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Two fixed green vertical lights from a light-vessel (painted red) moored in 4 fathoms at extreme of Sanjak Spit. The high light is elevated 52 feet, and visible at 4 miles.
Two fixed red vertical lights at extreme of low point, extending 109 yards fron Sanjak Castle. The high light will be elevated 49 feet, and visible at 4 miles. The light at present shown from the fort will then be taken away.
All bearings are magnetic. Variation 8° 1. at Cape Merminji in 1863. (c.) 35.—Lights in Archipelago and on Coast of Syria.—The Turkish Government has given notice that on or about the month of September, the following lights will be exhibited on the coasts of the islands of the Archipelago :
Khios Strait.-A white light of the fourth order, which revolves once every minute, from the summit of the East point of Pasha Island, Spalmatori Group. The light will be elevated 246 feet, and visible at 15 miles. Lat. 38° 30' 20' N., long. 26° 18' 20" E.
Two fixed red vertical lights on the mole on the North side of entrance of Port Kastro. The high light will be elevated 52 feet, and visible at 4 miles. Lat. 38° 22' 40" N., long. 26° 9' 15" E.
A fixed white light of the fourth order on the summit of Paspargo Island. The light will be elevated 118 feet, and visible at 12 miles. Lat. 38° 17' 55" N., long. 26° 12' 50” E.
Gulf of Scala Nuova.-A fixed white light on East point of entrance of Port Vathi. The light will be elevated 98 feet, and visible at 4 miles. The position given is lat 37° 46' 20' N., long. 26° 59' 15" E.
A fixed white light on West point of entrance of Scala Nuova Road. The light will be elevated 98 feet, and visible at 4 miles. The position given is lat. 37° 51}' N., long. 27° 16' 35" E.
Rhodes Island.- A white light of the third order, which revolves once every minute, from the tower of St. Elmo, Port of Rhodes. The light will be elevated 118 feet, and visible at 15 miles. This tower having been thrown down by an earthquake, the above light will be temporarily replaced by a fixed white right visible at 6 miles. Lat. 36° 27' N., long. 28° 16' 10" E.
A fixed red light on the extreme low point of Cape Kumburnu, the North extreme of Rhodes. The light will be elevated 52 feet, and visible at 4 miles. Lat. 36° 27' 15" N., long. 28° 15' 45“ E.
Beirút.-During the year 1864, two lights will also be established on the coast of Syria,-one a revolving white light of the fourth order, elevated 98 feet and visible 12 miles, on the extreme of Cape Beirút; and the other a fixed red light, elevated 72 feet and visibie 4 miles, at Port Beirút, on a point E.S.E. of the town.
(d.) 36.-Kurrachee Harbour.-Information has been received at the Admiralty, and is hereby made known for the benefit of seamen, that although the works in progress for the improvement of Kurrachee Harbour are producing good effects likely to lead ultimately to an easier access to that harbour from sea, and have devpened the bar by 4 to 6 feet, yet that until those works are finally completed, which may not be for another year or even more, it is not unlikely that a less depth by one foot will be found in either of the channels at the entrance of the barbour.
(e.) 36.—Liyht-Vessel at the Little Bassas Recf.—The vessel is moored inside the Little Bassas Reef, the centre rocks of the reef bearing S.b.W.W., distant about one-third of a mile.
(f.) 37.–Kronstadt.—The light is visible over the horizon of the Great and Little Roads, or between the bearings from N.N.W. W., round by West and South, to N.E.b.E.} E. from the lighthouse. Near the lighthouse is a bell, which in foggy weather is rung at short intervals four times in the hour. (9.) 37.-North Sea, Coast of Holland.— The Minister of Marine at the Hague bas given notice that, with a view of avoiding the shoals called the Eijerlandsche Gronden, a new revolving light will be shown in the winter of 1864-65 on the downs North of the Island of Texel.
Also, that the following lights will be changed :—The revolving light in Ter Schelling lighthouse to be a fixed light. That in the lighthouse on Vlieland Island will remain as a light of the entrance, red towards the West horizon, from the first buoy of the entrance of the Storte-melk; it will be obscured from this point and will reappear of a white colour, facing and to the East of the channel called Noord-Ostgat.
