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author, and shews that be possesses great depth of political knowledge, for the colonies of every country, either destroyed the mother country, or became independent of ber :-and this must be so with every British colony ; even Ireland, which is so near home, pauts to be independent ; how should it be otherwise, when the seal of Government ever becomes the focus of oppression to its distant dependants ?

I am sure I need not say a word to a British Jury upon Mr. CarJile's remarks on the affairs of Spain-their feelings must be in unison with bis, on this subject.

Upon the fourth paragraph, respecting the political affairs of France, it is also unnecessary to take up the time of the Court.

The fifth speaks of the Neapolitans, whom all Englishmen must compassionate, however they may regret their want of judgment and courage.

The sixth paragraph refers to the condition of the Greeks, with some trite observations upon religion, and the enormities wbich'bave been perpetrated under that specious word.

The seventh refers to the pageantry of the late coronation ; which the author, like other pbilosophers, bolds in contempt.

The eighth requires no observation from me, in the way of defence, though something might be said to applaud the matter.

The ninth paragraph contains a severe rebuke to a royal slanderer of the late Queen ; and can we wonder, that any manly mind could help feeling indignant, at the meanness of a royal personage lending himself to the bad passions of a brother, in dealing out the most vulgar, not to say cowardly and base slander against a princess, during her trial ? Truly, these royal people set a pretty example to us poor low-born men, had we not better taste than to follow it: was it a crime in Mr. Carlile, in the honest feelings of bis heart, to cast a censure upon conduct, which would disgrace the poorest, even the basest man, during the trial of the poorest of women. Persecuted as the late Queen was ; can you, Gentlemen, think me malicious in selling a work containing such a rebuke? Why, if it was not for the public censure of Princely, Priestly, and Lordly arrogance, vulgarity and crimes-they would be guilty of such pranks that might presently bring down another Sodai and Gomorrah visitation upon the land.* What can you, Gentlemen, think of a man that would, during a trial, use the most gross expressions to prejudice a Jury during a person's trial? But Mr. Carlile might bave spared his rebuke; I raiber think tbe Duke of Clarence is too well known, amongst the Lords, for his observations to bias the purity of their minds.

Common-Serjeant.-Do you think so, prisoner?
Prisoner.-Yes, I do.

Common-Serjeant.-Then I will not allow such observations to be made of persons who bave nothing to do with the proceediogs.

The other part of his observations refer to the public expences; a tbeme wbich must excite the most acute feelings in every honest and industrious man's mind. They are in every man's mouth, and every one reprobates the prodigality which could encrease them to so enormous an exlent; therefore, you will not, I am persuaded, pronounce me guilty on this bead.

The loth and concluding paragraph of Mr. Carlile's Address, contains a recommendation to consume as little as possible of any of the taxed articles; an advice, one would bave imagined, almost useless, under the present circumstances of the country, when ten millions of people out of twelve, frequently part with their last shilling to purchase the most humble and scanty fare ;-but, though we may not agree exactly in the opinion of Mr. Carlile, or the originator of the plan of abstaining from taxed articles, as the means of compelling ministers to adopt economical measures; still I am persuaded you

* The defendant was no mean prophet, as some of tbe Doctors in Divinity bave since fully proved.-ED.

19 will not consider him guilty for writing, or me, for selling a book containing such a recommendation. Blameable as the contriver of lhe plan migbt be, in misleading the people's judgment, in getting himself out of a scrape, after having excited them to fight for liberty, and after placing them in a situation, to be cut by the yeomanry; to get out of bis dilemma by the subterfuge of recommending them to drink the decoction of roasted rye, and English berbs, as if ministers would not raise their taxes by some other means, or as if taxation did not finally fall on the useful classes, surely, Gentlemen, you will not return a verdict of guilty upon me for this project!

