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and the Messiah, but evidently without realising the force of the terms wbich they applied to Him.

It is clear, then, that the faith of the Apostles in the atoning work of Christ is not to be taken as in any way indicating the measure of realising faith which communicants must now exercise. But the fact that our Lord Himself gave the Communion to persons in so imperfect a state of faith and knowledge, does seem to me to bear very strongly on one point, which is, that we must leave all judgment respecting the internal state of his heart to the conscience of each person who desires to communicate. We have no warrant whatsoever for examining into the internal religious experience of any one before we admit him to the Lord's Table. A man is on such matters to judge himself. The Church must plainly and distinctly set forth the state of heart both towards Christ and towards our fellow-Christians which is requisite, and then she must leave the matter to the man himself.

This our branch of the Church does in her formularios, for we have there two exhortations-one to be read when notice is given of the Communion; the other, an address to those assembled to receive.

In the first, those are invited who are “religiously and devoutly disposed.” Then such are told that it is their “ duty to render most humble and hearty thanks to God for that He hath given His Son Jesus Christ, not only to die for us, but also to be our spiritual food and sustenance in that Holy Sacrament;" and so they are exhorted in the mean scason to “consider the dignity of that holy mystery, and the great peril of the unworthy receiving thereof."

Then the Commandments of God are indicated as tho test by which they are to ascertain whether their outward life corresponds with their inward convictions; and most wisely, when we remember how the religious world tacitly

allows the breaking of such Commandments is the Ninth and Tenth to be compatible with a state of illumination or conversion; and more especially is great stress laid upon the duty of forgiveness; and rightly so, when we consider our Lord's own words respecting “ bringing our gifts to the altar."

Then, again, at the conclusion, a “full trust in God's mercy and a quiet conscience” are laid down as requisite.

But there is a second exhortation, setting forth a still deeper view of the blessings of Redemption which are to be realised by those who would savingly partake of the Body and Blood of Christ.

In this, which begins with “Dearly beloved in the Lord, ye that mind to come," &c., the communicants are reminded how they must diligently try and examine themselves; and this, in the first place, because of the unspeakable greatness of the benefits offered in Holy Communion

- benefits which, by their very nature, can only pertain to the faithful receiver ;

- dwell in Christ, and Christ in us," that we aro one with Christ, and Christ with us."

They are then, in the very words of St. Paul, reminded of the dangers of unworthily receiving.

Accordingly, the assembled communicants are bid to judge themselves, that they be not judged of the Lord ... to repent truly . . . to have a lively and steadfast faith in Christ our Saviour, to amend their lives, and to be in perfect charity with all men.

But above all, a grateful realising faith is insisted on as beyond all else needful, in the words, “ Above all things, ye must give most humblo and hearty thanks to Godthe Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost—for the Redemption of the world, by the death and passion of vur Saviour Christ," &c.

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There is also another short address to those who desire to communicate, in which they are spoken to as those who

truly and earnestly repent of their sins, and are in love and charity with their neighbours,” &c.

After this, the more solemn part of the Service begins as it does in all the ancient Liturgies) with the words,

hearts.” Then we are led to pray that we may so eat-i.e., with such faith, and such inward desire after the good things of God's salvation—that our sinful bodies may be made clean by His Body, and our souls washed with His most precious Blood. And having communicated, we thank God that "He hath vouchsafed to feed us who have duly received these holy mysteries with the spiritual food of the most precious Body and Blood of His Son our Saviour Jesus Christ.”

In the Catechism, “ The Body and Blood of Christ are said to be verily and indeed taken and received by the faithful' in the Lord's Supper.”

And in Article XXVIII. : “To such as rightly, worthily, and with faith receive the same, the bread which we break is a partaking of the Body of Christ.”

In the fifth place, if our Service is to be Scriptural, tho outward part of the Sacrament must be set forth to be, not bread and wine generally, but tho particular bread and vine which has been consecrated after the Institution of Christ.

For no other bread and wine is spoken of in the Scriptures, in connexion with the Lord's Supper; and in every mention of the Eucharist, particular allusion is made to consecration, or blessing, or thanksgiving.

i I cannot believe that the term “ faithful" in the context is to be aplerstood as simply meaning Christian” in the broad sense of a professor of Christianity.


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In Holy Scripture the outward parts are never dissociated from the act of benediction, or Eucharistia, by which they have been set apart.

In all the four accounts of the Institution, our Lord's act of “ blessing" or "giving thanks” is particularly mentioned. Thus, in St. Matthew, “As they were eating Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and break it.” In St. Mark, “ As they did eat, Jesus took brcad, and blessed, and brake." In St. Luke, "Ho took bread, and gavo thanks, and brake it.” In St. Paul, “I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus, the same night in which He was betrayed, took bread, and when He had given thanks, He brake it. . . . After the same manner also He took the cup, when He had supped.”

St. Paul afterwards twice characterises the Sacramental elements as “ this bread,"

," " this cup” (1 Cor. xi. 26, 27); and when he has occasion to mention them in connexion with the inward part, it is as the bread and cup blessed or consecrated : “ The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ ?"

Again, in the two places in the Acts of the Apostles in which Holy Communion is alluded to, it is called “ The breaking of bread" (Acts ii. 42; xx. 7): by this expression the whole Eucharistic action being evidently meant—the “ breaking ” being always accompanied by the “ blessing."

Observe how the Ordinance in these places takes its name from the outward visible act done by the minister, distinguished from the act of reception or the realisation of the thing signified. We do not read that they continued steadfast in the "eating" of bread, but in the “ breaking of bread. The disciples came not together to eat bread, but to break brcad.


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St. Paul says not, “The cup of blessing which ye partake of, or which yo realise," but “The cup of blessing which we bless;” and this Scripture principle is strictly adhered to by the Church of England; for there is a rubric directing that, " when the priest, standing before the table, hath so ordered the bread and wine that he may with the more readiness and decency break the bread before the people, and take the cup into his hands, he shall say the Prayer of Consecration, as followeth.”

Then comes this Prayer, containing, as all the ancient Liturgics do, an acknowledgment of God's mercies in having given Christ for our Redemption : and then reciting the words of our Lord in the accounts of the Institution, following, so far as regards the broad, St. Paul's account, but combining the words as given by St. Matthew and St. Luke in the blessing of the cup.

After this there is a further rubric, recognising still more emphatically the need of consecration: “If the consecrated bread and wine be all spent before all have communicated, the priest is to consecrate more according to the form before prescribed, beginning at Our Saviour Christ,' &c.”

This rubric was introduced at the last revision, and it renders the Service more Scriptural, i.e., more in accordance with every notice of the Holy Communion in Scripture, for the only bread and wine recognised in Scripture as the outward part of the Sacrament is that which has been consecrated in accordance with the Institution of Christ.

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