An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

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Barnes & Noble Publishing, 2004 - 642 páginas
Published in 1689, Locke's pioneering investigation into the origins, certainty, and extent of human knowledge set the groundwork for modern philosophy and influenced psychology, literature, political theory, and other areas of human thought and expression. Locke draws on the philosophy of perception, empirical beliefs, and natural sciences to explain how we acquire knowledge and form the beliefs we do, how and why there are unavoidable limits to human knowledge, and how, despite these limitations, we can strive to learn more about ourselves and our universe.
 

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Contenido

NO INNATE PRACTICAL PRINCIPLES
19
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING INNATE
36
SYNOPSIS OF THE SECOND BOOK
54
OF SIMPLE IDEAS
68
OF SIMPLE IDEAS OF SENSE
70
IDEA OF SOLIDITY
72
OF SIMPLE IDEAS OF DIVERS SENSES
76
OF SIMPLE IDEAS OF REFLECTION
77
OF INFINITY
152
OF THE MODES OF THINKING
168
OF MODES OF PLEASURE AND PAIN
171
OF POWER
175
NOTE TO CHAPTER XXI
218
OF MIXED MODES
224
OF OUR COMPLEX IDEAS OF SUBSTANCES
231
OF COLLECTIVE IDEAS OF SUBSTANCES
250

OF SIMPLE IDEAS OF BOTH SENSATION AND REFLECTION
78
SOME FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING OUR SIMPLE IDEAS OF SENSATION
82
OF PERCEPTION
92
OF RETENTION
98
OF DISCERNING AND OTHER OPERATIONS OF THE MIND
105
OF COMPLEX IDEAS
111
AND FIRST OF THE SIMPLE MODES OF IDEA OF SPACE
115
IDEA OF DURATION AND ITS SIMPLE MODES
128
IDEAS OF DURATION AND EXPANSION CONSIDERED TOGETHER
141
OTHER SIMPLE MODES
148
IDEA OF NUMBER
149
OF RELATION
252
OF CAUSE AND EFFECT AND OTHER RELATIONS
257
OF IDENTITY AND DIVERSITY
261
OF OTHER RELATIONS
279
OF CLEAR AND OBSCURE DISTINCT AND CONFUSED IDEAS
290
OF REAL AND FANTASTICAL IDEAS
299
OF ADEQUATE AND INADEQUATE IDEAs
302
OF TRUE AND FALSE IDEAS
311
OF THE ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS
320
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John Locke's works of political and social philosophy, written in the 17th century, have strongly influenced intellectuals ever since - including the founders of the United States of America. Born in 1632 in Wrington, England, Locke studied at Christ Church, Oxford, where he earned his B.A. and M.A. degrees in the late 1650's. He also studied medicine and earned a medical license. His studies led to an interest in contemporary philosophers influenced by science, such as Rene Descartes. Locke read widely among them while teaching at Christ Church over the next few years. In 1667, Locke became personal physician and adviser to Anthony Ashley Cooper, who later was appointed Earl of Shaftesbury. Through Shaftesbury's patronage, Locke earned some government posts and entered London's intellectual circles, all the while writing philosophy. He was one of the best-known European thinkers of his time when he died in 1704. In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), Locke established the philosophy of empiricism, which holds that the mind at birth is a blank tablet. Experience, Locke believed, would engrave itself upon the tablet as one grew. He felt humans should create theories according to experience and test them with experiments. This philosophy helped establish the scientific method. Locke codified the principals of liberalism in "Two Treatises of Government" (1690). He emphasized that the state must preserve its citizens' natural rights to life, liberty and property. When the state does not, Locke argued, citizens are justified in rebelling. His view of liberalism comprised limited government, featuring elected representation and legislative checks and balances. While a Christian, Locke believed in absolute separation of church and state, and he urged toleration of those whose religious views differed from the majorities.

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