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Oldest and Best-Established School Board Periodical on the Pacific Coast .... Representative of California Federation of School Women's Clubs, Teachers' Association of San Francisco and devoted to the interests of 20,000 Teachers of California

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This material was submitted to the Western Journal of Education by Mrs. Grace Chandler Stanley, Commissioner of Elementary Education. The State Board of Education and the teachers are great y indebted to H. C. Bryant of the California Fish and Game Commission for much of this material.

ARBOR DAY QUOTATIONS

A MESSAGE CONCERNING BIRD

AND ARBOR DAY

ALICE ROSE POWER, School Director, City and County

of San Francisco, San Francisco, Associate Editor.

Founded in 1895, it commands the support of every teacher who is interested in the newest lines of educational thought, and of every trustee who desires to keep in touch with movements for the betterment of the schools. It is not run in the interest of any special organization, of any interest or type of educational doctrine. Its field in cludes an optimistic support of the best class of educational uplift, both of men and measures.

Manuscripts, Contributions of educational character, including Methods, Devices, School News, Matters of Special Interest to School Trustees, etc., desired.

Published Monthly Subscription, $1.50 per Year Single Copies, 15 Cento

Address all Communications to

“What a desolate place would be a world without flowers! It would be a face without a smile; a feast without a welcome. Are not flowers the stars of earth? Are not our stars the flowers of heaven?”—Mrs. Balfour.

an

THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION

149 New Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. Entered at San Francisco Post Office as second class matter.

"Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin, and yet I say unto you that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.”—Luke 12:27.

THE OUT-OF-DOOR BOY

The out-of-door boy is the fellow for me, Who finds a companion in mountain and

sea; Who likes to go camping, who likes to be

"Were I, O God, in churchless lands re

maining, Far from all voice of teachers or divines, My soul would find in flowers of thy or

daining Priests, sermons, shrines.”

near

Remember that when you are teaching the children to love beautiful things in nature you are building character.

His good mother nature all thro' the long

year; Who never complains when a rough spot

is met, Whose flag at the masthead of honor is

set, Who's strong in his labor and strong in

his play, Who has an ambition to better cach day.

A NEW YEAR'S RESOLUTION

Many years ago an enlightened citizen of California, anxious to conserve the birds, the trees and flowers of this state, secured the enactment of a law dedicating the seventh of March of each year as Conservation, Bird and Arbor Day. He selected the seventh of March because this is the anniversary of the birth of Luther Burbanka great citizen of California who has done so much for the improvement and conservation of plant life.

The law requires all educational institutions to observe this day, not as a holiday, but by including in the school work of the day suitable exercises having for their object instruction as to the value of birds and trees and the promotion of a spirit of protection towards them.

All dwellers in California who really love the state, her wonderful resources and her wealth of bird life, of forests, of ferns and lovely flowers, will join in the observance of this day in spirit and in truth. Every year witnesses the destruction of vast acres of redwoods, pines, manzanita and other trees, not only for commercial purposes, but also wantonly because of carelessness in handling fires in the forest. Each one of us, large or small, old or young, can do his share to conserve the bird life and forests which add so much to the beauty of California. Therefore, I earnestly enjoin upon all superintendents and teachers the holding of suitable exercises on March 7, 1924, to the end that California's wealth of flower, forest and bird life may be conserved.

Yours very truly,

WILL C. WOOD, Superintendent of Public Instruction.

I will open my eyes to the beauty of the trees, and my heart to the love of them. I will study them and their many uses.

I will treasure a just notion of their great value to my Street, my City, my State, my country. I here and now enlist in their service; and I will cherish, care for, protect and defend them.

The boy who loves nature and all that she

lends, And with all creatures living is bound to

be friendsHe may be a huntsman or fisher, and still Be prince of the river and king of the hill. The out-of-door boy is the fellow for me, Who betters his pastimes whatever they be; May he grow in his numbers until every

boy Is an out-of-door scholar, partaking its joy.

-Selected.

DO YOU KNOW THIS MAN?

This is the man
That struck the match
That burned the trees
That furnished the logs
That fed the mill
That sawed the boards
That formed the house
That Jack built.
-American Forestry, Vol.

26, No. 319. July, 1920.

TREES Trees are the arms of Mother Earth lifted up in worship of her Maker. Where they are, Beauty dwells; where they are not, the land is ugly, though it be rich, for its richness is but greasy fatness and its gaudy raiment is but cheap imitation of forest finery.

