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Commemoration of the Accession of Wil liam the Fourth.
It is usual for writing engravers to select some popular topic that may afford an opportunity for the display of skill in so beautiful an art as that which they profess. We have never seen a more
perfect specimen than the one before us, designed to commemorate “the Accession to the throne of our patriotic and beloved King William the Fourth, whese zeal and anxious wish for a Reforin in Parliament and for the prosperity and happiness of his loyal and duritul subjects, have endeared him to the heart of every Englishman."
PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES.
it emancipated the mind of man from the The council and officers elected for the metaphysical absurdities that had so long ensuing year were as follows :--President, enveloped it. Dr. Elliotson then adverted bis Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, to Mr. Godwin's remarks on Phrenology K.G.; Treasurer, John William Lubbock, contained in his recent Thoughts on Man, Esq.; Secretaries, Peter Mark Roget, M.D. and after observing that whatever opinion John George Children, Esq. ; Foreign Se- might be entertained respecting the objeccretary, Charles Konig, Esq. Other mem- tions brought against phrenology by the bers of the council, Peter Barlow, Esq. other foes he had spoken of, none could John Bostock, M.D. Rev. William Buck- regard the present one as insignificant or land, D.D. Samuel Hunter Christie, Esq. obscure, or as prompted either by low desire Rev. Henry Coddington, Charles Daube to acquire favour with the multitude by adney, M.D. George Dollond, Esq. Davies ministering to their prejudices, or any ranGilbert, Esq. Joseph Henry Green, Esq. corous feeling. If he wrote erroneously, William George Matin, M. D. Roderick he wrote what he believed, and solely for Impey Murchison, Esq. Rev. George Pea the purpose of disseminating what to him cock, George Rennie, Esq. Captain W. H. appeared truth, calculated to benefit manSmyth, R.Ň. Rev. William Whewell, Nic kind, and of acquiring honourable reputaeholas A. Vigors, Esq.
tion. He then went on to state that Mr.
Godwin regretted that the task of refuting LONDON PHRENOLOGICAL SOCIETY.
phrenology had not fallen to another" whose This Society met on Nov. 7th and 21st, studies were more familiar with all the when Dr. Elliotson, the president, read a sciences which bore more or less on the paper respecting the attacks that had been science, confessing his remarks to be nothing made on phrenology since the last session. more than a few loose and undigested He first noticed the observations that had thoughts upon the subject.” After this, appeared in the Literary Gazette animad- could it be imagined that he would, in a verting strongly on some experiments on subsequent page, take upon himself to assert living animals as detailed in an article in that as phrenology “is perhaps the most rithe Edinburgh Phrenological Journal : this gorous and degrading system that was ever led to a letter in the Times taking the same devised, so it is in almost all instances found. view of them. Dr. Elliotson observed, no ed on arbitrary assumptions and confident one could deprecate such experiments more assertions totally in opposition to the true than he did, but he was happy to say that spirit of patient, laborious investigation and they had not been performed by a phrenolo- sound philosophy:"-verily is this strong obgist, but by M. Bouilland, a disciple of M. jection, this hard judgment, nothing more Majendie, the great foe of phrenology. The than “the loose undigested thoughts” of next who appeared in the arena was Dr. one not very familiar with all the sciences Ryan, who urged objections against the which bear upon the topic? If he wished his principles of the science, as they tended, he arguments to have weight, they should have said, to overturn and uproot all feeling of been consistent. Mr. Godwin then urges morality, religion, and good order, and de- against phrenology that it has advanced too prived all classes of society of that support rapidly to be true; he acknowledges that there and control so necessary to their well-being. is a science in relation to the human mind These assertions were clearly proved by Dr. that bears a similitude to Plato's predication Elliotson to be without foundation, first, by of the statue hid in a block of marble, but the fact that Dr. Ryan had not produced considers that the man who without study one instance of any writer on phrenology in- and premeditation rushes in at once and culcating principles that in the least afforded expects to withdraw the curtain, will only any ground for his assumptions, and, se find himself disgraced by the attempt; and condly, by citing many passages from au- yet how does he reconcile his adinission thers on the science, particularly from Dr. “ that Gall spent thirty years in private meGall, who has asserted that the system of ditation and investigation of the subject phrenology placed morality and religion before he ventured to promulgate his system, upon a more sure and certain foundation, as and that nearly thirty-five years have elapsed since that period-surely this is not