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The yellow or greenish part consists mainly of pus cells, the white of mucin. The black color sometimes seen is due to in. baled soot, very rarely to lung pigment. The sputum may be streaked or spotted with blood, indicating intensity of congestion of the bronchial mucous membrane or the implication of some air cells, giving us a case of broncho-pneumonia.
We may have all these forms in ehronic bronchitis, the amount varying from a few detached masses, in the morning chiefly, to a free flow, bronchorrhea.
In fibrinous, plastic bronchitis there is expectoration of actual casts of the bronchi with or without haemoptysis. This form as we may suspect from the hemorrhage is often associated with phthisis.
In putrid bronchitis we have a copious semi-liquid expec toration coming from a dilatation, bronchiectasis, very offen. sive and containing small yellowish plugs-Dittrich plugs.
The sputum of gangrene of the lungs is offensive, but nev. er has the plugs and is usually profuse. It has three layers, a heavy greenish-brown sediment, a middle thin liquid, a thick, frothy upper coating.
Purulent expectoration in bronchitis may exist in consid. erable amount, but it indicates a depraved condition of the patient. When it continues long and temperature arises it may be regarded as indicative of phthisis.
In this affection we have first frothy whitish sputa, not very tenacious, indicative of the ushering bronchitis. As the mu. cous membrane becomes more deeply involved, it becomes more viscid and yellowish. As air cells are implicated, blood appears in clots, streaks or infiltrated. There are dull, white spots which give it a pearly appearance. Careful examination of these with naked eye may show elastic fibre of the lung. Later we have the coin-shaped, flocculent, separated masses, nummular sputa, which sink in water. Then we have purulent sputa in abundance. Blood may be expected in any stage. If profuse it may be from congested bronchi when it comes more in gushes, or from rupture of a vessel in a vomica, when it is likely to be
a continuous flow. When it forms merely a pinkish halo around a mass of sputum it denotes approaching death.
Puaulent sputa cannot be regarded as solely indicative of phthisis. As we have seen, it occurs in more or less amount in both acute and chronic bronchitis. It may come from an em. pyema discharging through a bronchus, and then always in large amounts. Rarely it is due to an abscess of the mediasti. num.
In pneumonia we may have early a glairy sputum coming from bronchi before cell infiltration has occurred. Very early we have admixture of blood cells giving rusty color, then it becomes very viscid, at times almost like glue. The spit cup can be inverted without parting with the contents. A large amount of blood indicates a pneumonia grafted on tuberculous lung. Purulent expectoration is suggestive of the stage of purulent infiltration. If large in amount it may come from a pneumon. ic abscess of the lung. Prune juice sputum is an ill omen and is not seen until late in the disease and always denotes a low type.
The so-called currant jelly sputum is typical of malignant growths in the lungs. Expectoration from a liver abscess which has found its way through a bronchus is reddish in color from the mingling of blood, pus and bile is said to resemble anchovy sauce. In bronchial asthma the sputum is at first, scanty, expectorated with difficulty and consists of rounded gelatin. ous masses, the so-called “perles of Laennec.” These are as. sociated with a small amount of thin mucus. If these balls are spread out on a glass and carefully separated they can be seen with the naked eye to contain spiral, the so-called “Curschmann spirals.” These are better developed with the microscope. After the disease has existed two or three days the sputum becomes muco purulent and more profuse and no long. er contains spirals.
Thus we find that in many diseases microscopic examination of the sputum is very diagnostic. Further study with the microscope adds still more to our knowledge. Homeopathic Student.
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THE TWO SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE.
Comparative Results in Labor Cases. In St. Louis in 1892 the allopaths reported 3101 cases of labor attended with 99 deaths; a mortality per cent of 3.13. The same year the homeopaths reported 740 cases attended with 15 deaths; a mortality of 2,03 per cent. They lost three to our two in the same number attended,
In Baltimore in 1891-2-4-5 the allopaths reported 12,117 cases of labor attended with 403 deaths, a mortality of 3.33 per cent. The homeopaths in the same years attended 787 cases with 6 deaths, a mortality of 0.76 per cent. At the same rate the homeopaths would have saved 311 of the 403 that died under old school treatment. In spite of the claims of asepsis and antisepsis made by our friends of the old school they lost 338 cases from puerpural septicaemia and puerperal fever, while the homeopaths lost only 5 from the same causes. Is this not a sad commentary on the antiseptic treatment?
In Cincinnati in 1892.3-4 the allopaths attended 7400 cases of labor with 306 deaths, a mortality of 4.13 per cent. In the same years the homeopaths attended 792 cases with 11 deaths, a mortality of 1.38 per cent. Think of it, 204 of the 306, or ex. actly 2, 3 of the deaths under the old school treatment were un. necessary-sacrificed on the altar of scientific (?) medicine!