Trees are the shelter of man and beast and bird; they furnish the roof above us, the shade about us, and the nesting places of love and song. They call children out to play; they entice sweethearts into leafy coverts to seal their vows with fond caresses; they console and gratefully reward old age. They are the fittest ornaments of wealth and the inalienable possessions of the poor who can enjoy them without having title to them. They are the masts that

all

acre.

re

area

fly the flags of all nations and the sails of to try and cure it just where it stood. The the seas; they are the timbers that

next day he came with a huge knife, a bridge forbidding streams; they bear the wires of the world's intelligence; they hold hammer

, and nails, some boards, some cethe rails that carry the traffic of the conti

ment, and paint. The first thing he did was nents; they are the carved and polished to dig out all the decayed parts until the furnishings of the home; they cradle the trunk was but a

mere shell. More than young and coffin the dead.

two-thirds of the body for about four feet Trees are nature's prime sources of food; was dead and had to be removed. When their fruits and nuts gave sustenance to the he had cleaned out all the dead wood he first tribes of men and are the sweetest and drove nails into the live

part which most nourishing of the earth's products. mained. This seemed a cruel thing to do,

Trees herald the spring with glorious this driving nails into a sick tree. But this banners of leaf and bloom; they clothe the tree doctor, like the doctors who come to autumn in garments of gold and royal pur see sick boys and girls, knew just what to ple; bared to the winter's cold, they are do to make this sick tree get well. The the harp of the winds and they whisper the nails were all driven on the inside of the music of the infinite spaces.

tree. Across the nails he placed a little Before the earth could be peopled, it was

strip of boards, making little shelves in set thick with trees; and when man has

the hollow part of the tree. Upon these his course and the race we know has

little shelves he put the cement until the

tree was filled where the rotten wood had disappeared in the completeness of its mission or perishes in the destruction of its been, and once more it looked nice and trees, the earth will spring up again with

round, only there was no bark on the ce

ment side of the tree. new forests to shelter and sustain a new

This became very race of men and beasts and birds to work

hard when it dried and so kept out all the out a greater destiny. Perhaps if we are

worms, rain and insects and was to the tree wise enough to replenish our wasting for

what plasters and bandages are to our sores

and bruises. After the cement dried, the ests and to make ourselves worthy of the gift of trees, we may be permitted to ac

tree doctor came back and painted the cecomplish that greater destiny which the

ment and along the edges where the tree Mighty Forester, the Perfect Orchardist, and cement came together. This was done the Loving Father, requires in the fulfill

to make it more sure that the water could ment of His sublime purpose.-Clarence

not get into the tree to rot it. Ousley.

When the tree awakened after the doctor

had done this work, it felt much better and THE STORY OF A SICK TREE

soon it began to grow.

This was three
many ways trees are just like

years ago, and since it has begun to grow
around the cement. Some day it may grow

ment and be well again.

run

farm crops, silviculture (the raising of trees) is to wood production, for nature as a silviculturist is little more of a success than nature as an agriculturist. Since time immemorial nature has been busily engaged in planting and growing trees in Northern California, yet she lias succeeded in raising, in the pine belt, an average of only about 8000 feet per acre. Probably the best timber in Siskiyou County is to be found in the sugar-pine stands belonging to the McCloud River Lumber Company, which run as high as 50,000 feet per

Yet other nations have actually demonstrated that as much as 80,000 to 100,000 feet to the acre can be grown.

In spite, then, of the vaunted prodigality of nature, field and forest alike will produce manyfold as much when directed by man as when left to their own devices. That portion of our 18,000,000 acres of California's National Forests which is capable of timber growth may be made to produce as much wood as an unregulated, unprotected

of much greater extent. For, while it las taken 200 years to grow some of our present saw logs, a forest having a fair representation of the different aged young trees within it may, by proper care and protection, be made to yield å crop of timber every thirty or forty years, often exceeding in volume the crop resulting from 200 years of unaided and unprotected growth.

Use is a virtue, and waste a sin. The National Forests of California, therefore, are so managed that their resources may be used. In spite of the old saying that “You cannot have your loaf and eat it too,” it is entirely practicable to eat your loaf and at the same time raise more grain as grist for the grinding. That is why the forester protects the young trees from fire, why he insists that only the old and the mature trees be cut today, why seed trees are left; why, while providing for the utilization of the annual forage crop, he yet insists that the life of that crop shall not be destroyed by overgrazing or killed by trampling.

