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cuit courts shall be held on the first Monday in June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three, and every six years thereafter.
Sec. 15. The General Assembly may divide the State into judicial circuits of greater population and territory, in lieu of the circuits provided for in section thirteen of this article, and provide for the election therein, severally, by the electors thereof, by general ticket, of not exceeding four judges, who shall hold the circuit courts in the circuit for which they shall be elected, in such manner as may be provided by law.
Sec. 16. From and after the adoption of this Constitution, judges of the circuit court shall receive a salary of three thousand dollars per annum, payable quarterly, until otherwise provided by law, and after their salaries shall be fixed by law they shall not be increased or diminished during the terms for which said judges shall be, respectively, elected; and from and after the adoption of this Constitution, no judge of the Supreme or circuit court shall receive any other compensation, perquisite or benefit, in any form whatsoever, nor perform any other than judicial duties to which may belong any emoluments.
Sec. 17. No person shall be eligible to the office of judge of the circuit or any inferior court, or to membership in the board of county commissioners,” unless he shall be at least twenty-five years of age, and a citizen of the United States, nor unless he shall have resided in this State five years next preceding his election, and be a resident of the circuit, county, city, cities, or incorporated town in which he shall be elected.
County Courts. Sec. 18. There shall be elected in and for each county one county judge and one clerk of the county court, whose term of office shall be four years. But the General Assembly may create districts of two or more contiguous counties, in each of which shall be elected one judge, who shall take the place of and exercise the powers and jurisdiction of courts of record, and shall have original jurisdiction in all matters of probate, settlement of estates of deceased persons, appointment of guardians and conservators and settlements of their accounts, in all matters relating to apprentices, and in proceedings for the collection of taxes and assessments, and such other jurisdiction as may be provided for by general law.
Sec. 19. Appeals and writs of error shall be allowed from final determinations of county courts, as may be provided by law.
Probate Courts. Sec. 20. The General Assembly may provide for the establishment of a probate court in each county having a population of over fifty thousand, and for the election of a judge thereof, whose term of office shall be the same as that of a county judge, and who shall be elected at the same time and in the same manner. Said courts, when established, shall have original jurisdiction of all probate matters, the settlement of estates of deceased persons, the appointment of guardians and conservators, and settlement of their accounts; in all matters relating to apprentices, and in cases of sales of real estate of deceased persons for the payment of debts.
Justices of the Peace and Constables. Sec. 21. Justices of the peace, police magistrates and constables shall be elected in and for such districts as are, or may be, provided by law, and the jurisdiction of such justices of the peace and police magistrates shall be uniform.
State's Attorneys. Sec. 22. At the election for members of the General Assembly in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventytwo, and every four years thereafter, there shall be elected a State's attorney in and for each county, in lieu of the State's attorneys now provided by law, whose term of office shall be
Courts of Cook County. Sec. 23. The county of Cook shall be one judicial circuit. The circuit court of Cook county shall consist of five judges, until their number shall be increased as herein provided. The present judge of the recorder's court of the city of Chicago, and the present judge of the circuit court of Cook county, shall be two of said judges, and shall remain in office for the terms for
which they were respectively elected, and until their successors shall be elected and qualified. The superior court of Chicago shall be continued, and called the “Superior Court of Cook County." The General Assembly may increase the number of said judges, by adding one to either of said courts for every additional fifty thousand inhabitants in said county over and above a population of four hundred thousand. The terms of office of the judges of said courts, hereafter elected, shall be six years.
Sec. 24. The judge having the shortest unexpired term shall be chief justice of the court of which he is a judge. In case there are two or more whose term expire at the same time, it may be determined by lot which shall be chief justice. Any judge of either of said courts shall have all the powers of a circuit judge, and may hold the court of which he is a member. Each of them may hold a different branch thereof at the same time.
Sec. 25. The judges of the superior and circuit courts, and the State's attorney, in said county, shall receive the same salaries, payable out of the State treasury, as is or may be paid from said treasury to the circuit judges and State's attorneys of the State, and such further compensation, to be paid by the county of Cook, as is or may be provided by law. Such compensation shall not be changed during their continuance in office.
