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Oldest and Best-Established School Board Periodical on the Pacific Coast .... Representative of California Federation of School Women's Clubs, Teachers' Association of San Francisco and devoted to the interests of 20,000 Teachers of California




Price 15 Cents

ecutive functions.

Teacher training was

of the National Education Association bill;

The Western Journalof Education given attention in forty-seven addresses, cducation for international understanding

Founded teacher who is interested in the newest lines of educational

It is









thirty of which related to courses for the to the end that peace may be permanent; HARR WAGNER, Managing Editor.

preparation of teachers and nineteen for the recommended that Congress pass legisla

education of teachers in service. Twenty- tion for the public school system of WashOFFICIAL DEPARTMENT Official News and Articles

furnished by Will C. Wood and other members of the five addresses were devoted to vocational ington, D. C., so as to make it a model for State Department of Education.

education; twenty to citizenship and Amer the nation; the services of teachers, prin

icanization; sixteen to finances; thirteen cipals and supervisors should receive proper ALICE ROSE POWER, School Director, City and County

to standards and tests and checking up of recognition. of San Francisco, San Francisco, Associate Editor.

school work; and thirteen to educational Much of the work of the convention was in 1895, it commands the support of every and vocational guidance.

done in committees meeting between the thought, and of every trustee who desires to keep in touch On the main program of the Department sessions. There were also many interestwith movements for the betterment of the schools.

of Superintendence the leading two themes ing exhibits of school furniture, equipment not run in the interest of any special organization, of any

were the curriculum and school finances. type of educational doctrine.

and building plans. cludes an optimistic support of the best class of educational The Year Book of the Department of Su

There were many college reunions and uplift, both of men and measures. perintendence was devoted to the curric

dinners. Most of these were held on WedManuscripts, Contributions of educational character, ulum, and Mr. John Norton, director of the

nesday night. Mr. William McAndrews, including Methods, Devices, School News, department of research of the National Ed

recently elected to the superintendency of Special Interest to School Trustees, etc., desired. ucation Association, had a very valuable

the Chicago public schools, was made presPublished Monthly exhibit on the subject of the curriculum,

ident of the Department of SuperintendSubscription, $1.50 per Year Single Copies, 15 Cents showing results in curriculum making in

ence. President Olive Jones of the National Address all Communications to many cities in the United States; also set

Education Association announced that Miss ting forth the manner in which the work is THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION

Mary Mooney of the San Francisco public done. It is quite apparent that everywhere 149 New Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal.

schools would represent the class - room Entered at San Francisco Post Office as second class matter. there is at present a need for a real align

teachers in an address on the main proment of aims, methods and matter taught

gram for the summer meeting of the NaAN INTERESTING REPORT OF THE in the schools.

tional Education Association. The selecDEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTEND

The whole convention seemed to be of

tion of Miss Mooney is a high compliment ENCE OF THE NATIONAL EDUCA one mind that there must be no reduction both to herself and to the San Francisco TION ASSOCIATION.

in the financial support given to public public schools.
By Supt. Joseph Marr Gwinn
schools. It was pointed out that the public

While the convention was the largest we
San Francisco, March 4, 1924. is making great demands on the schools
To the Honorable Board of Education.

have ever held, it was also among the best. and by law and otherwise requiring many

President Dohrmann was an interested atLadies and Gentlemen : things to be taught which are considered

tendant on many of the sessions. There were meeting with the Department imperative under present social, political

and economic conditions. Also it was pointof Superintendence of the National Educa

THE WORK-STUDY-PLAN AT tion Association several other departments

ed out that there had been a great increase
in the number of children in both the ele-

THE N. E. A.
of the National Education Association and
allied organizations. A total of fifteen edu-
mentary and the high schools. Also that

By Supt. C. C. Hughes, Sacramento in proportion to the increased income of cational organizations were holding jointly

The Chicago Convention of Superintendtheir annual conventions. The program the American people that the proportion ents was, as usual, a great summer schcol

of education. Every topic, from pracshowed seventy-five half-day and evening spent on public education is no greater than in the past.

tically every angle, was discussed by exsessions with 386 scheduled addresses and reports. It is therefore apparent that one | Among the subjects given places on the

pert and eminent students of education.

