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ticularly desirable if he is going to do real
good in the community. The majority of
our teachers remain with us for several

The average turnover is about
forty per cent yearly. Eighty per cent of
our teachers are women and twenty per

cent are men. The average teaching ex-
perience is eight years.
“In striking contrast to the large num-

ber of inexperienced teachers who yearly to Alaska for one or two years at a finan-
enter the school rooms in the average State, cial loss. However, they cannot always be
ninety-six per cent of the teachers employ retained. We want our teachers to remain
ed in the Alaskan schools are experienced.
The number who have had experience in

on our teaching staff. Employers of labor Typical Alaska Totem Village Alaska—sixty-three per cent–is worthy of

estimate that it costs one hundred dollars * The first number of this series of articles may be ob

mention as representing an increase of nine to fit a new man into a strictly mechantained by addressing The Western Journal of Education, per cent over the record for the school 149 New Montgomery street, San Francisco, California.

ical position which has been made vacant (Fifteen cents per copy.)

year 1919-1920. No school system can be
efficient which is not able to attract and

through the loss of an employee, and that A Teacher who decides he would like to teach in Alaska really has two opportunhold a competent force of teachers."

the cost is greater as the position which Salaries in the schools in the north in

must be filled takes on the requirement of ities of getting a position. One is by making application to L. D. Henderson, com

the elementary schools range from $1350 qualities of initiative and leadership. The

to $1800; in the high school they range missioner of education, Juneau, Alaska, and

loss to a school system when a thoroughly from $1500 to $1900. The school year is the other is through some missionary board

competent teacher leaves a teaching force nine months. which is doing work in the far north in

cannot be accurately measured in terms of conjunction with the government. The man

Commenting on the salaries Mr. Hender- dollars and cents. However, the loss ocat the head of the latter office is called

son said: “The salaries paid to Alaska curs even when such a teacher is replaced Chief of the Alaskan Division, Bureau of

teachers are not high and cannot well be by one equally as competent." Education. This is a branch of the De

lowered. Statistics compiled for the school One of the big things that Commissioner partment of the Interior, Washington, D.

year 1921-1922 show that a number of the Henderson has put over is the getting of C. The local office is in the L. C. Smith Western States pay higher salaries to both a special appropriation for co-operative Building, Seattle, Washington. Jonathan elementary and high school teachers than

schools. This co-operation is between the D. Wagner has recently been appointed to are paid in Alaska. This should not be

government and community. In communtake the position which was vacated by W.

true. Alaska, in spite of her scenery and ities where there are only four or five chilT. Lopp, who had held the position since

the glamour of romance which surrounds dren and there is no school fund, an 1910. Mr. Lopp will now personally suher, cannot maintain her school system at

rangement exists whereby, if the people sonally superintend the native schools. He the desired point of efficiency on a salary will provide the building and the fuel for has headquarters at Anchorage, Alaska.

schedule equal to that paid in the average the school, the government will furnish the The school system in Alaska, as in every of the Western States.

teacher and pay other expenses.

This other locality, suffered a setback during “Alaskans demand teachers with train- unique method of supporting and conductthe war. Now the schools are forging ing, experience, and personality. Teachers ing schools was begun in 1922 under Henahead, In the system for white children with those qualifications may be attracted derson's direction. and half-breeds, over which L. D. Henderson presides, four new districts were added last year. The high school enrollment last year was twenty-five per cent greater than the year before.

“This country has passed through the stage of being the land for the prospector and roamer only,” Mr. Henderson said re


PUPIL'S DESKS cently. “It has proved a substantial coun


automatic try and a place where there are homes and


adjustable friends.”

INKS An attitude such as this has rapid effect

moveable chairs on the school system of our country.


KINDERGARTEN CHAIRS The high schools in Alaska require that


KINDERGARTEN TABLES their instructors be college graduates. The


TEACHER'S DESKS elementary school teachers in the larger towns must be college or normal gradu


TEACHER'S CHAIRS ates. Eighty per cent of the teachers em

BLACKBOARDS ployed in the Alaskan schools under the commissioner of education have diplomas from normal schools or colleges.