Sec. 26. The recorder's court of the city of Chicago shall be continued, and shall be called the “Criminal Court of Cook County.” It shall have the jurisdiction of a circuit court in all cases of criminal and quasi criminal nature, arising in the county of Cook, or that may be brought before said court pursuant to law; and all recognizances and appeals taken in said county in criminal and quasi criminal cases, shall be returnable and taken to said court. It shall have no jurisdiction in civil cases, except in those on behalf of the people, and incident to such criminal or quasi criminal matters, and to dispose of unfinished business. The terms of said criminal court of Cook county shall be held by one or more of the judges of the circuit or superior court of Cook county, as nearly as may be in alternation, as may be determined by said judges, or provided by law. Said judges shall be ex officio judges of said court.
Sec. 27. The present clerk of the recorder's court of the city of Chicago shall be the clerk of the criminal court of Cook county during the term for which he was elected. The present clerks of the superior court of Chicago, and the present clerk of the circuit court of Cook county, shall continue in office during the terms for which they were respectively elected; and there. after there shall be but one clerk of the superior court, to be elected by the qualified electors of said county, who shall hold his office for the term of four years, and until his successor is elected and qualified.
Sec. 28. All justices of the peace in the city of Chicago shall be appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate (but only upon the recommendation of a majority of the judges of the circuit, superior and county courts), and for such districts as are now or shall hereafter be provided by law. They shall hold their offices for four years, and until their successors have been commissioned and qualified, but they may be removed by summary proceeding in the circuit or superior court, for extortion or other malfeasance. Existing justices of the peace and police magistrates may hold their offices until the expiration of their respective terms.
General Provisions. Sec. 29. All judicial officers shall be commissioned by the Governor. All laws relating to courts shall be general and of uniform operation; and the organization, jurisdiction, powers, proceedings and practice of all courts of the same class or grade, so far as regulated by law, and the force and effect of the process, judgments and decrees of such courts, severally, shall be uniform.
Sec. 30. The General Assembly may, for cause entered on the journals, upon due notice and opportunity of defense, remove from office any judge, upon concurrence of three-fourths of all the members elected, of each house. All other officers in this article mentioned shall be removed from office on prosecution and final conviction for misdemeanor in office.
Sec. 31. All judges of courts of record, inferior to the Supreme Court, shall, on or before the first day of June of each year, report in writing to the judges of the Supreme Court such
defects and omissions in the laws as their experience may suggest; and the judges of the Supreme Court shall, on or before the first day of January of each year, report in writing to the Governor such defects and omissions in the Constitution and laws as they may find to exist, together with appropriate forms of bills to cure such defects and omissions in the laws. And the judges of the several circuit courts shall report to the next General Assembly the number of days they have held court in the several counties composing their respective circuits, the preceding two years.
Sec. 32. All officers provided for in this article shall hold their offices until their successors shall be qualified, and they shall, respectively, reside in the division, circuit, county or district for which they may be elected or appointed. The terms of office of all such officers, where not otherwise prescribed in this article, shall be four years. All officers, where not otherwise provided for in this article, shall perform such duties and receive such compensation as is or may be provided by law. Vacancies in such elective offices shall be filled by election; but where the unexpired term does not exceed one year the vacancy shall be filled by appointment, as follows: Of judges, by the governor; of clerks of courts, by the court to which the office appertains, or by the judge or judges thereof; and of all such other offices, by the board of supervisors, or board of county commissioners, in the county where the vacancy occurs.
Sec. 33. All process shall run: In the name of the people of the State of Illinois; and all prosecutions shall be carried on In the name and by the authority of the People of the State of Illinois; and conclude: Against the peace and dignity of the same. “Population,” whenever used in this article, shall be determined by the next preceding census of this State, or of the United States.
Sufrage. Section 1. Every person residing in this State one year, in the county ninety days and in the election district thirty days next preceding any election therein, who was an elector in this State on the first day of April, in the year of our Lord, one thersand eight hundred and forty-eight, or obtained a certifi