It has been said that the civilization of any people may be accurately gauged by that selfcontrol which enables them to save sufficient from a present supply in order that they may profit by a harvest. Such action depends largely upon an ability to visualize and capitalize the future. It is only by the exercise of such vision, such forethought and such self-control that our Vation, and California as an integral part of the Nation, may retain her rightful place in the sun. And since, in spite of all substitutes, wood is held to be as indispensable to man's prosperity and progress as water, light or air, forestry now takes its place beside agriculture in the very life of our Nation.

T

ret

។ 1

TREES thought of trees as Demiš A.

TORT RY AND AGRICULTURE do get sick; some get well and some do

iy R. F. Hammatt,

United States Forest Service not. Did you ever see a dead tree?

,\Vhen the pioneer missionaries, in the spring of I am going to tell you about a sick tree.

1841, planted from their all too scanty stock of It has been sick a long time. It has taken seed the first little garden ever sown in Montana, bushels of medicine and seems to be get

there was great discontent and outcry among the

Flatheads. Missionaries and Indians were both ting a little better and its friends hope it

living scantilyon roots and bark, supplemented will quite recover. Some time ago a worm

by buffalo meat, fish, and such small stores of began to eat into this tree. This made a potatoes and grains as could be spared from the hole. Water got into this hole and rotted white man's provisions. The savages thought the the wood around it which made it larger

seed was put in the ground to prevent them from

eating it. They did not understand the necessity and larger. At first the tree did not mind

for saving a little then, in order to have plenty it much, just thought it had a cold or some for the future. thing and would be well again in a little As the Flatheads of 1841 viewed any attempts while. But the worms and the water and at agriculture, so do some people today view any

attempts at forestry. The story of the progress insects kept at work as the days and weeks

of agriculture among the Indians finds its counand the months and the years went by

terpart in the story of the progress of forestry until the tree was very sick.

among civilized nations, The Indians thought It was a maple tree, beautiful and grand.

the seed was put in the ground to prevent them

from using it, and many people imagine that the It stood at the corner of the street and

National Forests were created to prevent them threw its shade over the home of some lit from using the timber and other resources withtle children. The sick tree was frequently in them. Even the smallest child now underthe subject of conversation in the home and stands that the seed for the missionaries' garden

was withheld in order that the supply might be a real anxiety on the part of the parents. multiplied.

multiplied. And so it is with the resources of By this time the tree had become so ill that the National Forests. The forester, when he reit was feared that the next wind storm stricts the cutting of seed trees, and when he would certainly overcome its weakened protects the small seedlings from damage, docs

so, not for the purpose of reducing the amount body, and that it would be broken off and

of timber to be used, but so that the supply may possibly blown over upon the home of the

be multiplied. little people who had so many times played Nature, unaided, raised sufficient grasses and in its cool shade.

grains, meats, nuts and fruits so that the Indians

of California, the Pitts, Shastas, the Round ValBut one day a tree doctor came along

ley, the Klamath, and other tribes, might wander and looked at the tree. He saw at once

at will, taking their living wherever it might be that the tree was very ill and that some

sound and with but little thought for the lean

years. The white man early recognized, howthing must be done quickly if the tree were ever, that nature, alone, makes a poor agriculto get well.

There was
no hospital to

turist, and that, in order to insure an abundance

for an increasing population, she must be aided which he could take the tree, so he decided by agriculture. What agriculture is to ordinary

ROADSIDE FORESTRY*

By C. M. Goethe California is proud of her highways, but she might be still more proud of them were they beautified by trees. There is no one who would choose a bleak treeless highway in place of one bordered with trees. The absence of trees means bleakness and bareness. To many the irregular undisturbed growth of native trees along a roadside appeals most, but it is a wonderful and inspiring sight to look down long avenues of regularly placed trees. So much of the native flora is destroyed when land is brought under cultivation that emphasis should be placed on the planting of native trees, such as Monterey pine, redwood, laurel and live oak. This opportunity of replacing in a measure the native forests destroyed should not be overlooked.

Of course, in addition to the pleasure afforded by roadside trees, there are the more practical uses, such as shade, wind breaks, fire wood, and even a crop of nuts or fruit.