One was almost in a whirl to know where could hear but relatively few of the total several programs may also be mentioned scheduled addresses. There were more than the single salary schedule, educational pub

to go to get the greatest advantage, and it

was necessary to choose wisely among the 12,000 in attendance, chiefly superintend- licity, peace, encouragement, the platoon

various sections and to take great care not ents of schools, principals of elementary school, and individual differences among

children. and high schools and presidents and mem

to be sidetracked when the choice had

been made. bers of the faculties of colleges and state My attention was attracted to the follownormal schools. ing ideas expressed by some of the speak

I was particularly interested in the con

ference on the Work-Study-Play plan, since The principal theme discussed was the ers: The saying that you can't teach an

Sacramento was one of the very first cities curriculum, with 124 numbers on the pro old dog new tricks may be very good dog

in America to establish such a plan. We gram addressed to this subject. These 124 psychology, but it is not good human psy

worked it out in Sacramento in our own addresses were divided about as follows: chology. Success equals two parts person

way and gave it our own particular name• Aims and purposes of the curriculum.... 30 ality plus one part intelligenec. The difManner of making 17 ferences among children are

the Companion Class Plan—and yet we not merely

find it does not differ very greatly from The organization of the curriculum 23 mental, but also physical, social, moral and The subject-matter to be contained in differences in achievement. In classifying

the plan as worked out in other places. the curriculum 23 pupils all of these must be taken into ac

Two years ago the first conference was

held and there were fifty interested people Methods of instruction..

31 count and not merely their differences in The second most discussed subject was intelligence or achievement. The impor

in attendance, with a very small exhibit. administration, with 86 addresses and retant thing is for the teacher to recognize

This year the day meeting filled the Tiger the abilities of the individual members of

Room at the Sherman Hotel, probably 800 ports. These dealt with the problems of

in attendance, and at the dinner in the her class. the board of education and of the school

The resolutions of the Department of Su- evening there were 280 at table, and the superintendent; also with the problems of perintendence were directed toward the fol

discussion lasted until towards midnight. the principals and supervisors in their ex lowing subjects: School finances; support There was an excellent exhibit. The ques

tion of building types, or use of the audi ferns, potted plants or bowls of California under the auspices of the "Educational Sertorium, and the program of special sub blooming flowers. The floors are tiled and vice Auxiliary”. The regular announcejects, was particularly emphasized this year. the woodwork varnished in natural colors. ment will be issued May 15; but those inThere was no meeting held during the ses “The blackboards, which have been made

terested in the courses to be held may sion in which as much enthusiasm was

by using many coats of blackboard slating make inquiry at the college for copies of shown as was shown by those attending

over a paper foundation, are placed near to the preliminary announcement. the Work-Study-Play conference. It is new

the floor. Above the blackboard is an 18 Grace Stanley will be in charge of one and fresh in education, and has back of it

inch marginal space or border of cork where division of the summer session, assisted by a philosophy which is bound to enrich the

pictures and school work may be thumb Mrs. Adella Samuels, the author of the new training of the child; give him greater and pinned for exhibit.

book, "The State Demonstration School, broader opportunities; break down much

“Each room has built-in bookshelves for Cucamonga.”
conservatism and tradition, and make teach-
ing a greater pleasure, as well as give

the class library. Cloak rooms are provided
at the rear of each class room. In each

Miss Caroline Swope, the expert on primore efficient results in terms of training cloak room is a teacher's locker for extra

mary methods, will hold a summer session for complete citizenship. In this plan the

of teachers at Long Beach, Berkeley and child is recognized as the future hope of supplies and for the teacher's wraps. All class rooms are equipped with electric lights

Santa Cruz this summer. Write to Miss democracy. The school is not simply just

and telephones. kept and the child ground through a fixed

All are equipped with Swope at Long Beach. Dr. Harold W.

clocks and bells, all controlled electrically Fairbanks will demonstrate his problem course of study. Book learning is no longer the greatest factor.

method in geography for elementary grades The child is recog

from a master clock in the superintendent's nized as a social unit who must be trained office in the other building:

at each of the schools. to take the place in society for which he is “The heating system is in three units. intended and in accordance with his abil

Arthur Chamberlain of the Sierra EduIt is of the forced draft type where heater ity or capacity. The plan, therefore, sees air is forced through large pipes to the

cational News was impressario for the

breakfast of the Californians in attendance to it that he is trained to study, trained to rooms, at the same time taking out the play and trained to work; that the result

at the Chicago convention of the N. E. A. cold or exhausted air, and providing conof the schooling will make a well-devel stant circulation. This system is consid

Department of Superintendence. oped, well-balanced individual, intellect- ered the most agreeable and healthful.

