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Paused the leaves as if to listen,

Floating buoyantly alongIn the sunshine, rose and fluttered

Bursting into joyous song.

When you see bright plumage darting

In and out among the trees, Think of Shasta Indians dreaming

That the birds were formed from leaves.

There Are Wonderful Tales About

Trees, For the Story Hour* llow they scatter their seeds. llow they protect their buds in winter. Stories of the carpenter and what he makes of wood.

Stories of toys, household articles, and paper making.

Oi lumbering, and building houses and bridges and railroads and boats.

Stories of the log from forest to furniture.
From oak tree to armchair.
From the big tree to the tiny shoe peg.
From the tree to the violin or piano.
From summer sunshine to winter's warm fire.
The tree home of the birds and the squirrels.

That is why in trees they're building,

For here's guarded safe the nest; Strong arms fold them as if shielding

Close up to the mother breast.

by insect pests. But we owe them a greater debt even than this, for the study of birds tends to develop some of the best attributes and impulses of our natures. Among

em we find examples of generosity, unselfish devotion, of the love of the mother for offspring, and other estimable qualities. Their industry, patience and ingenuity excite our admiration; their songs inspire us with a love of music and poetry ; their beautiful plumages and graceful manners appeal to our esthetic sense; their long migrations to distant lands stimulate our imaginations and tempt us to inquire into the causes of these periodic movements; and, finally, the endless modifications of form and habits by which they are enabled to live under most diverse conditions of food and climate—on land and at sea-invite the student of nature into inexhaustible fields of pleasurable research.-J. Sterling Morton.

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BIRDS For, if we can fill the plastic minds of growing children with thoughts of the beautiful world of nature, with the fascination of the myriads of beasties, more wonderful than a cirCus, we can so saturate them with the good, that no room remains for the morbid, the undesirable, the vicious. Let us teach them to read roadsides as well as books.-C. N. Goethe.

SUGGESTIONS FOR

COMPOSITIONS 1. Why is it important to preserve forests in California ?

Discuss (1) control of water supply and the flow of streams and rivers; (2) what happens where severe lumbering or fire has destroyed the forests; (3) the necessity for observing certain measures of conservation for the sake of the lumber industry.

2. Make a plan showing what you consider desirable tree, shrub and flower planting along California highways. Suggest ways of interesting organizations and people to gain financial support to carry out such a project.

3. Write a composition on the verses about birds to be found in the poems of James Whitcomb Riley, the “children's poet."

THE VALUE OF BIRDS Birds are of inestimable value to mankind. Without their unremitting services our gardens and fields would be laid waste

Prepare Exhibition of Bird Posters

(Correlation with School Drawing) Illustrate such ideas and slogans as: 1 Hunt Birds with a Camera.

2. Birds wanted. (Illustrating bird houses properly placed.)

3. Free lunch-counter.

4. Learn how to attract Birds to your Home Garden. ( food tray; a bird bath; attractively planted trees and shrubs useful for food and shelter.)

5. We help protect the farmers' crops. (Hawks soaring over grain field.)

6. We do our best to keep down the weeds. (Linnet or goldfinch eating thistleseed.)

THE INVITATION Take the first step in bird study and you are ticketed for the whole voyage. There is a fascination about it quite overpowering It fits so well with other things — with fishing, hunting, farming, walking, camping out-with all that takes one to the fields and woods. One may go a-blackberrying and make some rare discovery; or while driving his cow to pasture, hear a new song or make a new observation. Secrets lurk on all sides. There is news in every brush. Expectation is ever on tiptoe. What no man ever saw before may the next moment be revealed to you. What a new interest the woods have! How you long to explore every nook and corner of them!

Ornithology cannot be learned satisfactorily from books. The satisfaction is in learning it from nature. One must have an original experience with the birds. The books are only the guide, the invitation. . . . But let me say, in the same breath, that the books can by no manner of means be dispensed with. ... The ornithologists divide and subdivide the birds into a

reat many families, orders, genera, species, etc., which at first sight are apt to confuse and discourage the reader. But any interested person can acquaint himself with most of our song birds by keeping in mind a few general divisions and observing the characteristics of each. By far the greater number of our land birds are either warblers, vireos, fly-catchers, thrushes or finches.—John Burroughs, Alabama Bird Day Book, 1916.

in our

TREE STUDY
Such questions as the following may be asked:
What color are the leaves in summer?
Are they all the same shade of green?
What do the leaves do in summer? In winter?
What color are the leaves in autumn?

