds annual rent; the resident freeman in English and Irish boroughs being also allowed to vote.

The utmost duration to which a Parliament can extend, is seven years; and a new House of Commons must be elected within 6 months after the commencement of every new reign. The king, however, frequently exercises his prerogative in dissolving Parliament a considerable time before the expiration of the full time allowed to it by law.

The members of the House of Lords enjoy their seats from hereditary privilege. The sovereign possesses the power of creating peers, and of nominating bishops. The Scottish representative peers are elected by the whole body of the peerage of that country at the commencement of every new Parliament; the Irish representative peers are elected also by the whole body of the peerage of their country, but for life. The Irish spiritual peers sit in rotation.

The king is not only at the head of the executive; he is also the head of the church, the commander of the Army, the dispenser of all titles of honour, and even, by a fiction of the law, the person of whom all the landed property in his dominions is held. In the right of appointing the bishops, the judges, the lords - lieutenant and justices of peace of counties, the officers of the army and navy, and many other officers and public servants, he possesses a large amount of patronage, which conduces, in no small degree, to the maintenance of his authority. He has also the sole right of declaring peace or war, though, in the latter instance, he is effectually controulled by the House of Commons, which may give or withhold the requisite funds, as it sees proper. Out of respect for the hereditary principle and the royal character, it is held that the king cannot of himself do any wrong, or be personally called to account for his actions. The responsibility for the performance of his functions rests with a body of servants, chosen by himself, and designated his ministers, who cannot continue in that character without the approbation of Parliament and are liable, to be impe hed by that body if they commit any grievous error. Twelve of these officers,

usually constitute what is called the Cabinet Council, or the Council of the King's Cabinet, to deliberate upon all matters of importance. Besides this body, the king has a Privy Council,

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consisting of persons eminent from rank, office, or personal character, who may be at variance with the Cabinet Council, but take no share in the government, except when summoned by the royal authority. They are then in the same situation with the Cabinet Ministers and responsible for the advice they give.

The two houses of Parliament usually sit, during a considerable portion of every year, in deliberation upon the affairs of the country, and for the enactment of new, or the repeal of old laws. Any member of either house may propose a new law; but this duty is chiefly undertaken by the king's ministers and it is to the Lower or Commons House that new laws are usually first proposed. When a new law has been introduced in the shape of a bill, and sanctioned in one House, it passes to another, which may receive, reject or modify it. If it passes both, it is submitted to the king, who may give or withhold his approbation. When it has received the sanction of all the three branches of the legislature, it is called an Act of Parliament and becomes part of the laws of the country. The bills for the pecuniary supplies necessary for the public service, are introduced exclusively by the House of Commons, they may be rejected by the House of Lords; but for that house to alter them, or to introduce any bill which involves pecuniary supply to the government, is considered as a breach of the privileges of the Lower House.

The public revenue of the United Kingdom is derived principally from four sources, namely custom ') duties, excise 2) duties, stamp 3) duties and assessed 4) taxes.

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3. Extracts from Macaulay's History of England.

Oliver Cromwell and his army. The soul of the Independent party was Oliver Cromwell. Bred to peaceful occupations, he had, at more than forty years of age, accepted a commission') in the parliamentary army. No sooner had he become a soldier than he discerned, with the keen glance of genius, what Essex and men like Essex, with all their experience, were unable to perceive. He saw precisely where the strength of the Royalists lay, and by what means alone that strength could be overpowered. He saw that it was necessary to reconstruct the army of the Parliament. He saw also that there were abundant and excellent materials for the purpose, materials less showy, indeed, but more solid, than those of which the gallant squadrons of the king were composed. It was necessary to look for recruits who were not mere mercenaries, for recruits of decent station and grave character, fearing God and zealous for public liberty. With such men he filled his own regiment, and, while he subjected them to a discipline more rigid than had ever before been known in England, he administered to their intellectual and moral nature stimulants of fearful potency ?).

The events of the year 1644 fully proved the superiority of his abilities. In the south, where Essex held the command, the parliamentary forces underwent a succession of shameful disasters; but in the north the victory of Marston Moor fully compensated for all that had been lost elsewhere. That victory was not a more serious blow to the Royalists than to the party which had hitherto been dominant at Westminster; for it was notorious that the day, disgracefully lost by the Presbyterians, had been

2) Ein- und Ausgangszölle. 2). Binnenzölle. 3) Stempel. 9) Abgaben von Sachen, als Fenster, Wagen, Pferde 2. 5) Eine Stelle. 6) (330). 7) Furchtbare Macht.

retrieved by the energy of Cromwell, and by the steady valour of the warriors whom he had trained.

These events produced the Self-denying Ordinance ?) and the new model of the army. Under decorous pretexts, and with every mark of respect, Essex and most of those who had held high posts under him were removed; and the conduct of the war was intrusted to very different hands. Fairfax, a brave soldier, but of mean understanding and irresolute temper, was the nominal Lord General of the forces; but Cromwell was their real head.