C. H. Nielsen, county superintendent of ually, physically and morally.

When the rooms or any one room becomes
too warm, the electric fans of the furnace

Butte County, issued instructions to all the Although it has its economies, the saving of room is a mere by-product, the real system or heating system can be used to

teachers on the proper observation of Bird force cool fresh air into the rooms.

and Arbor Day. His statement on the imvalue lying in the philosophy behind it

“Lavatories are provided for practically in a freer, better adapted type of training,

portance of the day is presented in the fol

lowing sentences : and in school buildings built, not as a every class room or a sufficient number so group of class rooms brought together, but that students of the same age and grade

"Never in the history of our country has in accordance with the program and the use their own lavatories. There is a cen

there been greater need for conservation. tral library room for the use of all classes

Our natural resources are truly wonderful. type of education to be given. or rooms, although each room has its own

Nothing can justify their waste. California

has the most wonderful trees in the world, NEW SCHOOL AT HUNTINGTON library. Another room is to be set aside

which ought not to be destroyed wantonly. BEACH as a workshop. Weaving, moulding, basket

Ihile we may cut down some of the trees, Dedication of the new $250,000 primary making and other work will be done here.

we ought to save stretches of the primeval department of the grammar school system “There is also a record room and meet

We should also insist that mounin Huntington Beach took place recently ing room for holding meetings of the school

tains whose woods have been taken off for with exercises in which the community parboard and teachers. A teachers' rest room

lumber shall be reforested. We should ticipated. Educators who took part on the is situated on the second floor just above

show due appreciation of the value of birds program were Will C. Wood, state superinthe main entrance. It is to be comfortably

We ought also to plan to make tendent of schools; R. P. Mitchell, Orange

furnished and equipped. The principal's the cities and highways of California beaucounty superintendent of schools; Clark II. office is to the right of the main entrance.

tiful through the planting of shade trees. Reid, superintendent of the Huntington

The suite of rooms to the left of the main Beach schools; McClelland G. Jones, prinentrance are to be set aside for the Parent

Galileo High School History Club gave cipal of the Union high school; Irene A.

Teachers Association and for patrons of the the following series of lectures : Loose, director of music, and her assistant, school and parents to hold meetings in and

for the general use of the public for all Clarine Webb.

Monday, February 18—“Through Death

Valley, The Story of the Government Expublic purposes.

It is the aim and intenThe new school is for the primary grades and is the second unit of a system of buildtion of the school board to have the public pedition in 1891", by Mr. Fred W. Koch,

Galileo lligh School. Illustrated. use these rooms for many purposes and to ings that will occupy the 15-acre public school park in Huntington Beach.

Monday, March 3_"The Relation of In-

come in time to love the 'patrons' rooms'
of the new school. In this suite of rooms

sects to Public Health”, by Prof. W. B. school is now housing 700 children and

besides the Parent - Teachers Association llerms, University of California. This lecsome twenty to thirty teachers in its twenroom will be the school music room. An

ture is illustrated by motion pictures. ty-two rooms.

other room is to be devoted to the work of Monday, March 17—“Microscopic Life in The site of the Huntington Beach schools the health department and the school nurse.

Water", by Dr. C. A. Kofoid, University of is exceptionally beautiful, as it is on an elevation from which may be seen a sweep of

“A Red Cross or clinic room is to be de

California. Illustrated. ocean and mountains. Before deciding on

voted to children not yet having attained

to school age and to babies and mothers.' the new school, Superintendent Clark H.

Los Angeles Board of Education, under

the leadership of Superintendent Susan Reid and members of the school board vis

Dorsey, has decided on a bond election for ited schools in various parts of California


$34,000,000 for new school buildings and and in other states.

The cornerstone of the new building for

equipment Every detail of the new two-story build the San Francisco State Teachers' College ing is the latest thing in school buildings. was laid March 9 with special ceremonies. The Huntington Beach News issued a Dr. Frederic Burk has been the president "The Lure of the Desert", "Autobiography

Madge Morris Wagner, the author of Grammar School Dedication Edition. Some of this institution since its establishment.

of a Tame Coyote", "The New Liberty of the description of the new buildings

Bell”, etc., died on February 27, 1924, and follows:

Summer Session of San Francisco State

was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, San Jose.

