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1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, General
provisions. before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States, under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
2. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
3. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
NOTE.- Religion, establishment of, etc.—The Legislature may authorize and provide for religious and benevolent corporations to enable them to pursue their objects, to hold and manage the necessary property therefor, and to regulate their affairs.-Terret et al. vs. Taylor et al., 9 Cranch, p. 49.
RATIFICATION OF CONSTITUTION.
What sufficient for ratification.
1. The ratification of the Conventions of nine States What
sufficient shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitu- for
ratification tion between the States so ratifying the same.
Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States present,
the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.
President, and Deputy from Virginia.
DANIEL OF St. Tho. JENIFER, WILLIAM SAMUEL JOHN- DANIEL CARROLL.
JAMES MADISON, JR.
WILLIAM BLOUNT, WILLIAM LIVINGSTON, RICHARD DOBBS SPAIGHT, DAVID BREARLY,
JOHN RUTLEDGE, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, CHARLES C. PINCKNEY, THOMAS MIFFLIN,
Attest: WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary
ARTICLE I. RESTRICTION ON POWER OF CONGRESS.
II. RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS.
ARTICLE VII. TRIAL BY JURY.
X. STATES Rights.
RESTRICTIONS ON POWER OF CONGRESS.
SECTION 1. Free exercise of religion, speech, etc., and right of
people to assemble. SECTION 1. Congress shall make no law respecting Restric
tions on establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free power of
. exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.—[Proposed Sept. 25th, 1789; ratified Dec. 15th, 1791.
RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS.
Section 1. Right not to be denied to people.
bear arms. to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.—[Id.
BILLETING OF SOLDIERS.
SECTION 1. No soldier to be billeted, etc.
SECTION 1. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quar- Billeting
of soldiers, tered in any house, without the consent of the owner;
nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.-[Id.
SEIZURES, SEARCHES, AND WARRANTS.
SECTION 1. Unreasonable searches, seizures, and warrants prohibited.
Seizures, searches, and warrants.
SECTION 1. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against un reasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon reasonable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or things to be seized.-[Id.
CRIMINAL PROCEEDING AND CONDEMNATION OF PROPERTY.
Criminal proceedings and condemnation of property.
SECTION 1. No person to be held to answer for certain crimes except
on indictment. Exception-not to be twice tried for same offense; not to be a witness against himself;
right to compensation for property condemned. SECTION 1. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of war, or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against him. self, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.-[id.
Note.- Private property shall not be taken for public use, etc. The provisions in the fifth amendment to the Constitution, declaring that private property should not be taken for public use without just compensation, is intended solely as a limitation on the exercise of power by the government of the United States, and is
not applicable to the Legislatures of the States.-Bar-
MODE OF TRIAL IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDING.
SECTION 1. Accused entitled to speedy trial; to confront witnesses; to
have counsel; place of trial, etc.
SECTION 1. In all criminal prosecutions the accused Mode of shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by crimina!
proceed. an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the ing. crime shall have been committed, which district shail have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.—[Id.
NOTE.-The Federal Courts are held to have no common law jurisdiction in criminal cases in the following decisions: U. S. vs. Worrall, 2 D., p. 393; s. c., Whart. St. Tr., p. 189, Peters, J., dissenting; U. S. vs. Hare, 2 Wh. Cr. Cas., p. 300; U. S. vs. Hudson, 7 Cr., p. 32; U. S. vs. Coolidge, 1 Wh., p. 415; s. C., 1 Gall, p. 488; Penn. vs. Wheeling, and Belmont Br. Co., 13 H., p. 519; U. S. vs. Clark, 1 Gall, p. 497; U. S. vs. McKenzie, 1 N. Y. Leg. Obs., p. 374; U. S. vs. Wilson, 3 Bl. C. C., p. 435; U. S. vs. Ramsey, Hemp., p. 481; U. S. vs. Barney, 3 Int. R. Rec., p. 46. Contra-U. S. vs. McGill, 4 D., p. 429; U. S. vs. Henfield, Whart. St. Tr., p. 85; U. S. vs. Williams, id., p. 652; Serg. Const. L., p. 272; U.S. vs. Smith, 6 Dane Abr., p. 718; U.S. vs. Meyer, Whart. Prec., Sec. 935, n. The jurisdiction is in the State Courts alone, of common law offenses, though the General Government be the party thereby aggrieved.-U. S. vs. Hutchinson, 7 Penn., L. J., p. 365. Nothing which is not criminal by statute can be punished under the laws of the United States.-U. S. vs. Libby, 1 W. & M., p. 222; U. S. vs. New Bed. Bri. Co., id., p. 401; U.S. vs. Lancaster, 2 McL., p. 431. According to forms of the common law, Federal Courts may proceed against an offender against the law of nations.-U.S. vs. Henfield, Whart. St. Tr., p. 85. So a violation by a citizen of