The planting of trees along the roadside may fall to the lot of either the individual, the county or the state government. The part that an individual may play is evidenced by the work of Mr. C. E. V. Saunders of Sacramento, whose business carries him over many Northern California counties. He has for many years, during the rainy season, carried with him a supply of California black walnuts selected for their size. While the season is rainy he makes a habit of stamping a series of these into the wet ground with his heel, making almost the natural environment for the

* Secure from the State Forester, Sacramento, California, Bulletin No. 4, entitled: “Street and Highway Planting. This bulletin gives full details as to the most desirable trees for planting and the manner of planting them.

The State Librarian, Sacramento, has a loan collection of slides, accompanied with suitable short talks furnished by the State Forester, which may be obtained by any school.

Three Important New Books for

con

en

on

nut, as it sprouts readily even laying on top of
the ground. In this way Mr. Saunders has added
quickly, efficiently, and yet with practically no
expense except his time, to the roadside forestry
of our state.
More than this, he has been contributing to

HIGH AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS what is even more desirable, the forestration of

BOWDEN,
ATWOOD, CIVIC AND

WILLIS, native trees. The native California walnut is the

GENERAL SCIENCE ECONOMIC BIOLOGY PLANE GEOMETRY remnant of an old flora. It has been a native of this state almost from the days of the saber

(1923)

(1922)

By Prof. C. Addison Willis, toothed tiger and of the wild peacock and other By Garfield P. Bowden, Uni

By Wm. H. Atwood, Milwau Girard College, Philadelanimals found fossilized in Southern California,

versity School, Cincinnati.

kee State Normal School. phia. viii + 301 pp. 12 mo. having persisted since the days when camels, ele

viii + 634 pp. 12 mo. $1.68.

XV + 470 pp. 12 mo. Cloth Price $1.32. To Boards of phants and bison were a part of our fauna. Just

To Boards of Education,
$1.68. To Boards of Educa-

Education $1.06. as the old Virginia families were proud to belong

$1.35.

tion $1.35. to the F. F. V., so, if the California walnut had

This is a biology dealing

This is a boys' text. There a soul, it might be proud to belong to the first This book is the result of with the science of life as it

is something doing on every families of California.

a long study of conditions

affects the welfare of the page. It is a call to action. In another way Mr. Saunders has been of ser

relating to general science

community. The subject mat It stimulates thought, satisvice in roadside forestry. Some ten years ago

instruction, and is aimed to

ter has been arranged in fies the pupil with work acin a foothill country he was in the habit of stopmeet the present day teach units and studies, the studies

complished, leads him to put ping at a spring for a drink. It occurred to him

ing ideals.

being in each case of proper forth his best efforts. It is a to take to this spring several Bartlett pear trees

The subject matter

length for a single class lessuited to the moist growth around springs.

girls' text. It contains inforTo

plies with the suggestions son. day these trees bear heavy fruit which are

mation attractively displayed and recommendations of the The advantages of the probjoyed by wayfarers who stop at the spring for Commission the Reor lem method have been util

on many matters of special a drink. In Burmah and other European coun ganization of Science in Sec

ized. The illustrations are

interest to girls, such as detries these things are done by the Buddhists who ondary schools.

both instructive and artistic.

signing, principles of Archidesire to acquire merit, such acts of benevolence The immediate success of The book is packed full of

tecture, and popular science. extending from the planting of a fruit bearing this book the first few practical, useful and interest

It is a teachers' text. Every tree or the placing of a jug at a spring, to even months of publication makes ing information, organized paragraph has been carefully building elaborate rest houses and bungalows for it the outstanding General and developed in the most

worked over for its own spethe wayfarer in a country where hotels are often Science text.

teachable manner.

cial contribution and impetus. several days' marches apart.

These books will be sent for examination on request. They are listed in the In some countries forestry boards have been organized, with the result that the highways have

California High School list of text books. Send for catalog. been beautified. The State Forestry Board, which

P. BLAKISTON'S SON & COMPANY, Publishers sees the value of tree planting, has been thus far handicapped in work of this kind because of the

PHILADELPHIA lack of funds to establish a nursery.