Teachers' College “Each of the twenty-two class rooms has

Ella Sterling Mighels, the first literary histwo doors into the hall. The windows give

lle have received a copy of the "Prelim torian of California, will have an article on

inary Announcement” of the courses to be the writings of Mrs. Wagner in the current ample sunlight and fresh air. The broad

given at the San Francisco State Teachers' issue of the Overland Monthly, Harry window sills provide places for powers and College from June 23 to August 1, 1924, Noyes Pratt, editor.


to men.

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The San Francisco Teachers' Association, John S. Drew president, Frances A. Mooney secretary, has always been in the forefront for the betterment of the teaching profession. At a recent meeting the following resolution was adopted :

"Resolved, That the Teachers' Association of San Francisco respectfully requests that the Board of Education include in its


5212 BROADWAY next report to the finance committee of the



OAKLAND Board of Supervisors an amount sufficient to increase the salaries of teachers, princi

Eighteenth Annual
pals and all other supervisors of this de-
partment, two hundred dollars per year.”


JUNE 25th to AUGUST 1st, 1924
Early in January the Sacramento School

Offers the following courses:
Administration Department moved into new
quarters. The erection of the many mod-
ern and beautiful school buildings in Sac-
ramento in the past few years under Super-
intendent Hughes' administration left it
possible to utilize the old Sutter school at
the corner of Twenty-first and L streets to
bring the entire school administration un-
der one roof. The building has been re-
modeled and gives adequate space for large
attractive offices for all departments. The
board rooms are especially attractive. On
the evening of the first board meeting held
in the new building, the teachers and school

SPECIAL COURSES officials gave the board and superintendent


Public Education in California a most delightful reception.

These special courses in Constitution and Public Education in California The supervisors all have their own offices

will be of particular interest to all teachers applying for teachers' certificates, and the business department has roomy, comfortable quarters. A large space for

or for renewal of certificate. Full information in next month's issue. the library provides for the distribution of

Students desiring credit for courses taken in the Summer School to state texts and supplemental books.

apply toward degrees should consult the Registrar. The health department of the Sacramento

Early registration is always desirable. Students may register for the Sumis one of the best in the state. In their

mer Session at any time during March, April, May and June. Definite class new quarters the school physician, dentists

assignments will be made on Saturday, June 21, and Monday, June 23. and nurses have the most up-to-date fur

Class work will begin on Tuesday, June 24. nishings and equipment. Doctor Edwin P.

Classes at Berkeley
F. H. MEYER, Director

Write for Summer Patton, who has been at the head of this and Oakland

School Catalog department for some time past, was cently called east to work with the American Child Health Association. The health department has been a matter of special pride and interest to Superintendent Hughes and a great deal of time and effort were spent in selecting the new head, Dr. Richard G. Soutar, whom he feels will carry on successfully the splendid work of Dr. Patton.

sonality combined with a great deal of firm- University City that is far reaching in its SALINAS

ness and should make a

very successful

influences and so prefers the smaller city

with its great educational background to Mr. Arthur Walter, city superintendent principal. Mr. Vincent comes from Bell

the city of larger population and a greater of the Salinas schools, is holding this year, ingham, Washington, where he was for

unit of commercial strength. It is fortunate March 26th to 29th, Education Music Week. some time past supervisor of industrial and

for Berkeley, and for the West, that SuperElaborate programs are being prepared and

vocational education. Shortly after Mr. intendent Wilson remains with us. His edvery excellent work is accomplished, in Cave became superintendent of the Vallejo ucational ideals and leadership are worth

while. which the town itself takes a great deal of schools, Mr. Vincent

down from interest. The contests are held among the

Washington to become principal of the Mcupper grades in the naming, history, etc., Kinley school of that city, where he re

Popular Prices

Phone Park 6045 of classical music. Mr. Walter believes mained for some time prior to accepting

We Give Trading Stamps that development of musical appreciation

the Willows position. hould begin in the lower grades and his

BEE HIVE MILLINERY department is accomplishing a great deal The Board of Education of Houston, with the smaller children. Texas, wired Superintendent Harry Bruce

Hats Dyed and Pressed
Wilson of Berkeley the superintendency at Feathers Cleaned, Dyed and Pressed

an increase of salary over his present posi-
tion. Superintendent Wilson, after giving

Mourning Goods a Specialty
Frank C. Vincent was recently elected

the offer courteous consideration, decided principal of the Willows high school. He to decline to leave Berkeley. He is carry

