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usefulness, and the amazing success which had accompanied his preaching wherever he went, he is constrained to give expression to the feelings of his heart, and exclaim, "Thanks be unto God which always causeth us to triumph in Christ." Here is a triumph, and it is the moral triumph of the Gospel of Christ over the hearts of sinners; compared with this triumph every mere earthly triumph, however imposing in its circumstances of magnificence, dwindles into nothingness itself. The Apostle was carried from city to city, from province to province, in a course not marked by the fading laurel of a fading world, but adorned by the rich and everlasting trophies of divine grace. Wherever the Lord gives testimony to the gospel message of salvation, and applies it with the Spirit of power in any individual case, a glorious triumph is won over opposition the most formidable, and prejudices the most inveterate and deeply rooted. The conversion of a sinner from darkness unto light, the deliverance of a sinner from the tyranny of unhallowed lusts and passions, his introduction into the liberty of the sons of God, proclaims indeed a triumph worthy of his name. The strong man armed compelled by the stronger than he to relinquish the palace of the human heart; an understanding enlightened to see, and therefore to appreciate the truths of God; a stubborn and perverse will reduced into sweet captivity to the obedience of Christ; affections exalted, purified, and refined; a practice distinguished and beautified by the fruits of holiness; these, if any thing can, display the triumph of gospel grace in the regenerate soul.



Origin, and Preparatory steps of the Awakening at Kishnaghur.

'Bur your Lordship will remind me, that I promised to give such information as I had obtained, of the origin and preparatory steps of this great movement.


1. The principal means is, I have no doubt, the holy and devoted Mr. Deerr's characteristic preaching of Christ Jesus, in intelligible and fervent Bengalee Addresses, sustained by his benevolent and disinterested life. A person more thoroughly a Missionary I never He is like Schwartz, in simplicity of mind, disregard of self, incessant labour, and love to Christ and the souls of men. He lives and thinks of nothing else; however much he may fall short of Schwartz in the wisdom, tact, and management of the human mind, which distinguished that illustrious Missionary. I am speaking only of means: God alone, in his grace is the Author of all that is truly good. I was not aware till I made the inquiry, that Mr. Deerr, with three or four Catechists, had preached daily, for the space of two years in the Bazaar of Kishnaghur; so that not all Asia, but-all the Zillah of Kisnaghur, had heard the Word of the Lord Jesus. The impression made was testified by the fierce opposition which he met with, the contradiction, the violent assaults, the gross abuse, so that his life was at times in danger. Arguments were sometimes entered on by the crowd of 200, 300, or 400 persons; and there were often three or four speakers. This was in the

course of 1835 and 1836, after his return from Europe. The converts who have since been made, Kurta-Bhojas and others, had thus heard, most of them repeatedly, the mystery of the Gospel, and many of them the arguments which had been held; for the villagers throughout the Zillah are continually coming up to the Courts of Kishnaghur, or for other business.

2. In the next place, the secret preparatory work in the midst of the Kurta-Bhojas joined in upon, and aided, this bold preaching of the sacrifice of Christ; just as "the devout and honourable woman" in the Acts of the Apostles-Lydia, for example, "whose heart the Lord opened;" as I trust he has, and will, many of these. Their history I cannot fully develope, time will reveal the whole. So far as I can learn, (1) their name means, Worshippers of the Creator. (2) They spring from both Hindoos and Mahomedans. (3) They have been, like the innumerable other subdivisions in Hindoostan, very much unknown, and not often disturbed by their neighbours; for Paganism tolerates all religions but the true. (4) They have a tradition that they came from the West; and indeed some of the older men are Rajpoots, manifestly, by descent. The Bengalee is quite a different person. (5) Many among them date their rise from one Baboo Doolál, a Gwalior-Milkman Caste in Ghoorpara near Hooghly, forty or fifty years since. Probably many eminent leaders have appeared in different places. (6) Their chief peculiarities are, They reject all idolatry. They acknowledge neither Koran nor Vedas. They worship one God, the Creator of all things. They perform their

devotions in the night, when they eat and drink together, and sing hymns or poems of a religious character. This reminds me of Pliny's language respecting the first Christians. They conform in the day to the Hindooism or Islamism of their families. i.e. they live as Hindoos or Mussulmans, from cowardice, and not having hold of enough truth. They profess to seek, by devotion, that God would give them eyes to obtain a sight of himself, and, through that sight, salvation. They have an expectation that God would become incarnate and visible to their bodily eyes. They have some idea of a Trinity of Persons in the One God, whom they call [1] Kurta, "Creator;" [2] Thakoo," Son;" [3] Mohaprabroh, "Great Spirit." The Hindoo Mythology, as is known, is full of incarnations, and traces of a Trinity. (7) The Hindoo Kurta-Bhojas were under the guidance of Gooroos, who are themselves of the KurtaBhoja Sect, and who used magical incantations, and committed to each disciple a secret word, or muntra, which, if never disclosed, would lead to salvation. (8) There are five classes among them, of a civil nature; only four of which I could, however, learn, [1]" Bhaoul," which is thought to be a proper name of some leader. [2] "Darbish," or "Dervish," which would appear to be of Persian origin. [3] "Kurta-Bhoja," which I suppose must be a common name of the entire body; [4] "Sahib Dhunney," or "Master of Riches," probably secular only, like "Baboo," or "Zemindar." (9) They are supposed to be 100,000 in number, and to be scattered from Hooghly to Benares.

It was to a village of these people that Mr. Decrr

addressed himself, in 1835, and after a year's consideration, received about thirty of them, in 1836, to Baptism, as I stated in my former letter, to your Lordship. I confess this preparatory work, which was going on so long, gives me a considerable confidence that the whole is, in substance, of God. In fact, if these seven Kurta-Bhoja Gooroos, or two or three of them, turn out sincere believers, it is impossible to say how rapidly the tidings of salvation may extend. The word of the Lord may again run and be glorified as among the Thessalonians of old, in the length and breadth of India.

3. I assign further, as a preparatory cause, the instructions of early Missionaries at Serampore, Chinsurah, Calcutta, who were accustomed forty years since to travel through the Zillah and preach the Gospel. One convert heard the Word of the Kingdom at Calcutta twenty years ago. One Gooroo had been in the Burdwan School. Others are found to have received ideas of the Gospel through their families, &c.

4. The silent distribution of copies of the Holy Scriptures and Religious Tracts, have had their share in this blessed machinery; to what extent I do not know; probably not to a wide extent, as the Zillah is entirely destitute of education.

5. The chastening hand, again, of the Almighty, in the fearful inundation of 1838, aroused multitudes; whilst the lovely characteristics of Christian Charity, beaming forth, as I mentioned in my former Letter, would tend to win the alarmed sufferers, and draw them by the cords of love and the bands of men.

6. The power and fame of the British Govern

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