(h.) 39.— Lighthouse on Smith Island.—The United States Lighthouse Board has given notice that the lighthouse on Smith Island, near Cape Charles, the North point of the entrance of Chesapeake Bay, has been so much injured by lawless and malicious persons as to prevent the exhibition of the light. It is also feared that other lights in that vicinity may not for the present be relied on. Due notice will be given of the restoration of these lights.
(i.) 39.—Fog Signal at Whales Bach Lighthouse.—A fog bell, acted on by machinery, has been established at Whales Back lighthouse station, at the entrance of Portsmouth Harbour, New Hampshire; and would be kept in operation from and after the 1st day of August, 1863. The bell tower is a frame structure, 25 feet high, whitewashed, standing upon the lighthouse pier, and attached to the southern side of the light tower.
The signal is a steel bell, which is struck four times in a minute, at regular intervals, during fogs, snow storms, and thick weather, and should be heard a distance of one-quarter to four miles, according to circumstances of surf
, weather, wind, &c. The bell is at an elevation of 55 feet above mean low water.
(j.) 41.-S.W. Buoy of the Shingles.-In consequence of the staff and ball on the S.W. buoy of the Shingles in the Needles Channel having been frequently carried away, and the state of the weather often not admitting of their being replaced for long intervals of time, notice is hereby given, that
the staff and ball on the buoy will in future be discontinued.
New ZEALAND: NORTH ISLAND, West Coast.- Directions for
Crossing the Manukau Bar.-By Commander R. C. Mayne,
H.M.S. " Eclipse." Bring the Ninepin Rock on with the Inner Souih Point on bearing E.N.E. (magnetic) and steer straight for it, crossing the bar on that line.
As soon as the bar is crossed, the water deepens to 7 or 8 fathoms, and the course should be gradually altered to E.b.N. easterly, till the Ninepin is on with the Signal Station, when haul up so as to pass clear of Paratutai.
If Parera Island is visible it will bear North when inside the bar.
Though the above direction is correct for the present time, (May, 1863,) the signals from the station must always be attended to, as the banks are said to shift continually.
Until it is buoyed the South Channel should never be taken by a stranger.
JAPAN AND THE JAPANESE.— Yokohama to Yeddo. The villages of Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Hakodadi, from the 1st of July, 1858, have been open to foreign commerce. Yeddo, the capital of the Taicoon and, from 1859, the residence of the French, English, American, and Dutch ministers, was to be opened from the 1st of January, 1862; but at the appointed time the Japanese government objected that the population evinced too much hostility to western nations for the certainty of pacific relations to be preserved, and it was agreed that the capital should still remain closed against our commerce for an indeterminate period, and only the consuls continued to reside there; all other persons, whether functionary, merchant, or traveller, not going without a special authority delivered by the representative of the nation to which he might belong.
In my first visit, in 1859, I left Yokohama with no other guide than my betto (a kind of groom). At Kavasaki, a large village situated midway between Yokohama and Yeddo, I had met the secretary (Mr. Heusken) of the American legation, the best cicerone and the most amiable travelling companion that one could wish for. After our bettos bad become acquainted, Mr. Heusken persuaded me to abandon the high road and to go to Yeddo by paths through the country. Everything there was peaceful and happy; the numerous villages, the extensive fields of rich cultivation, and the labourers spread over the country. Occasionally we found small bills of a moderate slope, from which we could glance over a delicious panorama. In the horizon the blue sea limited the view, dotted as it was with innumerable NO. 11.-VOL. XXXII.
fishing vessels, with their large square sails glistening in the sun. At our feet lay the green verdure extending to the beach and forming a magnificent garden. Clusters of old trees sheltered the old temples, with their lofty roofs and fantastic forms, and small farms, the white walls of which, of paper and wood, lighted up here and there the sombre green. A refreshing breeze wafted the odour of flowers, or a still calm reigned around : everything encouraged repose. The happiness of man is surely found most in the bosom of nature. We arrived at Yeddo without being inquired of by any one as to where we were going or whence we came.