IF THE SCHOOLS USE IT, WE SUPPLY IT. “We have hundreds of applications yearly," Mr. Henderson declared. “Teachers may be appointed by a local board of education, or the local board may ask me to make the selection. We choose teachers according to their applications which are placed on file. We want experienced teachers and we get them. Our teachers will

42 6-4 2 8


LOS ANGELES compare with the best in the States from

West Sixth

Pershing the standpoint of education and experience.


We want our teachers to stay with us more
than one year. The roving type is not par-


School Supplies

School Equipment

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Conducted by Sylvia Starr Teachers are urged to contribute to this column. Any device that has been found to be practical and helpful in the school-room or in the yard, for entertainment or study, is desired. If you have a good idea PASS IT ON. Address Sylvia Starr, Idea and Device Editor, Western Journal of Education, 149 New Montgomery Street, San Francisco, California.

Dear Miss Starr:

I may be too practical for your column, but I would like to suggest a few sentences for correction in the school room. If children can correct these and similar mistakes it will help them in the future: "Your plan is different from his.

He was sort of angry with me.
She don't like those kind of flowers.
None of the family were at home.
He went in the house.
Do it like I did.
She has got small feet."

I think language lessons should be made as practical as possible and they should function in everyday life. Mary McKee.

either very

WESTERN SCHOOL NEWS The Californians will meet in Chicago at the V. E. A. meeting for breakfast on February 26, 1924. Arthur H. Chamberlain has charge of the arrangements.

Schools outside of incorporated towns receive one hundred per cent support from the territorial government. Buildings, teachers, supplies, all are furnished to any community having ten more children of school age. Schools in incorporated towns receive seventy-five per cent of the cost of maintenance up to the maximum of $20,000 in any one town in any one school year. Juneau and Ketchikan are the only two towns which have the great expenditure and receive the maximum allowance.

In many districts it is difficult to find comfortable living quarters for teachers. In forty per cent of the school districts outside incorporated towns, living quarters for teachers are provided by the school board. There is a need, according to the superintendent, for the erection of more such buildings or for the remodeling of schools in such a way that living quarters are provided for teachers. This latter method is regarded as the cheapest and most satisfactory. "The average small community contains

few or

no families who have facilities for the accommodation of roomers or boarders," Henderson stated. "Even if room and board can be secured, such an arrangement is from many standpoints unsatisfactory Where no opportunity is oifered to obtain room and board, or where the rate charged is not in keeping with the salary paid the teacher, the only alternative is for the teacher to rent a cabin. In some communities comfortable living quarters can be secured.

In others anyarrangement which can be made is far from satisfactory."

Henderson expressed the opinion that no school building should be built in the future that did not have teachers' living quarters in connection there with.

In speaking of the young women who go to Alaska to teach, Mr. Henderson declared that he lost many good teachers through matrimony. There are

than women in Alaska and the people are hespitable and social. Dances and parties of different varieties lend an atmosphere of “home” wherever that home may be. In southern Alaska one does not feel as far from the States as in the north, where there is a minimum of civilized conditions, and where the people are rougher and more primitive.

The teachers marry men engaged in various occupations, such as fishing, fish canning, mining, fox farming, fur trading, lumbering and other occupations necessary in communities where civilization has tinged the land.

In many of the church schools in the far north, the instructors are man and wife in the two-teacher schools. The government supervises these schools in conjunction with the church. The teachers' work consists of teaching and social and even medical work. The teacher is the power in the community and is turned to for aid and advice in every emergency.

Her life is closely connected with the life of the people. She is there to perform service and her work is never over.

The churches which have established missions in the outlying districts have their share in the selection of a teacher and bear a portion of the expenses of the school.

(To be continued.)

Dear Sylvia Starr: The approach of Ilashington's birthday reminds me of a plan we carried out last year and which I shall use again this year. On the first day of February I teli

my pupils to cut from magazines and papers all pictures of things not known of or used in Washington's time. Just before Washington's birthday we paste these pictures on large sheets of cardboard together with Washington's picture or a view of his monument, and we print thereon the dates of his birth and death. We print on the chart the words. Those things Washington never saw.

During our exercise we salute Washington's picture.