HARR WAGNER PUBLISHING COMPANY Roadside forestry applies equally well to the

Pacific Coast Depository city, for there is no one thing that is more attractive or that adds more to a city's refinement than a well planned and well executed planting of

us insist that our Christmas trees be so thousand year struggle for existence. Here, too, trees along its streets.

is the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), which, taken that their use will be a benefit to the

while commercially so important, yet occupies forest rather than a detriment. THE JUICY STEAK

but a single narrow strip barely twenty-five miles By Mrs. Junea W. Kelly

In California the Toyon, or Christmas wide along our shores. Its northern limit is the Everyone during his whole life is dependent red berry, is extensively used for decora- Oregon line, its southern is Monterey Bay, and

it flourishes only within the fog belt. upon the forests. Therefore, we should take tion. There is a law making it a misde

Then there is the aristocratic sugar pine (Pinus every means to prevent waste and to help plant new forests. meanor to pick any berries or to offer for

lambertiana), king of the pines. It also grows sale any berries growing on public or pri- best in our Just to show you boys and girls that the above

own state. Another native son is is true, I will give you one example. Follow the vate lands unless, in the case of private found in incense cedar, the wood of which, while juicy steak from the mountain pasture to the land, the owner gives his written consent.

often full of defects, is yet so eagerly sought for dinner table. Trees are necessary on the water

the manufacture of pencils. Monterey pine (Pinus As good law-abiding citizens everybody shed to supply water for the grass to grow and

radiata) is to be found only in the immediate for the streams to flow so that cattle will find should live up to the spirit of the law. Also

vicinity of the bay of the same name, while the food and drink. In many places fences are nec

the officers of the state should see to its few sole survivors of the dwarfed and gnarled essary. There must be wood for the posts. The enforcement. This is, however, almost im but always picturesque Torrey pine (Pinus torloading and unloading platforms for cattle are possible because it is so difficult to prove

reyana) can be seen (in their native haunts) only made of wood. Did you ever think of the mil

in the neighborhood of San Diego. lions of wooden railroad ties under which the the source from which the berries are ob

The forest is the original home of the tree, wooden cattle cars travel in reaching the market? tained. If the berry is to be protected it

and it is in the forest that most of our native Even the butcher's wooden chopping block plays seems there should be a law to entirely trees reach their best development. California's its part, and the handles of his saws, hatchets prohibit its sale.

forests are extensive, and they, too, are widely and knives are made of that indispensable pro

known. The commercial, or merchantable, forduct. After it reaches the home the meat is

Some of our wild flowers that are becom

ests of the state cover nearly twenty million trimmed with wooden-handled knives, fried in ing extinct, such as the trillium, mission acres-roughly one-fifth its total area-and may a wooden-handled pan and served on a wooden bells and other members of the lily family, be divided into three broad but distinct forest table. So everything that makes wood scarcer, such should also be protected. In other words, regions. The first is the Redwood belt, which

lies between the Coast Range and the Pacific as forest fires, wasteful lumbering, and cutting there should be game laws to protect cer

Ocean from Monterey Bay to above Crescent trees without planting new ones, makes the steak tain of the plants. Some of our Eastern City. Here the forest is nearly pure redwood, cost more and your father and mother must work states-for example, Vermont and Connec- although Douglas fir enters considerably into the harder to give you your daily food. Let us,then, ticut—already have such laws.

mixture. Second, comes the Sierra region, loall help protect the forests.

cated in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and strikPeople have become educated to the fact

ing the two large central valleys of the state on that wild ducks, geese, trout and venison the east. Sugar and western yellow pine (Pinus WHERE DO OUR CHRISTMAS TREES cannot be sold in the market. Why not ap- ponderosa) predominate in this region, although COME FROM ?

with them are to be found many other species, ply the same principle to the berries and

including three firs (Douglas, white and CaliforEach Christmas in the United States wild flowers ?

nja red) and incense cedar. On the eastern slope alone, some 5,000,000 Christmas trees are When picking native greens, berries and used and many more wasted. True, the flowers, let us remember: forests are here for use and every child Pick for use, not for abuse,

Popular Prices

Phone Park 6045 should have his Christmas tree. If the And leave the most to reproduce.

We Give Trading Stamps trees are taken without thought for the

-The Garden Club of Alameda Co. future there will soon be a time when those trees near at hand will become scarce, and

BEE HIVE MILLINERY on account of long distant transportation

CALIFORNIA'S TREES AND FORESTS only the richer people will be able to afford

Hats Dyed and Pressed

By R. F. Hammatt, them. Yet, we are told by our forestry de

Feathers Cleaned, Dyed and Pressed

United States Forest Service
partment that if the young trees were cut
out judiciously where the stand is too dense California's forest trees

Mourning Goods a Specialty
are known the wide
world over.