Does each tree have its own autumn color? What color do hickories turn?

Do you know any leaves that do not change color? What do we call them?

If the leaves remain on the tree all winter, do they ever fall off ?

Why do you like the trees?

Would you like to have your dooryard without trees?

Do you like to go to the woods to play?

Does the grass grow under the trees just the same as it does out in the sunshine?

What gifts does the tree bring to us?

What does the tree give you to eat? Name the fruits. Name the nuts.

To how many of God's creatures does the tree give food? Does the tree help them in any other way?

What do you see in this room that the tree gives to us?

Name everything in the dining room at home that the tree gives to you.

Tell me all the things you see on the way to school that the tree gives to you.

Name all the things that you used when you went away from home on a trip that the tree gives to you.

Tell me all the things you see on the way to school that the tree gives to you.

Name all the things that you use in one day that the tree gives to you.

Name all the things that you used when you went away from home on a trip that the tree gives to you.

Name all the things you ever rode in that are made of wood. What musical instruments

you think of that are made of wood?

Name five things that you like best that are made of wood.

Name five things that you use most that are made of wood.

What things does the baby use that are made of wood?

What things does grandpa use that are made of wood?

V.

DISTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF

COMMON BIRDS 1. Woodpeckers, with long, strong bills, climb 11p and down the trunks of trees bracing with their tails and tapping the bark vigorously.

II. Hummingbirds are the smallest birds with irridescent plumage which buzz about flowers extracting nectar and tiny insects with their long needle-shaped bills.

III. Flycatchers sit erect with drooping teetering tails, watching alertly for insect prey upon which they pounce in mid-air, afterwards returning to their perch.

IV. Larks are birds of sparrow size which walk about (rather than hop) on the ground feeding on weed seeds. Feathers above eye arc erectile, giving the appearance of horns, hence the name horned lark, given the only true lark

state. (The meadowlark belongs to the circle, blackbird family.)

Crows, Ravens and Jays are good sized birds, with raucus calls and bold behavior, usually inhabiting open fields or wooded areas.

VI. Blackbirds and Orioles have bright plumage and usually inhabit open fields.

The sexes differ in coloration. Winter flocking is the rule.

VII. Sparrows and Finches have stout seedcracking bills, feed on or near the ground, seldom fly high or far at a time, and are for the most part fine songsters.

VIII. Tanagers, remarkable for the brilliant plumage of the males, are birds of the coniferous forests, during the summer, but during migration visit fruit orchards.

IX. Swallows, with long pointed wings, skim through the air in graceful and long sustained flights and often perch on telephone wires.

X. Waxwings are conspicuous because of a crested head and yellow tipped tail. They are usually seen in large focks feeding upon berries in trees or bushes. They perch and fly in closeset flocks.

XI. Shrikes are usually solitary and choose conspicuous perches. In silhouette a flat-topped head, short neck and hooked bill are evident.

XII. Vireos, chubby, large-eyed birds, the color of foliage, are at home on the boughs of trees and sing freely as they glide in and out among the leaves to feed.

can

* Bulletins relative to California native trees may be procured by schools upon postal request of the California Nature Study League, Capital National Bank Building, Sacramento, California, and the U. S. Forest Service, 114 Sansome street, San Francisco, California.

† For information on California, Audubon Societies, sets of material, buttons, etc.,

write for information to Mrs. llarriet Williams Myers, 311 N Ave. 66, Los Angeles Calif.

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XIII. Warblers are small, tireless, gaily-colored explorers of the twigs of trees and bushes. A few exhibit flycatcher-like habits.

XV. Thrashers and Mockingbirds have long curved bills and long tails, inhabit bushy areas and orchards. They are noisy and possess wonderful ventriloquial and imitative powers.

XVI. Wrens, with tails erect, slip mouse-like about brush heaps, crevices and bushes, though often perching in sight while singing; scolding notes distinctive.

XVII. Creepers, as the name signifies, creep upward on the trunks of trees and the larger limbs, searching for insects in the crevices of the bark, the long curved bill and sharp pointed tail feathers used like a woodpecker's being great aids.

