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The Earth a Planetary Body. Distance from the sun. Its form ; relative
dimensions. Surface diversified by Land and Sea. Peculiar conforma-
tion of the dry land ; ratio to water. Its inequalities. Motions of the
Earth ; diurnal and annual. Equator. Ecliptic. Torrid Zone. Tem-
perate and Frigid Zones. Apparent motion of Sun over the Torrid
Zone. Its duration in particular parts of that zone.
Motion of our
Globe in space. Influence of these considerations upon Meteorology. xvii-xxiv
1. Meteorology defined. 2. History; Ancient superstitions. 3. General
considerations. 4. Rise of Pneumatic Chemistry. 5. Composition of
the Atmosphere : Oxygen ; Nitrogen. 6. Carbonic Acid Gas. 7. Ad.
ventitious products. 8. Ratio of oxygen and nitrogen constant. 9. Dis-
tribution of these gases. 10. Their physical properties : Oxygen ;
Azote. 11. Carbonic Acid. 12. Nitrogen found free in South America.
13. Carbonic Acid free in several localities. 14. Grotta del Cane.
15. Valley of Death in Java. 16. Considerations on the quantitative
composition of the atmosphere. 17. Speculation of Brongniart. 18.
Source of the renewal of oxygen consumed.
19. Figure of the Atmosphere. 20. Its specific gravity. 21. Density de-
creases with ascent; physical effects therefrom. 22. Height computed
by the Thermometer. 23. Boiling-point of water under various atmo-
spheric pressures. 24. Sufferings from rarefied air: Gerard; Wood.
25. Batten, Moorcroft, Hearsay; explanation. 26. Effects of altitude
upon sound. 27. Height of the Atmosphere. 28. Computed by refrac-
tion. 29. Mariotte's law. 30. Illustrated hypothetically. 31. Mean
pressure ; weight of entire mass of air. 32. Pascal's experiment on Puy
de Dome; elasticity of the atmosphere. 33. Dove on Barometric oscil-
lations. 34. Diurnal tidal waves. 35. Anomalies ; theory. 36. Other
oscillations. 37. Diurnal variation. 38. Annual range. 39. Peculiari.
ties at Cape of Good Hope and Calcutta. 40. Isobarometric lines.
41. Anomalous fluctuations ; great depressions. 42. Influence of winds.
43. Explanation of Barometric changes.
44. Solar beams; physical properties. 45. Temperature; diurnal variations;
critical interval. 46. Mensual and annual temperatures. 47. Gay-
Lussac and Biot's Aërostatic Voyage. 48. Temperature decreases with
altitude. 49. Theory. 50. Loss of heat in passage of solar rays.
51. Rate of depression of thermometer with altitude. 52. Climate.
53. Snow-line within the Tropics. 54. Modifying circumstances,
55. Snow-line in various latitudes. 56. On Volcanoes. 57. Anomaly
among the Himmalehs. 58. Explained. 59. Actinism.
60. Isothermal lines. 61. Illustrated. 62. Divide the globe into Bota-
nical regions. 63. Mean annual temperature. 64. Remarkably steady.
65. Not materially changed since early ages. 66. Range of temperature ;
extreme heat. 67. Extreme cold. 68. Excessive cold may be borne
with impunity. 69. Extraordinary heat borne without injury. 70.
Effect of intense cold on sound. 71. Provision made by the Esquimaux
for spending their dreary winters ; effects of cold and want of solar light
on the human race. 72. Dangers escaped by a scientific party. 73. Phy-
siological effects of great cold. 74. Antiseptic properties of cold. 75.
Poles of maximum cold. 76. Their connexion with the magnetic poles.
77. Hypothesis. 78. Isogeothermal, Isotheral, and Isochimenal lines.
79. Formulæ for computing mean temperatures ; objectionable. 80.
Influence of the ocean on climate. 81. Influence of Continents. 82.
Historical notices of severe colds. 83. Temperature of the Southern
Hemisphere. 84. Difference explained. 86. Temperature of space. 86.
Whence its source.
87. Colour of the atmosphere. 88. Saussure's observations ; Cyanometer.
89. Depth of colour and clearness at great altitudes. 90. Tints at sunset ;
theory. 91. Crepuscular light; coloured shadows. 92. Theory of the
colours of the sky universally applicable in nature. 93. Crepuscular
rays; diverging and converging beams. 94. Transparency of the atmo-
sphere. 95. Photometer. 96. Direct solar light; defalcation ; reflected
light. 97. Dark lines; nature of light. 98. Refraction; amount. 99. Illus-
trated; remarkable examples. 100. Polarization of light. 101. Polari-
zation of the atmosphere. 102. Secondary neutral points. 103. Twilight;
cause. 104. Adds to our comfort. 105. Anti-twilight. 106. Second
twilight. 107. Duration. 108. Anomalous brightness in 1831. 109. Pe-
culiarities at the Pole. 110. Feelings produced by constant sunshine
there. lll. Powerful influence of solar beams in Arctic Regions. 112.
Twinkling of the stars. 111. Influence of atmosphere on life. 73-96
114. Evaporation ; dependent on temperature. 115. Latent Heat. 116. Dal-
ton's researches. 117. Vaporic force. 118. Dove's theory of the influence
of winds on tension of vapour. 119. Humidity of the atmosphere.
120. Specitic gravity of moist air. 121. Law of vaporic exhalations.
122. General considerations. 123. Hygrometric condition of the atmo-
sphere in elevated regions. 124. Distinction between capacity and
quantity; amount of annual evaporation. 125. Cold produced by eva-
poration ; ice-caverns. 126. Dew-point; mean dryness. 127. How
ascertained ; range of Hygrometer.
