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Par. III. The officers and men of the militia and volunteer forces shall not be entitled to receive any pay, rations or emolu. ments, when not in active service by authority of the State.

ARTICLE XI.
Counties and County Officers.

Section 1. Paragraph I. Each county shall be a body corporate, with such powers and limitations as may be prescribed by law. All suits by or against a county shall be in the name thereof; and the metes and bounds of the several counties shall remain as now prescribed by law, unless changed as hereinafter provided.

Par. II. No new county shall be created.

Par. III. County lines shall not be changed, unless under the operation of a general law for that purpose.

Par. IV. No county site shall be changed or removed, except by a two-thirds vote of the qualified voters of the county, voting at an election held for that purpose, and a two-thirds vote of the General Assembly.

Par. V. Any county may be dissolved and merged with contiguous counties by a two-thirds vote of the qualified electors of such county voting at an election held for that purpose.

Section II. Paragraph I. The county officers shall be elected by the qualified voters of their respective counties or districts, and shall hold their offices for two years. They shall be removed on conviction of malpractice in office, and no person shall be eligible to any of the offices referred to in this paragraph, unless he shall have been a resident of the county for two years and is a qualified voter.

Section III. Paragraph I. Whatever tribunal, or officers, may hereafter be created by the General Assembly for the transaction of county matters, shall be uniform throughout the State, and of the same name, jurisdiction and remedies, except that the General Assembly may provide for the appointment of commissioners of roads and revenue in any county.

ARTICLE XII.
The Laws of General Operation in force in this State.

Section 1. Paragraph I. The laws of general operation in this State are, first, as the supreme law: The Constitution of the United States, the laws of the United States in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made under the authority of the United States.

Second, as next in authority thereto: This Con. stitution.

Par. III. Third. In subordination to the foregoing: All laws now of force in this State, not inconsistent with this constitution, and the ordinances of this convention, shall remain of force until the same are modified or repealed by the General Assembly. The tax acts and appropriation aots passed by the General Assembly of 1877, and approved by the Governor of the State, and not inconsistent with the Constitution, are hereby continued in force until altered by law.

Par. IV. Local and private acts passed for the benefit of counties, cities, towns, corporations and private persons not inconsistent with the supreme law, nor with this Constitution, and which have not expired nor been repealed, shall have the force of statute law, subject to judicial decision as to their validity when passed, and to any limitations imposed by their own terms.

Par. V. All rights, privileges and immunities which may have vested in, or accrued to, any person or persons, or corporation, in his, her or their own right, or in any fiduciary capacity, under and in virtue of an act of the General Assembly, or any judgment, decree or order, or other proceeding of any court of competent jurisdiction in this State heretofore rendered, shall be held inviolate by all courts before which they may be brought in question, unless attacked for fraud.

Par. VI. All judgments, decrees, orders and other proceedings of the several courts of this State, heretofore made, within the limits of their several jurisdictions, are hereby ratified and affirmed, subject only to reversal by motion for a new trial, appeal, bill of review, or other proceeding, in conformity with the law of force when they were made.

Par. VII. The officers of the government now existing shall continue in the exercise of their several functions until their successors are duly elected, or appointed and qualified, but nothing herein is to apply to any officer whose office may be abolished by this Constitution.

Par. VIII. The ordinances of this convention shall have the force of laws until otherwise provided by the General Assembly, except the ordinances in reference to submitting the homestead and capital question to a vote of the people, which ordinances, after being voted on, shall have the effect of constitutional provisions.

ARTICLE XIII.
Amendments to the Constitution.

Section 1. Paragraph I. Any amendment, or amendments, to this constitution may be proposed in the Senate or House of Representatives, and if the same shall be agreed to by two-thirds of the members elected to each of the two houses, such proposed amendment, or amendments, shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon. And the General Assembly shall cause such amendment, or amendments, to be published in one or more newspapers in each congressional district, for two months previous to the time of holding the next general election, and shall also provide for a submission of such proposed amendment, or amendments, to the people at said next general election, and if the people shall ratify such amendment, or amendments, by a majority of the electors qualified to vote for members of the General Assembly, voting thereon, such amendment or amendments, shall become a part of this Constitution. When more than one amendment is submitted at the same time, they shall be so submitted as to enable the electors to vote on each amendment separately.

Par. II. No convention of the people shall be called by the General Assembly to revise, amend or change this Constitution, unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house of the General Assembly. The representation in said convention shall be based on population as near as practicable.

Section II. Paragraph I. The Constitution shall be submitted for ratification or rejection to the voters of the State, at an election to be held on the first Wednesday in December, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven, in the several election districts of this State, at which election every person shall be entitled to vote who is entitled to vote for the members of the General Assembly under the Constitution and laws of force at the date of

of such election; said election to be held and conducted as is now provided by law for holding elecions for members of the General Assembly. All persons voting at said election in favor of adopting the Constitution shall write or have printed on their ballots the words “For Ratification," and all persons opposed to the adoption of this Constitution shall write or have printed on their ballots the words “ Against Ratification."

Par. II. The votes cast at said election shall be consolidated in each of the counties of the State as is now required by law in elections for members of the General Assembly, and returns thereof made to the Governor; and should a majority of all the votes cast at said election be in favor of ratification, he shall declare the said Constitution adopted, and make proclamation of the result of said election by publication in one or more newspapers in each congressional district of the State, but should a majority of the votes cast be against ratification, he shall in the same manner proclaim the said Constitution rejected.

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