XVIII. Nuthatches are smaller than woodpeckers and have much the same habit of climbing up and down tree-trunks but with a freer wig - wagging motion, often descending head downward.

XIX. Titmice and Chickadees are small, noisy, active, restless birds feeding largely in foliage

on inner limbs. They have Auffy, grayish plumage and short straight bills, with which they often hammer seeds with woodpecker-like blows while holding them with their feet.

XX. Kinglets, tiny, chubby birds with large eyes, move restlessly about in foliage, ever keeping on the move.

XXI. Thrushes, who, with the exception of the Robin and Bluebird, are very plainly dressed and have spotted breasts, run about the ground, stopping suddenly in listening attitude.

-Adapted by H. C. Bryant.

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or

A wonderful God has given the bird
That made the nest in the tree!
The singer, the song,
The tree and the sky,
What wonderful gifts from Thee!

-Ethel Mildred Towns.

on

BIRD BIOGRAPHY

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Use genuine BANK STOCK School Stationery and get the benefits that come with

complete satisfaction.

There is ever a song somewhere, my

dear, There is ever a something sings

always; There's the song of the lark when the

skies are clear, And the song of the thrush when

the skies are gray. The sunshine showers

the grain, And the bluebird trills in the orch

ard tree; And in and out, when the eaves drip

rain, The swallows are twittering cease

lessly.

Who sings on the wing?

I, said the skylark;

From dawn until dark I sing on the wing.

across

Whose feathers are downy?

Mine, said the goose,

They're put to good use; My feathers are downy.

Who builds a hang-nest?

I, said the oriole,

In shape like a bowl; I build my hang-nest.

Who's pet of the household ?

I, said canary,

A right yellow fairy;
I am pet of the household.

KNIGHT-COUNIHAN CO.

Successors to Mysell-Rollins Bank Note Co. 32 CLAY ST., SAN FRANCISCO

sun

TO THE WRENS

There is ever a song somewhere, my

dear, In the midnight black or the mid

day blue; The robin pipes when the is

here, And the cricket chirrups the whole

night through. The buds may blow and the fruit may

grow, And the autumn leaves drop crisp

and sere; But whether the sun, or the rain, or

the snow, There is ever

a song somewhere,

Who's poetry's bird?

I, said the dove,

For I coo of love; I'm poetry's bird.

Who loves to chatter?

I, said the blackbird,

My harsh voice is hcard; I love to chatter.

We've built a little bird-house

For Mr. and Mrs. Wren; One inch one-eighth, the opening,

So sparrows can't get in.

To make it quite attractive,

We've done our very best; With corrugated paper

We've lined the little nest.

Whose legs are long?

Mine, said the crane,

I've more legs than brain ; My legs are long.

my dear.

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Who whistles “Bob White"?

I, said the quail,

Across wood and dale; I whistle “Bob White”.

We've made it fast to branches

Of a leaning cedar tree; A friendly honeysuckle

Makes it snug as snug can be.

Be the skies above dark

fair; There is ever a song that our hearts

may hearThere is ever a song somewhere,

, my dearThere is ever a song somewhere !

-James Whitcomb Riley. (From Alabama Bird Day Book, 1913.)

We're waiting now for tenants,

And hope they'll quickly come. From harm we'll try to guard them,

While making this their home.

What bird is handsome?

I, said the jay,

With plumes blue and gray; I'm very handsome.

-Alabama Bird Day Book, 1915.

Maybe the wrens don't know it,

And yet they're very wise;

Perhaps they'd come more quickly

If we should advertise,

Typing to Music

We'll give the rental gratis

As long as they will stay. Please tell them that—and maybe

They'll come here right away.

with the aid of the

Rational Rhythm Records

Come and see the home provided,

We're sure you'll think it great. Come, Mr. Wren, we like you; Come, and bring your little mate.

- John M. Morse.

By Rupert P. SoRelle

THE BROKEN WING

speeds learning, increases efficiency, creates enthusiasm. They are the first successful effort in producing phonograph records especially adapted to teaching rhythm. Planned by lIr. SoRelle, and produced under his personal direction, they are perfectly adapted to the assignments in the

In front of my pew sits a maiden

A little brown wing on her hat, With its touches of tropical azure,

And the sheen of the sun upon that.