In California alone is to be found the taking of these trees would be a benefit

the monarch big tree (Sequoia washingtoniana), 1116A MARKET ST. SAN FRANCISCO to our forests. Christmas trees would be

whose deformed and fire-scarred but always magcome a by-product of good forestry. Let

nificent trunks furnish an unique record of a two

of these mountains, sugar pine is less abundant vide special soil use the surface dirt at thus coating them for protection, then keep than on the west, and western yellow pine gives hand, since it contains more plant food, covered without excluding air. way to Jeffrey. The third region, the Northern Coast Range, which includes the forested por

and pack the same about the roots, leaving Trees having an abundance of fibrous tions of the Coast Range Mountains from Lake no air spaces. The dirt immediately around roots are most likely to succeed. “What is County through Trinity and Siskiyou to the Orc the roots must be freed from rubbish. worth doing is worth doing well!” This gonline, is distinguished from the second principally by the larger percentage of Douglas fir

The smaller the ball of carth retained particularly applies to tree planting. (Psendotsuga taxifolia), which occurs with the about the roots of the tree to be transplantpines, as well as by large stands of pure lir. ed or the fewer roots saved, the greater the

HISTORIC TREES These three regions contain today nearly three danger of its starvation.

I. Charter Oak hundred million feet of merchantable timber. Two-thirds of this amount is now in private

When the root hairs once shrivel they In history we often see ownership; sixty-five per cent of this two-thirds never revive so prevent their exposure to The record of a noted tree. is within the pine belt and thirty-five per cent sun or wind; best keep them covered and We'll now some history pages turn in the redwood. Appproximately one-third, or with something damp. one hundred million feet is owned by the Fed

And note what trees we there discern: eral Government, and is within the National For If any of the roots of the plants are found And foremost of this famous band ests, which do not include any of the redwood. to be bruised or broken, cut them off slant We think the Charter Oak should stand. The National Forests, containing 18,000,000 ing, with a sharp knife.

IVe love to read the story o'er acres of government land, occupy the greater

A root system requires a degree of air so How Andrus came from England's shore part of both slopes of the Sierras from the Oregon line to the Tehachapi, the Klamath River do not bury the tree any deeper than it

As governor in this new land, Mountains, the entire ridges of the Coast Range stood before. Ilave its upper roots comfort

And ruled it with a tyrant's hand; as far south as Lake County, and the Coast ably covered. In planting, hold the tree

How, when he came to Hartford town Ranges from near Monterey southward to the firmly, about where it is to stand and sist

Demanding with a haughty frown Mexican boundary. Within their boundaries are some of the most impressive scenery and finest cleaned soil, free from clods, about the

The charter of the people's rights, camping, hunting and fishing grounds still in

All suddenly out went the lights; roots. Pack carefully but firmly. Should government ownership within the state. Created you be planting in the growing season pour

And, ere again they re-appeared, primarily to insure a permanent supply of timber and to protect the water supply needed by the water freely into the hole to more firmly

The charter to their hearts endeared people of the State of California for irrigation pack the soil, but if the plant is dormant

Lay safely in this hollow tree, and domestic use, the National Forests (not to and the soil wet, do not use water.

Guard of the people's liberty. be confused with National Parks) offer, besides,

All honor, then, to Wadsworth's name,

Prune the top of the tree to a few main exceptional opportunities for almost every form

IVho gave the Charter Oak its fame. of recreation.

branches directly above the buds or even Many people believe that these forests are rewith stem only, in order not to tax the

II. Liberty Elm served from all forms of use, to be held by the roots, for otherwise the transpiration of Federal Government in perpetuity and for the water from foliage may be too great a draft

Another very famous tree benefit of future generations only. Such is not

Was called the Elm of Liberty. the case. As a matter of fact, their resources

for the remaining root feeders. For older timber, forage, water, minerals, recreation—all trees, being transplanted, their tops must

Beneath its shade the patriots bold are for use in the ways which will make them of be balanced with the root measure, favor

For tyranny their hatred told. the greatest good to the greatest number in the ing the latter.

l'pon its branches high and free long run.

Was often hung in eifigy

Many trees die because persons dislike One aim of the Forest Service of the United

Such persons as the patriots thought States Department of Agriculture, which adminto destroy the beauty or form of a tree by

Opposed the freedom which they sought. isters them, is to make these forests national pruning severely, though a handsomer tree

In war time, oft beneath this tree playgrounds, where the vacationists, the hiker is sooner supplied by adequately cutting and the lover of the saddle may find a delight

The people prayed for victory; ful and, at the same time, a simple, inexpensive away branches.