128. Dew. 129. Circumstances attending its formation. 130. Analogous
phenomena. 131. Sweating statues. 132. Requisites for deposition of
dew. 133. Quantity dependent upon colour. 134. Amount at various
periods, and on different bodies. 135. Theory. 136. Substances re-
sembling dew. 137. Hoarfrost. 138. Fogs and Mists. 139. Nature of
the vesicles of fogs. 140. Theory of mists. 141. Electricity of fogs.
142. Dry fogs; remarkable one of 1783. 113. Cause. 144. Luminous
fogs. 145. Frost-smoke. 146. Clouds ; how suspended. 147. Electri-
city. 148. Green-coloured clouds. 149. Elevation. 150. Motion ; velo-
city. 151. Influence on temperature. 152. Nomenclature. 153. Effect
of Perspective. 154. Transformation. 155. Mountain-cap.
156. Rain; chemical composition. 157. Amount over the globe. 158. Annual
fall at various places. 159. Anomalies; hyetographic regions. 160. Tro-
pical rains ; peculiarities. 161. Aridity of certain localities. 162. Fall
of rain modified by physical features of the country, and by the season.
163. Number of rainy days. 164. Area over which rain falls often very
great. 165. Rain from cloudless skies. 166. Floods; in middle ages.
167. In modern times. 168. Size of rain-drops. 169. Their temperature.
170. Velocity. 171. Theory of rain : electricity of rain. 173. Pre-
ternatural rains ; cause. 174. Historical notice of these rains. 175. Of
those which have a vegetable origin; pollen rains. 176. Falls of manna.
177. Rains of animal nature. 178. Those which have a mineral com-
position. 179. Dust-rains. 180. Generally volcanic. 181. Zoogéne.
182. Fish-rains. 183. In India. 181. Frog-rains. 185. Blood-spots.
186. Waterspout. 187. Examples. 188. Pillar ; colour, inclination,
electrical. 189. Theory of formation.
190. Hail. 191. Preceding sound. 192. During night. 193. Path. 194. Theory.
195. Conformation. 196. Remarkable Hailstones. 197. Hail within
the Tropics. 198. Red hail. 199. Snow; forms of the crystals. 200,
Colour, lightness. 201. Chemical peculiarities. 202. Electricity of
snow. 203. Amount of snow which falls in different countries. 204. The
Avalanche. 205. Catastrophe in Val de Bagnes. 206. Kinds of ava-
lanches. 207. Of Mont Blanc, &c. 208. Dangers : Dr Hamel's unfor-
tunate ascent of Mont Blanc. 209. Avalanche described by Talfourd ;
Simond. 210. Casualties. 211. Wind of the avalanche. 212. Eboule-
ment. 213. Utility of Snow. 214. Red snow. 215. Met with in Europe.
216. Snow Mould. 217. Sleet. 218. The Glacier. 219. Magnitude.
220. Dangers. 221. Regular motion. 222. Unexpected movements.
223. Crevasses. 224. Forbes' observations on their progression. 225.
Destruction ; formation. 226. Theory of their motion ; Gravitation
theory of Saussure. 227. Dilatation theory. 228. Viscous theory of
Forbes; internal structure of the glacier. 229. Resemblance to a river.
230. Inclination, 231. Colour. 232. Wind of the glacier. 233. Mo-
raines. 234. Glacier Tables. 235. Glacier Springs. 236. Icebergs :
Magnitude. 237. Where not found. 238. Liable to sudden fractures.
239. Mist-cap of the iceberg; dangers. 240. Physical properties of ice. 173-216
241. The Rainbow; early speculations upon its cause. 242. Solar spectrum.
243. Requisites for production of the meteor. 244. Other Bows; second-
ary Rainbow. 245. Theory of the Primary Rainbow. 246. Explanation
of the Secondary Bow. 247. Dimensions and positions of the several
248. Supernumerary or supplementary Bows. 249. Rainbows
from reflexion. 250. This meteor composed of polarized light; White
rainbows. 251. Why not seen at noon in summer. 252. Lunar rainbows.
253. Instances. 254. Marine and others; Iris of cascades. 255. Coronae ;
halos. 256. Remarkable lunar halo. 257. Solar halos. 258. May be
artificially produced. 259. Glories,--Anthelia. 260. Analogous aërial
meteors. 261. Theory of these meteors. 262. Parhelia. 263. Examples
in ancient times and middle ages. 264. Remarkable one seen by He-
velius ; subsequent appearances. 265. In present century. 266. Theory.
267. Explanation of the concentric solar circles. 268. Of the circum-
zenithal arcs. 269. Of the great parhelic circle. 270. Of the mock-
images. 271. Paraselene. 272. Columns of light at sunrise and sunset ;
273. Looming. 274. Mirage; cause.
275. Coast of France ; Dover Castle.
276. Figures in the air; Spectre of Souter-fell. 277. Spectral ships.
278. Remarkable mirage seen at Birkenhead. 279. Singular refraction
on Geneva Lake. 280. Fog-banks. 281. Fata Morgana. 282. Curious
mirages at Youghall. 283. Appearance from Brighton Cliff; Etna.
284. Enchanted coast. 285. See-kote. 286. Chittram, Sehrab. 287, Mi-
rage in India. 288. Iceblink. 289. Spectre of the Brocken. 290. Simi-
lar phenomenon witnessed on Skiddaw, and Ben Lomond.