In 1862 everything was entirely changed. Mr. Heusken, regretted by every one who knew him, had been assassinated, and many foreigners had suffered the same fate. The representatives of foreign powers, justly alarmed for the safety of their countrymen, bad adopted bodily, which made a walk to Yeddo something like the military reconnoitring of an enemy. Nevertheless, being desirous of completing the pursuits which I had commenced on my first visit to Yeddo, I accepted the proposal of General Pryne, the United States minister, who had invited me to pass some days with him at his residence of Dsen-fou-dsi, where he exercised large hospitality. One of my Shanghai friends desiring to accompany me to the capital, I was indebted to M. de Wit, the Dutch consul-general, for the special permission which I required, and we left Yokohama on the 5th August, 1682, for the Yeddo route.
With the intention of avoiding the intense heat of the journey, we started very early, and to shorten the distance for the horses, we proceeded by boat to Kanagawa, two miles and a half from Yokohama, the place of landing, where we found our bettos, who had gone there with the horses. Our escort was ready, composed of nine yakounines or officers. The bettos, that they might be ready for the long and rapid journey before them, were without their supernumerary garments, and had nothing but a narrow scarf round the loins. The yakounines, small men, thin and athletic, bave rather a martial appearance: they wear large hats, round and flat, excellent protection from rain and sun; their long robes, much before them, admit their strong legs being seen, with large silk pantaloons of brilliant colours, They wear straw sandals, a short cloak hanging gracefully from the shoulders, at their girdle they carry two formidable sabres, without which a Japanese noble is never seen outside of his house: their horses are small and by no means handsome, are yet harnessed with taste, and even to a certain degree magnificent.
The chief of the escort came to see us and saluted us in that exquisite polished style which characterises the Japanese, and after being satisfied that we really were the persons that he was to take cbarge of according to his orders from Yeddo, he announced bis readiness to set out. We accordingly mounted, our bettos set out before us, and in a few minutes more we crossed Kanagawa. This place still serves as the residence of the four consuls. For abont two years they have all retired to Yokohama, excepting the American consul, with
whom a missionary and a doctor at present form the only foreign population of Kanagawa.
Every one was yet in bed, the streets so full of life on other occasions, were yet deserted. Some wolf dogs, half wild, which are met in largə numbers in Japan, showed themselves at the corners of the streets, scampering off barking as soon as they found out we were strangers.
At the extremity of Kanagawa, near the Dutch consul's former residence, we came abreast of a police station of several men crouched over a brazier, drinking tea and smoking. The chief of the escort showed our passports from the governor of Yokohama, and we continued our journey towards Kavasaki, a large village about seven miles and a half from Yokohama. The road after following the coast for a long time turned to the left to cross an extensive plain formed by the deposit, covered with rice fields, and flocked by herons, cranes, and other aquatic birds,—and this plain was bordered by hills about 400 feet high, the sea on the other side, of which it appeared to be the former limit.
The road from Kanagawa to Yeddo goes partly along the Tokaido, the western road which crosses the whole country of Japan from Nagasaki to the southern extreme, and as far as Hakodadi to the North, and which connects the great cities of Kiou-siou, Sikoki, and Nippon. It is an exceedingly well made road, and most picturesque In the vicinity of Yeddo, and in generał near the large towns, it is very cheerful, and bordered on both sides with numerous villages, which are not far from each other, and which are connected with each other by thatched cottages, by isolated farms, and by tea-houses. These last, however, must not be confounded with the tea-houses on the grand route, or tscha-jas, with the djoro-jas above mentioned. The tscha-jas are respectable establishments where the traveller will find rest and refreshment. The whole road thus resembles a long street. The travellers one generally meets with are afoot, mostly carried in their large norimons, or in narrow and inconvenient chaises (kangas), but the nobility only travel in norimons. The form and the style of these litters vary according to the rank of the persons in them. The norimon is formed of an oblong box, carried on a bamboo, surmounted by a light wooden roof, and looks like a house in miniature. These two are black and white, those used by women of distinction and priests are finished with a red or green lacquering. The carriage is not known, sometimes some heavy charrettes will be seen drawn by oxen, and in these also the members of the Mikado's family travel sometimes. As to horses, they perform the work of beasts of burden; but are never tied to a vehicle. The gentlemen are very scarce on the road; for being officers of a certain rank, they do not mount a horse ; Japanese etiquette requires when going from one town to another that they travel in norimons and to be accompanied by a numerous escort.
Half way between Kanagawa and Kanasaki is a tea house, which is known by the name of halfway tea-house, kept by a good old lady