1116A MARKET ST. San FRANCISCO is fortunate in having a very pleasing per- ing forward an educational program for the











The gay

CO-OPERATION—THAT WORKS of Commerce, or rather to citizens of Santa tages, has offered him an unusual opporBy Irmagarde Richards

Cruz, as represented by their Chamber of tunity for summer school work. The deAny city, of course, that has good schools Commerce. . To them he said, “Look here, lightful climate and the fine bathing beach is proud of them. The citizens are likely if you'll help me, I'll help you.” (Technic draw thousands of visitors each year for to boast of them, on suitable occasions. ally, this is called "initiating a program of the

months. Taking advantage But it is not usual for a city to adopt its co-operation.") "I need a lot of things for of this fact, Mr. Adams is planning to add schools as the subject for a regular “boos the schools," said this direct superintend still other substantial attractions for the ter campaign”, for the avowed purpose of ent, "new buildings, more teachers, more summer holidays. increasing the local population.

varied instruction. If you'll help me to get Miss Caroline Swope, who is so well and Any city superintendent, of course, de- them, I'll help you to sell Santa Cruz real

so favorably known among teachers for her pends on the interest and support of his estate." Qucer proposition from a school summer school courses, is planning, at Mr. townsmen for the success of his school pro man, was

asn't it? But as sound and prac Adams' invitation, to offer at Santa Cruz gram. But few superintendents have suc tical as if it had originated with a banker. a three weeks' session this coming season. ceeded in "selling" their school programs “It's all very well,” said he, to get big Flere again the community is lending practo the body of citizens so effectively as Su conventions here, although it is true they tical co-operation to this educational plan, perintendent Adams, in Santa Cruz.

don't stay long. Summer bathers are all putting at Miss Swope's disposal excellent His achievement is a splendid example of right, while they last. The nice climate school facilities and the hearty support of what we call “co-operation”, which means will attract a lot of elderly people who its mediums of publicity, while special inin shorter syllables, “You help me and I'll want sunny, comfortable home, and

ducements in the way of accommodations help you."

want such people, too. But what

and rates will be provided for the members Santa Cruz is an old town, as California

We specially want
want is lively, ambitious

of these courses. Both Miss Swope and

Men and cities go. It used to be a very prosperous, young couples, with children.

the community will immediately benefit by hustling little city, the port of shipment

women with their best productive years this co-operation, while Mr. Adams expects for a booming lumber industry. It had its

ahead of them, and the best incentive for his schools to benefit by the opportunity aristocracy of wealth, fine show houses, industry and production, a growing family, thus available to his teachers.

What will attract such families? The cliprancing teams and handsome coaches, with

The younger summer visitors not colored coachmen in gay livery! But tomate of course, the good soil, good farm

neglected in Mr. Adams' plans, which inday the hills are timbered off.

But opportunities, business opportunities.

clude a half day summer session for all turnout of other days has not been replaced their first thought is for their children.

grades from kindergarten to high school. in the quiet streets by the modern equivaWhat is the best bait to get their interest?

This will be a valuable inducement for Schools! lent of wealth and fashion. No ships enter

Good schools, the very best summer residence to parents whose chilor leave its lovely harbor. schools to be had anywhere. Say we have

dren for one reason or another would benthem! Boost them! Make them better! Santa Cruz is an old town, as California

efit by the advantages of summer classes. Tell them how good they are! And you'll cities go—a mission city on the old high

So confident is Mr. Adams of the excellent have the one best bet in the world to win way around the Monterey Peninsula. It

instruction that will be givevn in these new settlers of the very finest type. was the port of shipment for a booming

courses that he expects many of the sumlumber industry. It had its aristocracy of

Santa Cruz got the idea and followed it mer session children to become permanent wealth, fine showy houses, prancing teams

up with enthusiasm. Followed up both citizens of Santa Cruz! No doubt they and handsome coaches, with colored coach

sides of it, for their superintendent was will, and the members of the Chamber of men in gay livery! But today the hills are

careful to emphasize, “I'll help you if you'll Commerce will sell their parents real estate! timbered off, and with all the beauty of help me.