In Minneapolis in 1891.2-3 the allopaths reported 4797 cases of labor with 86 deaths, mortality 1.8 per cent. The hom. eopaths reported 1379 cases with 7 deaths, mortality 0.5 per cent. The allopaths lost for the same number attended 3 3.5 cases to the homeopaths 1. To be a regular physician gives one many privileges, not the least of which is to sign a large number of death certificates without exciting comment.
In Kansas City in 1891-2-3 the allopaths attended 6006 cases of labor with 123 deaths, mortality 2.05 per cent. The homeopaths 486 cases with 1 death, mortality 0.21 per cent. Death ratio for the same number of cases attended was allopathic ten to homeopathic one. Is it not strange that practitioners of scientific (?) medicine do not use these figures to show the meaning of the term "regular," which they so persistently claim as applying to their school of medicine?
In seventeen cities from which data has been collected the allopaths reported 66,788 cases of labor attended with 1,395 deaths, mortality 2.09 per cent. The homeopaths reported 8,307 cases attended with 71 deaths, mortality 0.85 per cent. At the same rate the homeopaths would have saved 827 of the 1,395 lost by the allopaths.
In recent years bacteriology bas taken strong hold on the medical profession, and with the so-called regulars, cleanliness and antiseptic treatment is almost a fad.
Statistics collected from seventeen American cities during the years 1891 to 1895 inclusive, show that the allopaths lost 1,262 cases from puerperal septicaemia and puerperal fever, the two diseases which, if the theory be true, they should prevent. The homeopaths lost in the same cities from the same causes 51. At the same rate, with the same number of cases attended, the homeopaths would have lost only 410, and thus we see that 852 lives were sacrificed on the altar of ultra scientific (?) med. icine in these two diseases alone.
A careful estimate from all data thus far collected in all diseases indicates that the number of lives in the United States sacrificed annually on the altar of old school medicine is about 500,000.
Verily, none are so blind as those who will not see!-D, A, S
A long editorial on the Mal-practice Irreg. MAL-PRACTICE. uluarity closes with the following good advice:
When threatened with a mal-practice suit take the initiative; sue for your fees; yield not an inch; if you can locate the trouble at the door of an opposing colleague, who should be your friend in times of trouble of this character, notify him promptly of your intention to go for him with a dam. age suit; fire must be fought with fire; a courageous policy, a determination to protect yourself and your professional interests, even if it costs you many a hard-earned dollar to do it, will win in the end. Employ the best attorneys your city affords, both in purposes of offense and defense, and fight for your rights. This mal-practice iniquity should be downed, and downed effectually, and no half-way measures will secure this end.
According to Medical Process, "The most humiliating come-down for the bacteriologist is seen in the attitude he is forced to sustain relative to the diagnostic value of the Klebs Loeffler bacillus. This bacillus is now regarded as not at all diagnostic of diphtheria, and its presence is given no particular significance in this regard by any well-informed man in London.'
The Medical Counsellor, Detroit, recently sought reports from various parts of the United States about the experiences of homeopathic physicians in diphtheria. Replies were received covering 1,030 cases, giving 76 deaths, a rate of 7.38 per cent. An allopathic return, as gathered by a journal bearing the name “Pediatrics,” reports 1,972 cases in Boston treated with antitoxin, with a death rate of 13.4 per cent. Here is something for the old school to ponder over a little.
THERAPEUTIC At the meeting of the National Society of
ACTION OF Electro-Therapeutics, Dr. W. H. King of New
THE X-RAY. York, read a paper entitled "Some Therapeutic Expertments with the X-Ray.” His experiments thus far have not led him to any "positive conclusions,” but present the fol. lowing “probable conjectures” as to the therapeutic action of of the X-ray:
First, that the X-ray has no effect whatsoever on tubercular affections of the bones and joints. This is important, as it has been claimed that they are capable of destroying the tubercular germ. Second, that it has temporary effect in reducing the pain of simple osteitis. Third, that it temporarily and perhaps permanently relieves cases of periosititis. Fourth, that it relieves, to a degree, temporarily and perhaps permanently, the sub. jective symptoms of chronic synovitis after the inflammation has subsided. Fifth, that it may have an action in hardening bone, and may be of use in osteomalacia.
The Habnemannian Monthly. SYPHILIS AND
Clareuce Bartlett, M. D., in writing on LoLOCOMOTOR comotor Ataxia makes these points: ATAXIA.
"Without syphilitic infection the advent of locomotor ataxia is an impossibility.” In dispensary practice many patients will