For decorations we use red, white and blue bunting. We cut cherries from paper napkins that have them as decoration and We also make paper hatchets. The cherries and hatchets we paste on the window. One year the children made cherries of a flour and salt mixture and painted them red. The leaves were made of green paper. The cherries were Souvenirs for the visitors who visited our school that day.

For both Washington's and Lincoln's birthday I have the children become familiar with the lives of these great men. We play a paragraph game whereby a child relates a paragraph on the life of one of these men and the next child continues the story.

Te become familiar with the Gettysburg address. I make several copies of it, cut these copies in strips and pass them out. Several children are sent to the board to copy the words from their slips. Next the children who can add from their papers the next lines, take their places and make the connection from their slips, and so on, until the complete address is written on the board in several places. In order to play this game the children must be very familiar with the lines. Thanking you, I am yours truly,

Edith Call.

Superintendent H. B. Wilson of Berkcley is one of the prominent speakers at the Superintendents Convention of the V. E. d., Chicago, February 25-28.

Washington, D. C., has been selected for the meeting of N. E. A. in July,



\Vill C. Ilood, Superintendent of Public Instruction, in his address before the Public Spirit Club in San Francisco on Thursday, January 17, showed a statesmanship knowledge of the fundamental laws of taxation and applied the same to our present tax system in a very effective manner. Mr. Wood, in his educational approach to problems of government, has an appeal that interests our citizens.

California School

of Fine Arts

(Formerly Mark Hopkins Institute) California Street San Francisco



Dear Sylvia Starr :

One of the games my children enjoy in the kindergarten is the “boat game". It increases the observation of the child when he is not in school, helps his memory and cultivates his imagination. Two children scated on the door are the boat. With clasped hands and with the tips of the feet touching, the two children who are the boat sway to and fro while a little one is seated on the floor between their hands and feet. When the ride is over the several children jump from their respective boats and tell lis what they saw on their ride. Some children see flowers and gardens and mountains. Others see city sights, while still others have been in the realm of fairyland. We do not try to curb the children in telling of what they have seen, but we always interested in both fact and fancy and enter into the spirit in which it is told.

A Kindergarten Teacher,

Affiliated College of the University

of California Illustrated catalogue mailed on





554 Mission Street,

San Francisco. Teachers and Boards of Education will be interested in the change of location of The Milton Bradley Company from 20 Second street to 554 Mission street. The new

location is between First and Second streets. Just a few minutes' walk from Market and Second or Market and First.

Lester Van Nostrand, who has been the Pacific Coast Manager since 1909, and with the Milton Bradley Company since 1900, made a wise choice when he selected the new Aronson Building for the Pacific Coast Home of the Company.

On account of the special lines
carried of drawing supplies, art
work, kindergarten material, con-
struction papers and books, teach-
ers visit the Milton Bradley Com-
pany and make their own selec-
tion from the large and varied
stock. Mr. Van Nostrand, there-
fore, in selecting the building had
in mind its central location from
the viewpoint of other school and
educational supply houses; at-
tractive entrance, elevator
vice and spacious quarters for
the display of his stock. He has
fourteen thousand square feet of
space. The building is new and
attractive. The offices are fur-
nished artistically. The stock-
rooms and the shipping depart-
ment are well arranged and spa-
cious. He had specially built
and equipped a ladies rest room.
In this new attractive building
with its special lighting, you will
find a complete assortment of the

Bradley Quality Books,
Drawing Supplies,
All Material for Art Work,
Kindergarten Chairs and Sand


Adhezo Paste,
Chalk of Milton Bradley Com-

pany Trade Mark,
Educational Devices.

This new store is in keeping with the remarkable growth of The Milton Bradley Company. The home and factories of the Company in Springfield, Mass., cover two and one - half acres, and the business has steadily grown since 1860, until today there is hardly a school or home where children dwell that Bradley products do not form a valuable part of the child's education. The new catalog of Bradley Art Materials is a fair sample of their work. It represents only one branch of the business. Its 76 pages are complete with information, illustrations, and directions. You should send for copy and preserve it. The large business of the Company on the Pacific Coast has been devcloped under the leadership of Mr. Van Nostrand. His popularity is due to the quality of the merchandise. but the personal element entered ir to it. His integrity and devotion to giving people service, and his delightful personality, are majo“ factors in the measure of Success of the business. The true test of a business man's popularity is the opinion of those with whom he is associated. On the morning of January 14th, when Mr. Van Nostrand entered his new office, he discovered a beaut'ful bouquet of roses, and the card from employees of the firm:

“We all want to wish you lots of success and happiness in your new office, and to assure you we are all back of you a million in every way.