Give me funds and support and So it seems to be working, this simple, wooded mountains overlooking a bay as

I'll deliver the goods-attractive schools, direct plan of "You help me and I'll help

good teaching, the best modern methods, blue as Naples', Santa Cruz must seek its

vou." Santa Cruz is proud of her superinfuture wealth in resources that stay after

and a many-sided system enriched to meet tendent and her schools, and boosts them timber goes. Its harbor and mile-long dock the many needs of modern life.”

heartily, while Mr. Adams boasts, "I have in the sheltered Monterey Bay invite the By all reports both parties to this very the best and most efficient board of edufishing feets and the shipper, and the pro sensible pact are doing their share enthu cation, the most wonderful parent-teachers' posed Skyline Boulevard will attract every

siastically. A united and loyal citizenship association, and the most loyal support of tourist turning south from San Francisco. backs its superintendent heartily, and gets any superintendent in the state!" It has, like most California towns, its

out glowing literature to "tell the world” Santa Cruz is a city of good schools: chamber of commerce, its boosting pro

that Santa Cruz has the very school your Watch her grow!! grams, its hopes and plans for prosperity, boy and girl ought to be attending Suincreased population, and substantial perintendent Adams on his side has built

Elements of Costume Design, by Marie growth along lines that will be permanent.

up a splendid and far-reaching program In making a bid for new settlers it can

Downs and Florence O'Leary: This little that already begins to materialize in substantial evidences of progress.

volume is a high school text for students truthfully offer, like many other California towns, the advantages of the loveliest There is nothing new or startling about

in the first and second year and it is an climate in the world. A fertile, sunny back this program, except that he is putting it clementary application of the teaching of country famous for fruit and poultry pro

over—with the warm support of his peo principles of design to clothing. For teachduction. An unsurpassed beach for sumple! It includes good modern buildings,

ers who have had limited training in art mer bathing. At about this point the cham well-kept grounds and play spaces, a health

and for those who received training before ber of commerce ran out of distinctive am program, inspection of the children, hot munition. In such a state as California lunches, good milk; junior high schools, design was considered a vital part of the what was there truthfully to tell the world vocational and part-time classes, adult night courses in sewing, this book will be found about Santa Cruz that would make her schools, valuable extension lectures-all the especially helpful. The book begins with stand out definite and alone as the city wonderful machinery of the efficient mod

fundamentals—such as the proportions of that every good Santa Cruzan dreams will ern school system. Nothing new, except come true? in this such an ambitious program is 11811

the human figure and low to make a perAt about this point their new city superally found only in the larger and richer

sonal application of the same; appropriatecities. intendent of schools, Superintendent Karl

In this case the remarkable thing ness, suitability, the artistic side of clothes F. Adams, was called to this position from

is that one man's vision and faith has put and the various kinds needed in the ordiSeattle, Washington. over such a program in a small community,

nary wardrobe, combine to make the book not as a luxury which it could well afford, The new superintendent, like any good but as a straight business asset, in which it

practical. At the conclusion of each lesson school man, was quick to survey his field,

had to invest for the sake of its future cxercises are given. Twenty full-page illusand to realize its many moods. A program of school improvement rapidly took form in prosperity.

trations by Louise Sarrazin add to the value his vision. But how to put it into effect?

While in general Mr. Adams' program is of the lessons. (The Bruce Publishing Being a good business man as well as a similar to that of other good city schools, Company, 129 Michigan street, Milwaukee, good school man, he went to the Chamber Santa Cruz, on account of its special advan lis. Price $0.90 net.)

The Story of Chocolate






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I ABILITY TO SCAN: i. e., power to

get the answer to a particular question, or to secure specific informa


ALLY: i. e., power to get all the important information from


TIONS: i. e., power to recall previous experiences, feelings, or emo


PRECIATE LITERATURE: i. e., power to see life factors and values

in purely literary selections. V ABILITY TO REACT TO WHAT

IS READ: i. e., power to establish a questioning attitude toward

what is read.

ING: i. e., power to recall and to
make use of what is read.

XIT is hard to realize as one

sips a cup of chocolate to-
day, how much romance,
how much legendary tra-
dition and historical asso-
ciation surround the mod-

est cacao bean.
In 1519 after Cortez, Spanish ad-
venturer, ended his long and perilous
sea voyage to the Mexican Coast, he
marched inland and conquered the
ancient Aztecs, over whom Monte-
zuma ruled. Here he found this great
monarch living in luxurious surround-
ings and saw the Emperor and his
court drinking a delicious beverage,
"chocolate," flavored with vanilla
and spices. It was so prepared as to
be reduced to “a froth of the consis-
tency of honey,” and was served in
goblets of gold with spoons of finely-
wrought tortoise shell.