NEW RATIONAL TYPEWRITING

Through the bloom-colored pane shines a

glory By which the vast shadows are stirred, But I pine for the spirit and splendor

That painted the wings of that bird.

Teachers who have tested them are most enthusiastic in praise of their value and their perfect adaptation to the purpose. The use of the records brings the following advantages:

1.

The organ rolls down its great anthem

With the soul of a song it is blent; But for me, I am sick for the singing

Of one little song that is spent.

2.

chance and assure a perpetual supply, it is necessary to have laws for the protection of birds, animals and fish. Even laws fail to do what we desire il people do not know about them and appreciate their value. To be a conservationist, one must know not only the things to be protected, but also the laws which give them protection. We all ought to know as much about protective laws as the boy scout when he takes a test on conservation and he has to know about the fish and game laws. Here is a short review of California's fish and game law's which is designed to teach you some of the main features regarding the laws which give protection to the wild birds, animals and fish of this state. A questionnaire which follows will act as a test as to how much you learned by reading the article.

The first law which gave any protection to game in California was passed by the third state legislature in 1852. Legislation which followed was more or less local in application, but beginning in 1880, protective laws have been given uniform treatment in all countries. Protection for fish and game became more adequate after the hunting license law was passed in 1908. Now, everyone who hunts game in California must own and carry with him a hunting license which, if he is a citizen of the state, costs one dollar. Every grown person who fishes for game fish in California must have a fishing license, which, if he is a citizen of the state, also costs one dollar. Hollever, because fishing has always been a favorite sport of the small boy, an angling license is not required of anyone under 18 years of age. For disobeying fish and game laws one is taken into court and fined, or given a jail sentence, or perhaps both. Fines so collected go into the state's fish and game protective fund.

Since the main object of game laws is to assure the use of a natural surplus and to leave a sufficient breeding stock, most laws have to do with either season or bag limit.

Season It seems very

reasonable that game should not be disturbed or killed during the breeding season. Certainly one would not market cows, leaving calves to starve. Likewise we could not expect to kill deer and quail which were parents of young that would die as a result. Most game birds and mammals rear their young in the spring and early summer, and the first laws having to do with open and closed seasons

3.

Materially hastens the process of learning. Favorably influences concentration, and materially hastens the acquisition of speed. Produces even impressions, and a rhythmic flow of strokes. uces ain of nerves and

es in the learning stages. Creates interest, arouses enthusiasm, and helps the teacher

get better results in teaching.

The voice of the curate is gentle :

"No sparrow shall fall to the ground." But the poor broken wing on the bonnet

Is mocking the merciful sound.-Selected.

4.

5.

The records are adapted to any type of disc machine using needles. They are fulltoned, resonant, and have the rhythmic beats distinctly marked. They are arranged progressively, starting with low speed, and graduated up to high speed. Each record also has a very flexible speed range. The music you will accept without question. The record outfit consists of six discs (12 10-inch records) packed in a beautiful, compact, cloth covered, carrying case. Teacher's Manual free with every set. Price $12 a set, net. Individual records not sold, except for replacement.

G A ME
THE EQUITY OF THE GAME LAWS

Game laws, like other laws, are made for a definite purpose, and that purpose is a wise one.

No one who has given the subject a moment's serious consideration can fail to see the need of placing restrictions on the taking of wild game, both as to numbers and as to the length of the season in which they can be taken. The difference arises chiefly as to the degree of restriction, and there are inequalities no doubt.

Many of those who criticise the restrictions do it thoughtlessly, not realizing that as civilization pushes out and extends its borders, taking up the wild lands, just so surely are the breeding grounds and habitat of the wild game reduced. The wild bird flies no faster, has no better means of defense, than it had two hundred years ago, but man has increased his efficiency to kill and take a thousandfold; advancing successively from the bow and arrow to a muzzle-loading gun, then to the rapid-firing breechloader with smokeless powder and belt full of cartridges, until finally there has been evolved the “game hog.” Should there be any question about the wisdom of, and necessity for, these restrictions ?--Chas. Vogelsang

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placed a ban on the killing of game during of hook and line, is now prohibited by law. 7. Why is there a bag limit of fifteen these spring months. At first there was a A ban is placed on certain types of nets. on quail and of twenty-five on ducks? long season when game might be killed. The size of mesh might be so small as to 8. How many trout may a boy take in With the desire to cut down the toll and capture too small fish and consequently the

one day? give wild life better protection, came size of mesh is regulated by law.