Having gone through Mr. Carlile's Address, I proceed to his com ments upon the Society for the Suppression of Vice, in consequence of the call by that Society for fresh subseriptions to carry on these kind of prosecutions. Think of this, Gentlemen! the Bridgo-street and Essex.street Associations, calling for subscriptions to support their conspiracies, against the lives, liberties, and happiness of every man, that dare to speak in matters of religion and politics contrary to the will and pleasure of those most respectable, honourable, and distinguished men, Messrs. Murray, Sharpe, and “Pritchard ! Alas! poor England! to what a condition art thou reduced :-to have thy religious and political feelings controuled and directed, by a junto of bankrupt and petty-fogging law adventurers ? O! Gentlemen! what a five opportunity you possess of convincing the public, that a British Jury, upon its mature reflection, can never suffer such inno. vations to be made upon the people's rights and liberties !

In the conduct of this junto we may see the effects of religious and political controversy; the societies deal out the most severe invece tives against Mr. Carlile and friends, and witb singular inconsistency call them a hardened and an abaadoned confederacy, as if Doists could not retort upon them, by calling them a cruel, vindictive, and perse. cuting confederacy. But, Gentlemen, this returning of railing for railing, neitber comports with the spirit of Christianity, nor the rational judgment of philosophy. In this, botb parties may be blamed; but, surely, you will not attach guilt to me for selling such a publication of Mr. Carlile's, more than you would to any persou for publishing the invectives of either of these vindiclive societies; for, vindictive they show themselves, in declaring it their determination to continue their persecutions, although many persons have been immured in prison, and although not a single immoral act or worit has been proved against them. Does not this shew the cause these men advocate to be.extremely weak, that they should resort to brute violence, instead of fair argument, to overcome the reason of the Deists?

Some years ago, much animosily subsisted between the lale Mr. Wesley and Whitfield; and though they were both much persecuted by the Church bigots, they did not, I believe, think of prosecuting each other : they, it is true, had then to endure the most gross personal abuse ; yet now they are looked upon, by hundreds of thousands, as great Oracles; and may not Mr. Carlile, when the present spirit

of bigotry subsides, be bailed as the Champion of Reason, against prejudice, ignorance, and superstition? Men may be brought into this very Court, at no distant period, for daring to malign, defame, and libel a Deist--who publicly preaches the superiority of natural over revealed religion.

But, Gentlemen, I should do neither Mr. Carlile nor myself justice, were Í to pass over the honest indignity that gentleman expresses at having bis publications classed with obscene snuff-boxes and obscene prints: in this he bas shewn that virtuous regard to moral character, which never fails to accompany real virtue, which cannot fail to raise bim in your opinion, and to shew that Deism is not that base principle endeavoured to be impressed on the public mind, by the zealols and bigots of religion, and by designing and interested knaves. In expressing his indignity, he has referred to the obscene parts contained in the Bible, as being always selected by the Societies from Mr. Paine's Age of Reason, as the most proper to be prosecuted. This, I


must myself confess, tbough not a party in the controversy, appear to me very singular, vory silly, and very short-sighted, in 'Mr. Car Jile's persecutors.

Mr. Carlile proceeds to comment on the proceedings and inconsist. ency of bis opponents, and boldly declares, that the friends of religion have no more kindred with the friends of morality, iban the friends of vice have with the friends of virtue. I shall neither condemn nor applaud this position. I maintain tbat it is barmless—an opinion wbich time will decide.

This, I will venture to say, that morality is the very foundation, and the very best foundation, of all religions. Without the admission of moral principles, no religion could exist an age ; in fact, there can be no good Christian, Mahometan, Pagan, or Deist, that is not a good moral character ; it is tho profession and practice of the moral virtues that endear them all to the societies to wbich they belong.

Mr. Carlile instances that remarkable observation by Archbishop Tillotson, than which nothing could be more extraordinary, coming as it did from a Bishop, pointing out, with surprising candour, the difference between the old and New Testament, in the representation of the attributes of God;- wbicb justifies Mr. Carlile, as a Deist, in this senso, in pronouncing all religion a vice in society, mere idolatry, and nothing more than the mythology of the ancients. Even accord. ing to the sacred Oracles, God cbangeth not; yet, in the Old Tesla. ment, he is represented as cruel, vipdictive, and merciless, irritable and changeable :-in the New Testament he is made to appear forbearing, long suffering, benevolent, and merciful.

This observation of Archbishop Tillotson, with a short addition, bas been selected for indictment, as a blasphemous libel, concerning the Holy Scriptures; but I am sure there is nothing blasphemous in the whole article: on the contrary, it is the most cool and dispassionate that can be, and it is most surprising that the words of an Archbishop of the Established Church should be selected for indictment as blasphemous and profane.