“All of Us." Jan. 14, 1924.



THE INSTITUTE OF SAN DIEGO public school education by contact with at this time the teachers, as a tribute of COUNTY AND CITY

life itself. It was remarked afterwards by their affection for the county superintend

many of the teachers that there seemed ent, and also as a mark of their appreciaYou asked me to report our institute for

to be something in the air that gave unity tion of the co-operation of the office, prethe Western Journal. On all sides there

to the thought and the discussions of the sented the flowers, Mr. J. D. Simkins, dishave been words of appreciation of the exmorning

trict superintendent of the East San Diego cellent institute held this year.

The afternoon session was in charge of schools, making a very happy speech of Wednesday morning the session was held

the County Teachers' Association, with presentation. at the State Teachers' College, and, after

Mrs. Mabel Farley, president of the asso The program for Thursday and Friday an address of welcome to the college on ciation, in charge. The association hell included addresses by Dr. Allen. Dr. H. the part of President E. L. Hardy, and its annual business meeting, the ballot W. Fairbanks, Dr. W. C. Bagley and othmusic given by the glee clubs of the school, ing for the California Teachers' Associa ers. Of all that happened in the excellent the institute program proper was launched tion Southern Section being consummated. program of those two days, I find that my by Mrs. Grace Stanley in an able presenta Mr. William P. Dunlevy, state director of mind goes back most frequently to the tion of her thoughts concerning fundamen the National Education Association, ad- community singing led by Mr. H. S. Hodge tals in child training.

dressed the assembly on the value of mem of the San Diego high school. Doctor Herbert R. Stolz, State Super- bership in the national association.

(\Vhether this is because of the quality visor of Physical Education, addressed the One very pleasing feature of the aiter- of my mind, or because of the quality of teachers on the subject of "Education and noon session was the presentation to the the personality of Mr. Hodge as leader of Spare Time," and Miss Donzella Cross dis county superintendent, Miss Ada York, of

the community singing, I am not certain, cussed "Music Appreciation," demonstrat a beautiful bouquet of roses. The flowers but one special song, “O, San Diego Has a ing the principles by the use of the phono were presented to Miss York by the teach- Zoo," stands out rather strikingly and all graph.

ers of the East San Diego schools. The the teachers of the city who were present Everyone felt that all three speakers in recent annexation of East San Diego to will recall participating in that occasion of their individual way touched on the same the City of San Diego takes the school sys- fun and unrestrained mirth!) great theme; that was, the motivation of tem out from the county direction, and






at Christmas time. In Los Angeles Public FREE

Library story tellers entertained the little folks, not once, nor twice, but all through the last busy week before Christmas, so that hurried mothers might leave their children safe and happy while they were free

for shopping or other business. By Julia G. Babcock

East Bakersfield Branch of the Kern County Free Library had its annual Christmas party at the library on the Saturday before Christmas. A tall, shapely tree oc

cupied the center of the main room, directly THINGS DONE TO BOOKS of the books in the school library it would

in front of the entrance doors. Electric If a librarian is a lover of the book per have accomplished much.

lights adorned it and shades were drawn to se she will suffer many a shock from the The book cover of gingham or paper add to the effect. Nearly five hundred chilthings done to books in many libraries and which used to be ubiquitous is seldom scen,

dren were present. They occupied chairs; schools under the name of "processing"; although evidences that it has not yet en

they sat upon the edges of tables and low or preparing them for the shelves. First tirely passed are sometimes forced upon

cases; they sat on the floor close around among the horrors is the perforating stamp


I have upon my shelf of "what nots” the beautiful tree. One little tot in blue which has worked more damage to books a reader returned from a school, where

overalls and a red sweater stood upon the than the favorite puppy ever did. If used some mother had taken a piece of Jennie's desk on a bright green blotter looking for on the unprinted portion of the title page, new dress and had stitched it to the book