9. How many deer may a hunter take lengthening of the closed season and a

in California during a year?

Non-Sale shortening of the open season.

10. What are considered illegal methods IVhen a hunter was allowed to sell the

of taking fish and game? At the present time a duck hunter may game he had shot and the angler the fish kill ducks only between October 1 and

11. Can one buy quail or ducks in the caught, there was an incentive to kill more market for a sick friend? January 15. A deer hunter is allowed an

than his fair share. Consequently, one by open season of only one month and a half

12. Why must we limit the taking of in the fall. One may trap fur-bearing ani

one the various game birds were not allow game to those who can go afield and get mals from October 15 to March 1. The ed to be sold; just quail and shore birds it, and make no provision for those who are quail season opens in most of the states and, later on, ducks. The sale of venison

unable to go afield ? on the first day of November and closes or the hide of a deer has long been prohib

13. What sources of water pollution are on the fifteenth day of January.

found in this state? ited. A Federal law prohibits the sale of Seasons are also given to fish, the open all migratory birds throughout the country.

14. How does water pollution in Caliseason for trout in most sections of the

fornia affect fish and game?

Pollution state being from May 1 to November 1,

15. For what does the Federal Migrawith protection for these firs during the

In early days sawdust from lumber mills

tory Treaty Act provide ? rest of the year. Black bass still have a

was dumped into streams with the result long open season of seven months. Even that the fish died in great numbers. Vari

Superintendent Horace M. Rebok of abalones, clams, crabs and spiny lobsters ous kinds of mining operations also muddy

Santa Monica, the forcesul educational are protected during their breeding seasons.

and pollute the streams unless regulated by
law. In recent years oil pumped from ships

leader whose record as a school adminisSometimes daily seasons are used to limit

trator has brought him into national prominto the ocean has caused the death of the numbers taken, hence one is not allow

inence, will retire at the close of the school many fish and large numbers of sea birds. ed to shoot between sunset and sunrise, The oil, floating on the surface of the wa

year from his position. This is due to the nor anyone take any game fish between

fact that by a vote of three to two the ter, collects on the feathers of the birds one hour after sunset and one hour before

board of education declared the position and forms a thick, gummy coating which sunrise.

vacant June 30, 1924. Superintendent Remakes it impossible for the bird to fly or It is sometimes necessary to protect ani

bok's thousands of friends will deplore the swim and the result is slow starvation. mals the year round, especially when their

action of the majority members of the numbers have become so small that there being thus destroyed due to the pollution forward, manly statement says: “I have

In order to prevent fish and game from

board. Superintendent Rebok in a straightis danger of extermination. The animals of water, strict laws prohibit water pollu- long realized that no one individual is necgiven total protection in California are the

tion dangerous to fish and game. elk, antelope, mountain sheep, sea otter

essary to the welfare of the state, but if

Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act and beaver. Because so many gray squir

this is the reward of devoted and efficient

In 1916 the United States and Canada rels have died of discase during the past

public service, running through 17 years, entered into a treaty which provided for few years, the season has been closed on

when my contract expires June 30, of this this animal until September 1, 1925.

uniform protection to migratory and insectAll

year, I will no longer be interested in the ivorous birds. birds not hunted for food or sport are given

In the same year the pas- superintendency of schools, here or elsesage of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act

where. I intend to continue to make Santa protection with the exception of blue jays,

made provision for Federal regulations giv- Monica my home and to enter business butcher birds, English sparrows, sharp

here." skinned hawks, Cooper's hawks, duck hawks, ing added protection to many wild birds.

This Federal law, which has been respongreat horned owls, California linnets, and

sible for a remarkable increase of waterblackbirds in the section of the state north

Superintendent W. L. Stephens has been fowl, provides among other things for a of Tehachapi. Blackbirds are protected in

re-elected as superintendent of schools for Southern California. These birds are blackshort open season on water-fowl, for the Long Beach with an increase of salary.