The Deist does him infinite bonour in representing him always and uniformly good, gracious, and bountiful; whereas Jews, Turks, and Christians shew him to be capricious, vengeful, variable, and a God of passions. Indeed, so excellent is the description given of God by Deists, that with Iceslus, natural philosophers and pure moralists may exclaim, almost they persuade us to be Deists.

Gentlemen, I will not tire your patience with remarks upon all that Mr. Carlile has said, and, in several instances, well and beautifully said, in support of his principles; but this I am bound in justice to observe, that in no part of his writings do we see an immoral expression. A great regard to moral virtue pervades all he says, and shews him to be impelled by tbe very purest love of truth, in the part he takes; and is this a man to be iminured in prison, with all his family, to please a junto of canting and knavish hypocrites ? I am astonished at the Jury that could find him guilty; but where can I find words to express my surprise at a Judge that could be found to pass such sentences as bave been passed on Mr., Mrs., and Miss Carlile, against none of whom have their prosecutors dared to charge a single immoral word or act.

For my part, I bave boen but an humble agent in the business; but I shrink not from the responsibility ; I glory in opposing the intolerant spirit of my prosecutors; and from my hatred of persecution, I feel proud in being brought before twelve of my countrymen, to raise my voice against the piliful and wicked malice arrayed against an honest and ardent minded man, and his family, who have obeyed his good pleasure. Persecution never made converts. If Mr. Carlile be in er. ror (wbicb neither you nor I can tell), prosecution, tine, and imprisonment, are most unlikely means to convince him of bis errors.

Mr. Carlile's observations upon Mr. Wedderburne's subscription does eredit to his punctuality; and bis postscript admirably exposes tbe little-mindedness of the magistracy. Were we to carry on our trading concerns in this way, we might well be held in derision. The privileged orders have a licence to do foolish things; but if they were bever more mischievous than in this case, we would forgive them.

I have now to say something upon the letters exchanged belween Mr. Carlile and his friends.

In some of them we find expressions, written to him, wbich the writers migbt, upon reflection, wish to rooal, as vulgar and injurious to fair discussion; such is that of calling persons gundy gutted priests. This, Gentlemen, I cannot approve, more than yourselves; but nei. ther of us can consider the expression criminal; the most that can be said is, that it is vulgar: but it is not worse than many of the expressions used by tbe Christians towards eacb other, in their controversial writings.

In the writings between the Christians and Deists, I see nothing to call up an angry feeling; they are more pitiful than criminal; and in the course of time will die a natural death. The abuse will be forgot-, ten, and the principles only be taken into account. Truth and reason will prevail and live for ever.

But, I rather believe, there is something more galling to the junto than all that is said by either Mr. Carlile or his friends; tbat is, the determinatiou of the people to support the persecuted family of the Carliles; and Mr. Carlile's promise to break up the juntos if so sup. ported.

We find, in these letters, expressions of disgust against King-craft, and Priest-craft; and will you say, Gentlemen, those expressions are criminal? Do not the histories of all countries shew the craft which has been used by both, for the most infamous purposes and the Kings and Priests of these countries have partaken freely of the leaven of corruption. Their sins are a stench in the nostrils : and so greedy, arrogant, and bypocritical, have been the Priests in all ages, that some sects of Christians do entirely without them, as some countries bave done, and now do, without Kings, on account of the evils arisivg from the expence and caprice of Kingly Governments.

Gentlemen, the founder of Christianity, by his doctrines, rendered Priests entirely unnecessary, in saying, "come unto me all ye that are weary and beavy laden, and I will give you rest:" and again, in bis ex. cellent and simple form of prayer, called the Lord's Prayer; but even less than this, he shews to be sufficient in our supplications for mercy. In the case of the publican and sinner, smiting his breast and crying, Lord be merciful unto me a sinner. The sacrifice of bulls and rams hav. ing been superseded ; and the offering ap of a short prayer instead thereof, shew, that the Priests are a body of men totally unnecessary. Wbat a perversion of common sense to make a mystery of praise and adoration! How can we behold the wondrous works of creation, and not admire the maker? How can we partake of the bounties of nature, and not be grateful? Besides, Gentlemen, the press has taken precedence of the pulpit, and every day.reads as fino a lecture on morality as was ever preached by any Priest.