And when at last the old tree fell outing. Recreation is encouraged. Camping is When a transplanted tree starts to grow, There sadly rang each Boston bell. free and is unrestricted. Public camp grounds water frequently for a time, at least; see equipped with fireplaces, rest houses and, where that the soil at the roots is continuously necessary, domestic water supply systems, have

III. Washington Elm been established for those who may wish to use damp.

In Cambridge there is standing yet them. There are, besides, innumerable beautiful For a tree to grow vigorously it must be

A tree we never should forget; camp spots, perhaps less well known, on

supplied with drainage below. Shallow soil. road and trail. Sites for summer homes, upon

For here, equipped with sword and gun, which may be crected the rough-hewn log cabin particularly when clayey carth lies beneath.

There stood our honored Washington, or the rustic bungalow, may be leased at nom

is unfavorable for tree planting. In many When of the little patriot band inal rates (seldom exceeding $20 a year) if some places it is necessary to blast out the bot For freedom's cause he took command. thing more than a temporary camp is desired. tom of a hole, in rock or hardpan, to get a Despite its age—three hundred years

You will find yourself under no burdensome tree to thrive. With sticky sub-soil drain Its lofty head it still uprears;
restrictions when you use the National Forests
for recreation. You may go where you please,

age must be supplied in one way or Its mighty arms extending wide, pitch camp wherever fancy strikes you, and stay

other. If the ground is sloping, a system It stands our country's boasted pride. as long as you like. You may have what wood of ditches, not less than three feet deep, you need free of charge, and forage for your connecting with cach tree hole should be

IV. Burgoyne's Elm saddle and pack animals. The free use of the

vlug. Broken rock to the depth of about government telephone lines, built primarily to

When, in spite of pride, pomp and boast, aid in fire protection, is yours for the asking. three inches should be placed on the bot

Burgoyne surrendered with his host, Care with fire, proper camp sanitation, and con tom and covered with gravel or sand.

And then was brought to Albany servative use of the camp improvements provided is practically all that is asked of you.

Keep the soil around the tree loosened

A prisoner of war to be, Information about the National Forests, their

up, don't allow it to cake or crack, also In gratitude for his defeat, resources of wood, water, and forage, possibili

pull out weeds. This will prevent excessive That day, upon the city street, ties for summer homes, location of camp growds evaporation; it will help matters to use a An elm was planted, which they say and information about the relation of these re mulch.

Still stands in memory of that day. sources to the industrial life and growth of our state may be secured from the District Forester

To plant trees on swampy land spread at San Francisco. out the roots on the surface of the ground

V.—The Treaty Elm and turn the soil over them, forming a Within the Quaker City's realm, HOW TO PLANT A TREE

conical mound. This mound should then There stood the famous Treaty Elm. By H. A. Greene, Monterey, Cal.

be covered by moss or inverted sod. Trees Here, with its sheltering boughs above,

with tap roots are not desirable for this Good William Penn, in peace and love, (Reprinted from The Tri-County Agricultural News) way of planting:

The Indians met, and there agreed Since the root tips or last year's roots

In taking seedlings from the wild only Upon that treaty which we read are the only feeders for a tree, the hole

take those growing in the open, unshaded, Was never broken, though no oath

and better select the smaller ones, about a lVas taken-justice guiding both. for the reception of one to be transplanted

A monument now marks the ground should be double in dimensions, at least, Unless a ball of carth is maintainer

Where once this honored tree was found. to the outside measurement of the remaining root system. When new roots are sent about the roots one should, immediately

VI. Tree from Napoleon's Grave forth, mellow, fertile soil should be there upon taking the seedling from the ground, Within a city of the dead, to receive them. If not convenient to pro- dip its roots into a vessel containing mud, Near Bunker Hill, just at the head

every

an

year old.

Of Cotton Mather's grave, there stands
A weeping willow which fond hands
Brought from Napoleon's grave, they say,
In St. Helena, far away.

MATERIAL FOR BIRD AND ARBOR DAY

Birds and Animals of the Western United States

VII. The Cary Tree I'll tell you of a sycamore, And how two poets' names it bore; Upon Ohio's soil it stands. 'Twas placed there by the childish hands Of sister poets, and is known As Alice and Phoebe Cary's own. One day, when little girls, they found A sapling lying on the ground; They planted it with tenderest care Beside this pleasant highway, where It grew and thrived and lived to be To all around, the Cary tree.

Beautiful Photographic Reproductions in Colors—True to Life and Nature

Size 7x9—Price, Three Cents Each in Lots of 10 or
more; 100 or More, at the Rate of $2.75 per 100.