Cromwell made haste to organise the whole army on the same principles on which he had organised is own regiment. As soon as this process was complete, the event of the war was decided. The Cavaliers had now to encounter natural courage equal to their own, enthusiasm stronger than their own, and discipline such as was utterly wanting to them. It soon became a proverb that the soldiers of Fairfax and Cromwell were men of a different breed from the soldiers of Essex. At Naseby took place the first encounter between the Royalists and the remodelled army of the Houses. The victory of the Roundheads 2) was complete and decisive. It was followed by triumphs in rapid succession. In a few months the authority of the Parliament was fully established over the whole kingdom. Charles fled to the Scots, and was by them, in a manner which did not much exalt their national character, delivered up to his English subjects.

In the summer of 1647 about twelve months after the last fortress of the Cavaliers had submitted to the Parliament, the Parliament was compelled to submit to its own soldiers.

Thirteen years followed, during which England was, under various names and forms, really governed by the sword. Never before that time, or since that time, was the civil power in our country subjected to military dictation 3).

The army which now became supreme in the State was an army very different from any that has since been seen among us. At present the pay of the common soldier is not such as can seduce any but the humblest class of English labourers from their calling. A barrier almost impassable separates him from the commissioned 4) officer. The great majority of those who rise high in the service rise by purchase. So numerous and extensive are the remote dependencies of England, that every man who enlists in the line must expect to pass many years in exile, and some years in climates unfavourable to the health and vigour of the European race. The army of the Long Parliament was raised for home service. The pay of the private soldier was much above the wages earned by the great body of the people; and, if he distinguished himself by intelligence and courage, he might hope to attain high commands. The ranks were accordingly composed of persons superior in station and education to the multitude. These persons, sober, moral, diligent, and accustomed to reflect, had been induced to take up arms, not by the pressure of want, not by the love of novelty and license, not by the arts of recruiting officers, but by religious and political zeal, mingled with the desire of distinction and promotion. The boast of the soldiers, as we find it recorded in their solemn resolutions, was, that they had not been forced into the service, nor had enlisted chiefly for the sake of lucre, that they were no janissaries, but freeborn Englishmen, who had, of their own accord"), put their lives in jeopardy for the liberties and religion of England, and whose right and duty it was to watch over the welfare of the nation which they had saved.

1) Subordination. 2) Name der Puritaner. 3) Diktatur. 4) Angestellte. 5) Aus freien Stüden.

A force thus composed might, without injury to its efficiency, be indulged in 1) some liberties, which, if allowed to any other troops, would have proved subversive of all discipline. In general, soldiers who should form themselves into political clubs, elect delegates, and pass resolutions ?) on high questions of state, would soon break loose from all control, would cease to form an army, and would beconie the worst and most dangerous of mobs. Nor would it be safe in our time, to tolerate in any iment religious meetings, at which a corporal versed in Scripture should lead the devotions of his less gifted colonel, and admonish backsliding major. But such was the intelligence, the gravity, and the self-command of the warriors whom Cromwell had trained, that in their camp a political organization and a religious organization could exist without destroying military organization. The same men, who, off 3) duty, were noted as demagogues and field preachers, were distinguished by steadiness, by the spirit of order, and by prompt obedience on watch, on drill, and on the field of battle.

In war this strange force was irresistible. The stubborn courage characteristic of the English people was, by the system of Cromwell, at once regulated and stimulated. Other leaders have inspired their followers with zeal as ardent. But in his camp alone the most rigid discipline was found in company with the fiercest enthusiasm. His troops moved to victory with the precision of machines, while burning with the wildest fanaticism of Crusaders. From the time when the army was remodelled to the time when it was disbanded, it never found, either in the British Islands or on the Continent, an enemy, who could stand its onset. In England, Scotland, Ireland, Flanders, the Puritan warriors, often surrounded by difficulties, sometimes contending against threefold odds 4), not only never failed to conquer, but never failed to destroy and break in pieces whatever force was opposed to them. They at length came to regard the day of battle as a day of certain triumph, and marched against the most renowned battalions of Europe with disdainful confidence. Turenne was startled by the shout of stern exultation with which his English allies advanced to the combat, and expressed the delight of a true soldier, when he learned that it was ever the fashion of Cromwell's pikemen to rejoice greatly when they beheld the enemy; and the banished Cavaliers felt an emotion of national pride, when they saw a brigade of their countrymen, outnumbered 5) by foes and abandoned by allies, drive before it in headlong rout the finest infantry of Spain, and force a passage into a counterscarp which bad just been pronounced impregnable by the ablest of the Marshals of France.

But that which chiefly distinguished the army of Cromwell from other armies was the austere morality and the fear of God which pervaded all ranks. is acknowledged by the most zealous Royalists that, in that singular camp, no oath was heard, no drunkenness or gambling was seen, and that, during the long dominion of the soldiery, the property of the peaceable citizen and the honour of woman were held sacred. If outrages were committed, they were outrages of a very different kind from those of which a victorious army is generally guilty. No servant girl complained of the rough gallantry of the redcoats. Not an ounce of plate was taken from the shops of the goldsmiths. But a Pelagian sermon, or å window on which the Virgin and Child were painted, produced in the Puritan ranks an excitement which it required the utmost exertions of the officers to quell. One of Cromwell's chief difficulties was to restrain bis musketeers and dragoons from invading by main force the pulpits of ministers whose

3) Außer dem Dienste.

1) Man durfte nadigeben. 2) Beschlüsse . fassen. “) Menge. 5) Von weit überlegenen Feinden angegriffen,

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