Gentlemen, lay these things to your hearts; reflect and reason upon them; and then, if you can, find me guilty.

It is time lo scout such miserable men as Murray and Sharp, and their coadjutors. Were these men to succeed in putting down the Deists, where can it be conceived their intolerance would stop ? were they to succeed in compelling the people to obey their doctrine, bow long would it be before the English would become the scorn and scoff of all other nations?

Gentlemen, it is necessary to have men of bold enquiring minds; for

without these, the human mind would become like a stagnant pool -foul and useless.

The people of these counlries, as it were, intuitively bato persecution; or why, on every occasion, does the air ring with acclamation on the acquittal of every persecuted individual.

Some of these letters speak a language which must confound the bigots, alarm oppressors, and charm lhe people. There is a sincerity


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and power attends them, which actompanies trulh, and must make many converts to the religion of nature.

Mr. Carlile has answered the letter of Wm. Ellis with great spirit, and at great length. No wonder that he should scel as he does; nevertheless, it is evident, he is more anxious about his principles than his person. Not a complaint bas he made, not a murmur upon bis imprisonment; but many a one against the unfairness of the arguments of his opponents : a greatness of mind and heroism appears in his conduct, which must make his very enemies respect the man, and the firmness of his character.

It would be useless to go througb all the matter contained in this excellent letter ; but it may be right to touch upon the parts which gave offence to the Association in Bridge-street, and upon wbich the parties obtained an indictment.

Mr. Carlile emphatically publisbes to the world, that Britons bave no Constitution ; this is now well known, though de Lolme wrote a fine treatise upon it; mistaking the form of the Government, and the legislature of Kings, Lords, and Commons, for Constitutional principle of social right and justice.

Mr. Carlile's declaration gave great offence-it touched a tender chord, which vibrated through the whole frame of corruption.

Yet, though his enemies are mightily offended with the declaration, they cannot shew us the Constitution, which is so much praised and idolized by every political babbler, and every designing knave. It is a mere pbantom of the mind; and like some other visionary things, worshipped by simpletons and knares: the one fanatically, the other bypocritically.

When the corruptionists are desired to shew us the Copstitution, or to tell us where it is to be found, they are dumb-founded, or abus sive ; or begin talking to us of Magna Charta, Bill of Rights, Act of Settlement, Habeas Corpus, Toleration Act, Coronation Oath, and other Acts of Parliament; but these, altogether, amount pot to a Constitution. They are simple Acts of Parliament, and no more; and ought Mr. Carlile to be punished for speaking trutbs, for wishing to have a written Constitution, to wbich the people at all times might refer, as their sheet anchor, against the encroachments of corrupt power, oppression, and tyrapoy..

But this, the leading faction of the land well know, would be conceding too much for them; and, therefore, suffer their dirty agents to prosecute honest men for daring to publish such truths.

Another part of this letter observes—“ Reform will be obtained when the existing authorities have no longer the power to withhold it, and not before."

And have they not shewn their determination to hold out to the last extremity ? More than a million of men have petitioned for it with. out effect, and they have been slaughtered, fined, imprisoned, transported, hanged, and l'amished, for the exertions they made in the cause they honestly had at heart.

It proceeds to express Mr. Carlile's opinion, and concludes by re. commending the people to be" ready and steady to meet any concurrent circumstances ;' and what of all this?

Have you pot, Gentlemen, often heard the popular speakers upon the rights of the people, recommend a “ long pull, a strong pull, and a pull altogether;" but who was ever prosecuted for the expression? No one : nur would any persons, but the meanest tools of the most corrupt faction that ever existed, think of prosecuting, Mr. Carlile for his manly feelings and expressions in favour of the liberties of the country.

But he complains of having the Counts unfairly picked out from their context; what can be more unjust? Why, at this rate, every political writer may be made to speak treason, or to recomniend it. It is as bad as a Judge stopping a prisoner in the middle of his

defence, without hearing a concluding and qualifying sentence. But such things will not go down with a discerning and honest Jury. They

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