No Orders Filled for Less Than Ten Pictures The only color plates of the kind in the world. Made by the recent improvements in the art of color photography. These exquisite pictures strike the eye and hold the attention. Every teacher, school and home should have the entire list. You should have them (1) because of their value, (2) you can have them because of their price. The educational value of these plates is wonderful. 75,000,000 printed, 20,000,000 sold the past year, 2,000,000 in one order.

“The delicate coloring in your Passenger Pigeon is a marvel of art.'

These pictures are so natural that it almost seems as if the creature represented is going to start out of the page and escape.—Chicago Record-Herald.

The pictures are astonishingly good. I like them so well I shall put them up on the walls of my rustic retreat "Slab Sides.”—John Burrroughs.

You have certainly hit upon a method of reproducing colors with remarkable fidelity to nature.—Dr. Elliott Coues.

VIII. Hamilton Trees In New York City proudly stand Thirteen monarchs, lofty, grand, Their branches tow'ring toward the sun Are monuments of Hamilton, Who planted them in pride that we Had won our cause and libertyA tribute, history relates, To the original thirteen states.

MILTON BRADLEY CO.

L. VAN NOSTRAND, MANAGER 20 SECOND STREET, Near Market

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

Like thee, we too shall grow; Thou art our type of future power; Like thee, we too shall grow.

came

IX. Recitation for School We reverence these famous trees. What better monuments than these? How fitting on each Arbor Day That we a grateful tribute pay To poet, statesman, author, friend, To one whose deeds our hearts commend, As lovingly we plant a tree Held sacred to his memory; A fresh memorial, as each year New life and buds and leaves appearA living monument tree, True type of immortality.

-Ada Simpson Sherwood.

jars in the cellar that were filled with this delicious concoction spoke eloquently of its popularity. As the glasses and jars were emptied, spring

on and the whole delightful experience could be lived through again.

But whatever your tree is, know all you can about it, its root, its trunk, its branches and leaves, how it looks as you stand under it, in it, or at a distance; what birds nest in it, what insects seed on it, what pests destroy it. The more you know about it the better you will love it and the more deeply it will be impressed upon your mind.

Now that you know what one person's greenwood tree is, wouldn't it be fun to hear about others? Let's make a collection of them. Will you send me the best story about somebody's tree that you can find ? I should like to have them. Perhaps you and I together could make a book of them for another Arbor Day. Would someone like to learn this beautiful poem?

In coming years thy kindly shade

The sons of toil shall bless;
Thy beauty and thy grace shall all

With grateful voice confess;
And so our youth in wisdom trained

Shall render service great,
Our schools send sons and daughters forth,
The glory of the state.
-Oregon Arbor and Bird Day

Manual, 1912.

BIRD AND ARBOR DAY

Under the greenwood tree
Who loves to lie with me
And tune his merry note
Unto the sweet bird's throat;
Come hither, come hither, come hither!

Here shall he see

No enemy
But winter and rough weather.

A SHASTA LEGEND

I think that I shall never see A poem lovely as a tree;

By Lucy Hughes Doak

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soms.

THE PLANTING OF THE TREE

What is your greenwood tree? The greenwood tree of England meant a forest tree in the full leafy bloom of midsummer. Your greenwood tree may be one of the lofty redwoods, or a eucalyptus, a pepper tree, an umbrella or a lonely joskna. But whatever may be its variety it may have all the charm and romance the world can offer.

Many years ago a plum thicket, consisting of a bunch of scraggly growing wild plum trees, was my most enjoyable playhouse. In the spring the blossoms, snowy white, filled the air with their sweet odors, and to this day there is nothing so fragrant to me as the odor of plum blos

Our teacher had a weakness for them and those pupils who were full of guilt used to try to win his favor by keeping his desk covered with blossom-filled branches. The prune and the orange of California and the cherry of far-off Japan are famed in song and story, but the little old plum thicket of my childhood will always have first place in my affections.

Then how we watched the plums as they filled out, turned from green to yellow and then one cheek would begin to glow. The punching process began with the first yellow tint to be followed later by hesitating nibbles, for wild plums have some pucker even at their ripest. The birds did their share of the tasting, too, and such a time as we had altogether. Did you ever eat wild plum jelly? Nothing can be so beautiful or so pungent in flavor as that quivering column that graced the table along with the Thanksgiving turkey. And plum butter! The great stone

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