When Cortez returned to the court
of Spain in 1528 with collections of
minerals, animals and plants to show
the resources of the new country,

he taught the Europeans to prepare the beverage Chocolate." Then the Aztec name passed into English as the words cocoa or cacao and chocolate.

De Condolle, in “Origin of Cultivated Plants,” tells us that the cacao tree has been in cultivation in America for three or four thousand years, but did not come into commercial prominence until the conquest of Mexico. For some years after its introduction into Europe the Spaniards kept the secret of chocolate preparation in their own hands. It gained great favor in the old world. The

Spanish ladies of the New World car-
ried their love of chocolate to such a
degree that, not content with par-
taking of it several times a day, they
had it carried after them to church.

In 1606 we find that Antonio Car-
letti, who learned to appreciate the
new beverage in Spain, brought it to
the notice of the Italians. From thin
on the popularity of cacao prepara-
tions spread to all parts of Europe.

Chocolate made its appearance in
France during the reign of Louis
XIII, probably through Carletti.

About 1679 about the first crops of
cacao in the French colony of Marti-
nique marked the beginning of organ-
ized cultivation. The Spaniards about
this time carried the cacao seeds to the
Philippine Islands.

The use of chocolate seems to have been known in England and Germany in the middle of the seventeenth century when coffee and chocolate houses were in high vogue in both countries.

When it was first introduced into Europe it sold for 10 to 20 shillings ($2.50 to $5) a pound. Today, chocolate is still a luxury drink in taste, but one of the most economical of beverages from the standpoint of price and food value.

References: Cocoa and ChocolateWhymper; Conquest of Mexico-Prescott; Cocoa and Chocolate-Knapp.




(1) Word Recognition. (2) Eye Movement
(3 Concentration (4) Alertness
(a) By learning new words from

known word-groups.
(b) By being told new words.
(c) By applying phonetic knowledge

to new words. II EYE MOVEMENT

duration of fixation )

length of span (a) By conscious attempt the

part of pupil to increase eye

span. (b) By use of effective silent read

ing methods in connection with

reading material. (c) By flash cards, requiring com

prehension under time pressure. III CONCENTRATION (a) By purposeful reading of prop

erly prepared and organized

material. (b) By flash cards under time pres

Mail this coupon for the complete series

on the Story of Chocolate
D. Ghirardelli Co., Domestic Science Dept.,

920 North Point St., San Francisco :
Please put me on your mailing list for the com-
plete series on the Story of Chocolate. Absolutely
free, of course!


*Note: This is the first of a series of monthly bulletins
on the Story of Chocolate written from the teacher's point
of view. They are planned to give the teacher, for per-
sonal information and possible class work, the essential
facts about one of the most interesting and important of
foods-chocolate! To be sure of having the entire series,
we suggest that you fill in and mail the coupon at the right.




(a) By compelling interpretation

under time pressure.

Material now available for effective teaching in connection with factors above



Teachers with Pupils

The Whittier high school, under Prin in the auditorium so that the stage can be cipal 0. C. Albertson, is finishing a $635, heated separately from the main floor when COO building program. A 32-unit adminis

it is in use. tration building, physical education build This is Mr. Albertson's fourteenth year ing, shops and an auditorium have been

as principal of the Whittier high school. erected. The auditorium is a separate unit, During that time it has grown from a so that it can serve readily as a community

school of 230 pupils and 13 teachers to a meeting place. This auditorium will seat

school of over 1000 and 45 teachers. 2200 people.

In architecture this auditorium surpasses any school structure in California. It is more of the cathedral type, square, high

The Jungle Book, by Rudyard Kipling; ceiling, artistically finished. The stage is

The Second Jungle Book, by Rudyard massive, so huge that it can be used as a Kipling; separate hall holding 250 people. A back Captains Courageous, by Rudyard Kipinset to the stage is of bleacher-like effect ling: These three ever popular books are which makes it possible to seat 250 grad- published in school editions. The books uates at graduation time. The stage is are neat and durable and well printed on large enough to seat a large graduating paper free from gloss. The illustrations in class, orchestra and chorus. Various music black and white are interesting and are a and public speaking rooms jut off the stage striking feature in these volumes. (Doubleproper. A double heating plant is installed day, Page & Company, Garden City, N. Y.)


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