Santa Claus. Mrs. Neva Lawson was the it is a comparatively inoffensive means of on a sewing machine all around the edges

story teller, and held the interest of the identification, but, alas, some librarians of the book. IVe have hoped that it so

boys and girls while she told them the have thought it necessary to use it upon nearly ruined the sewing machine as to

beautiful story of "The Happy Prince." every hundredth page and

11pon plates,

make her think it unwise to repeat the act. The secret of this Christmas party each maps and illustrations. It has been known Another parent sewed in the loose leaves of

year is that each member of the library to be used in perforating the very life out "Varyen's” reader with long white stitches

staff lays aside each month a sum for the of the pages of a dictionary. Can a worse right through the leaves and the back of abuse be imagined than so to deface a page

purpose of providing a Christmas treat for the book. Yes, the old book cover did keep the children. When Santa Claus appeared where every diacritical mark must be entire the cover of the book cleaner than it is

from behind the book stacks wheeling a and perfect in order to be of any value? kept without it, but meanwhile there was

book truck filled with boxes of candy, the Earlier in my library experience I stood no incentive to respect the book in its hid.

delight of the children broke forth. Не in such awe of library "technique" that cois covering and it was used as a weapon

took up his station at the front door where only privately did I dare to wonder just or a toy without demur. Nowadays leaves

boxes of oranges appeared as if by magic. what difference it would make in case of and covers wear out together and when

The children dropped easily into a long the theft of a plate or map from a book, both are soiled the book has had its day.

line which wound around the room past the whether or not it was perforated, but felt If it isn't a book that has been in constant

boys and girls' department back around that there must be some logical reason for use in little hands, it can go to the bindery

the charging desk and out at the door, callthus mutilating the most valuable features and come back stronger and better than

ing out happy thank you's to Santa Claus, of the book. Common sense finally tri ever in a bright new dress.

And in our

while one mother whispered to the libraumphed over this fetich. rcbinding of books why not use attractive

rian, “God bless the givers.” Miss Anna Then there is the gummed label, square colors instead of dead black or dull green?

M. Craig has been the librarian of this or round or oblong, stuck at varying heights It makes a wonderful difference in the ap library for many years and has kept up all up and down the long-suffering backs pearance of the library. Nobody wants to

this happy custom which she instituted of books. What a monstrosity it was in its read or even to handle dirty, grimy books,

some years ago.
day! Painstaking assistants careiully re and a little more money spent on wise re-
moved the glaze from the spot on the back pairs and consistent rebinding would great-
of the book where the thing was

to be
ly increase the circulation of many a library.

(Advertisement) attached, and if she also had an eye for


GEOGRAPHY height from the bottom of each book.

Berkeley Public Library is to crect a Sometimes she didn't. On this. label was

The State Board of Education of Califorbuilding for the Claremont Branch at the

nia hereby invites authors or publishers to then printed the call number. Long since corner of Ashby and Benvenue avenues, at submit sealed proposals or bids for the sale we have learned that these erstwhile sacred

a cost of about $20,000. The new West or lease of the right to publish and dis"call numbers” can be appreciably short Berkeley Branch was completed recently.

tribute in California textbooks, as follows: ened, and in many libraries “Cutter num

Ceographical material for fourth, fifth and An imposing new library building has

sixth grades of the elementary schools. bers” have been abandoned as a time-saver been built in San Pedro at Tenth and Gal Manuscripts or sample books of the above and a distinct contribution to the improved fey streets.

should be submitted to the Secretary of the appearance of the library. Just a neat lit

Board, at his office in Sacramento, on Plans have been accepted for an exten

before February 15, 1924. tle number indicating, in white ink, the

sive addition to the l'ublic Library buill Bids for the sale or lease of such rights, classification of the book, is all that is coning of Santa Monica. An additional story

inclosed in a separate sealed envelope adsidered necessary today by way of mutila will be added to the present two - story

dressed to the Secretary of the Board, itemtion on the outside of the book. I heard

ized according to specifications, and marked building and to wings of three stories "Bids for textbooks in geography,'' may be recently of a librarian who so loved her cach will be annexed.

submitted on or before the hour of 4 o'clock books that she would never permit a mark Beverly Ilills is considering the crection P. m. of February 15, 1924. of any kind to be placed upon their backs. of a library building as a memorial to the

Alternative bids for supplying completed That would make the shelving very diffi

books, as specified above, f. o. b. Sacramenlate Sidney C. Rowe. cult and the finding of a book except by

to, in carload lots, will also be received.