He will receive under the new contract listed because of their depredations on

total protection for most of the shore birds,

and for the wood duck and the band-tailed growing crops. Swans and wild pheasants

$7500 per year. Superintendent Stephens

is one of the great progressive superintendare among the game birds given protection pigeon, as well as for the non-sale of all

birds covered by the act. · States may give ents of the Pacific States, and his re-electhe year round.

added protection, but may not have longer tion is a reward for faithful service. Bag Limits

open seasons or larger bag limits than With increasing numbers of hunters, so those provided for in the Federal law.

Professor John Almack in a letter to the many game birds, animals and fish were

Law Enforcement

State Teachers' College, San Jose comtaken that it became necessary to limit the

Enforcement of the fish and game laws

mends the practice teaching that is being number a man might take. Some hunters is in the hands of deputies or game ward

done in the Milpitas and Centreville and fishermen were so hoggish that they

If you find someone violating the law

schools. Professor Almack says the spirit would take just as many as possible. They failed to think of others who might desire

call your nearest game warden by phone of the teachers in the typical school con

or write one of the three offices of the Fish ditions is a great contributor to efficiency. a share. Furthermore, so many were killed and Game Commission, which are located

Professor Dias, principal of the Centreville that game and fish began to disappear. To in Sacramento, San Francisco and Los

schools, has a splendid record for efficienimprove conditions, laws were passed and Angeles.

cy, both as a teacher and citizen, and it is now one may take only two buck deer per

fortunate indeed that cadet teachers come season, only fifteen rabbits, valley quail or

in contact with a principal of practical exdoves per day, but four sage hen or grouse,

QUESTIONNAIRE

perience and vision. and but twenty-five trout, black bass, perch 1. Who is required to have a hunting or sunfish. These limits allow a man all license in California ?

J. S. Denton, the principal of the Rio he can possibly eat or properly utilize, and 2. What do we mean by an “open sea

Vista Union High School, was awarded at the same time reduce the toll so as to son” on game?

$250 dollars damages in his suit for libel give fish and game a chance.

3. Why does a closed season give pro

against a local paper. Delighted. Professor Methods tection to fish and game?

Denton, who is a genius in wood work, a be allowed to take more

scholar of the highest type in academic 4. Does a California hunter violate the

studies as well, was snceringly called a than his fair share, laws now prohibit the law if he hunts quail during the months of

carpenter by the local paper. As a matter trapping of any kind of a bird. To use any May and June? Why?

of principle Mr. Denton took the matter to animal except a dog as a blind to approach 5. Name some mammals and birds given court and won. It is a good lesson to newsany wild bird, to shoot any kind of game total protection the year round.

paper men who use the columns of their from a power boat, sail boat, automobile 6. What song birds are black-listed and paper without regard to truth, justice or or airplane, to take trout except by means given no protection?

fairness.

ens.

Lest anyone

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Habit Overcomes Habit

To overcome bad language habits, combat the undesirable automatic process with the desirable automatic process—while the mind is plastic.

even

Fred T. Moore, the new representativve of Silver, Burdett & Company, has been sending out letters that are a real service, The following extracts, which are very suggestive about the use of text books, are certainly worth while:

Perhaps you have never attempted to determine definitely just what percentage of teaching efficiency depends upon the text-book. Is it 5 per cent, or 10 per cent, or 20 per cent, or an

greater per cent? If that could be determined, even approximately, would it not be logical when budgeting total teaching costs to provide for text-book expenditures that would approach this with some degree of relativity?

So much has been done in the way of educational measurements, setting up standard, and evaluating the various factors in education that it would not be strange to see beginning made toward some determination of this important matter.

The enclosed leaflet has “set me thinking.” Would not a more liberal expenditure for good text-books increase the efficiency of schools far beyond the money value involved :

Ilas the true significance of the educational advancement been realized? If not, it is because of some lingering taint of the “old days," or because the growth into their present state of high professional efficiency has been so gradual that it has escaped attention?

If you are interested, I should like to tell you some of the specific things that Silver, Burdett & Company are doing for the advancement of education through intelligent and scientific text-book making.

Essential Language Habits

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By CHARTERS, BETZ, AND COWAN Contains more games, drills, and exercises for the fixation of correct language habits than any other series. Every one of these games and drills has been tested by actual classroom use. Every topic of language and grammar in the series is of use in correcting and improving speech.

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