Viss Jennie Herrman, formerly librarian Specifications, giving rules and particuinstinct well nigh impossible. But I should of the San Diego County Free Library,

lars concerning this matter, may be had like to meet her just to enjoy books and was married November 7th in San Fran

upon application to the Secretary of the bindings with her.

State Board of Education, at Sacramento. cisco to Mr. James White Herrman. In some school districts the stamp bear


and down the state, as well as Sacramento,

California ing the name of the district is an enormous all across the continent, story hours and

Will C. Wood, Secretary one and has been stamped with more Christmas trees were the order of the day less frequency according to the enthusiasm of the teacher all through the book from cover to cover. One doesn't see it often WHAT CAN YOU DO UNUSUALLY WELL? nowadays, for the county library system has made this labor unnecessary. Tlad the WHAT UNUSUAL THING CAN YOU DO WELL? county library done nothing else for the school but to free the teacher from the


517 Brockman Bldg., Los Angeles ancient rules as to the care and circulation

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101 pages. Price $1.25. ducing of technical matters to a list of minimum requirements for each grade; the use The Soil and Its Management, by Merrit of socialized recitation and the laboratory F. Miller: This material has been prepared method of class procedure; human interest

for students in vocational agriculture an! in the drills. The material is simple, interesting and emphasizes minimum essentials.

for young farmers. The text is thorough, There are such projects as story-telling, interesting and comprehensive. It has been observation, verse - making, speech drills assumed that those studying the book have and games; experiments in writing news, had little or no study in chemistry, hence etc. Teachers and students will enjoy these

any farmer can get practical help from the books, for they are full of life. (D. C. Heath & Company.)

book, without previous preparation for its

Each chapter is followed by ques

tions, practical exercises and references. The Cabin Book, by Maud Beatrice

The maps and pictures are so closely asHogue of Sheridan, Wyoming, is an at

sociated with the text that they are of true tractive volume of verse issued by the Harr

value in interpretation. (Ginn & Company,

Price $1.64.) Wagner Publishing Company, price $1.25. In the preface the author tells in a delightful way her experiences in homesteading and says in the closing paragraph, “And to you, returned soldier boy, who is homesteading in the solitude of the Rockies: The Cabin Book holds between its covers something of the drear loneliness of your isolation and the inimitable companionship of a collie and the western outdoors. Its pages fling open to you." Then comes the poem, The Cabin, followed by many others that show a felicity of expression, a poetic What wonderful imagery and delightful philosophy that is

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Socrates, An Oration, by Thomas Starr King, with introduction and notes by Ernest Carroll Moore, director, University of California, Southern Branch. Here is a group of three men who should interest every thinking person, and the group help in forming one of the finest contributions ever made in the production of a classic in California-Socrates, King, and the keen, critical, informational introduction and notes by Dr. Moore. Surely our classes in English in our high schools and universities will be glad to have this book in its convenient form. It is published by Harr Wagner Publishing Company, 149 New Montgomery street. Bound in brown cloth,

1.800,00 cups were served
International EXPOSITION:

"HUMAN GEOGRAPHY,by J. Russell Smith, after a thorough test in many classrooms, has been adopted for use in the hands of the pupils in Los Angeles, Oakland, Tacoma and Everett, Wash., Los Angeles County, Whatcom County, Wash., San Bernardino, Kings, Solano, Merced, Stanislaus Counties, Vallejo . Redlands, San Diego, San Diego County, Watsonville, San

Cruz County, Butte County, Tulare County and the City and County of San Francisco, Porterville, Bakersfield, Richmond, Santa Ana, Imperial County, Alameda and San Benito Counties, and regularly adopted and listed in many other Counties and Cities on the Pacific Coast. Human Geography is an organized geography, and Geographical Reader COMBINED. THE SILENT READERS, Lewis and Rowland, Books 3 to 8 inclusive and manuals have the largest Silent Reader sale on the Pacific Coast.

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