so very cording to English law, which makes truth a rapid an advance, such a rushing in to libel. The disposition of man, says Scripture, withdraw the curtain that be ought to find is deceitful and desperately wicked ; out of himself disgraced by the attempt. The the heart proceeds murder, lust, and all kinds science is not, as he asserts, of rapid growth of sin ; and history was little more than a like the ephemeral fly, born suddenly and catalogue of wholesale murders and mursoon extinct; as it exists still, and has en- derers styled battles and heroes, and a dedured longer than the fly, and never was scription of vice and error of every descrip. supported by such a host of facts, and never tion. owned so many votaries as at the present Dr. Elliotson, after the lecture, laid on moment. Mr. Godwin considers it reason- the table the four first numbers of Dr. Vic able to believe “that a certain structure of mont's splendid work on Comparative Anathe head is in correspondence with the fa- tomy, compiled from the examination of culties and propensities of the individual, 2500 heads of animals for the purpose of but that there was a wide difference between refuting phrenology, but which ended in this general statement and the conduct of his being thoroughly convinced of its truth, Gall, who at once split the head into twenty- and producing an imperishable store of facts seven compartments. How does this agree proving the truth of the science. He also with his prior admission of the time spent announced the establishment of a plireno. by Gall in developing this system? Mr. logical society in Paris, which reckoned Godwin has also drawn a comparison be- amongst its members some of the most emitween the advance of geography and phre- nent men there, particularly Andral, Brousnology, commending the plan of the an sais, Cloquet, David the sculptor, Fabret, cients, who, when they laid down their Foville, Rostan, Royer, and Bouillaud, the maps, placed a monster to denote the parts very man who so cruelly experimented on they were ignorant of. True, Gall did not living animals when not a phrenologist. place a monster to mark those portions of Dec. the 5th. Dr. Elliotson in the chair. the brain which he had been unable to Mr. H. B. Burlowe read a paper by Doctor locate ; but, observed Dr. Elliotson, he puts James Brown, on some of the manifestations a star or cross on those districts of which he of the mind, as exemplified in the case of a had not had sufficient evidence before him man who was for a considerable time a pato determine, but which have since been tient in St. Thomas's hospital on account of filled up by Spurzheim and other phrenolo- a severe injury of the head. During his illgists. The president then dwelt with con- ness he spoke Welsh, though he had been siderable eloquence upon the indefatigable absent from Wales upwards of thirty years, zeal of Dr. Gall, pointing out with great and prior to the accident had entirely forgotminuteness the method he pursued in in- ten his native language. This fact, observed vestigating the subject, and how the beau- Dr. Brown, in the first place, clearly demontiful and philosophical arrangement of the strates the plurality of the organs, and in organs of the faculties bore the impress of the most satisfactory manner proves that the Divine design, those which were common to brain is the organ through whose means the brutes and ourselves, those which ought to different processes of the thinking principle be in subjection to the higher faculties, being are brought to light; if, therefore, it be inall situate below, while those which were jured, the thought it conveys must also sufmore noble, the benevolent and rational, fer. But in this instance one faculty of the lie above, brute after brute rising in mental mind, namely language, was to a certain character, and likewise in the height of his degree affected, while the others retained organs, till man was reached, whose mental their usual sanity; thence, it is evident that and intellectual faculties have all organs an injury done to a portion of the brain, may corresponding with their places above the destroy or impair the peculiar function of the rest in lofty elevation, so that to heaven he part affected, and of which there are numeerects a front serene, Godlike, erect, and rous instances ; or it may, as in the present bears on his forehead the very stamp of su- case, alter the abstract manifestation of a periority of mind. The mighty intellect of faculty, while the general manifestation reGall could not devise this, he only could mains—for the latter, namely language, was discover it. for the work was the operation perfect, but the former, namely the kind of of the Almighty, and if any one saw the language, was altered. From this it would wisdom and power of Divinity it was the appear, that to acquire a new language, the phrenologist. He then concluded his re- portion of brain allotted to that function marks by observing that if Godwin's asser- must be subjected to increased excitement, tion was correct, that many of Gall's organs wbich gradually induces such a change in were a libel on our common nature, the de- its structure as accommodates it to the new claration of Scripture, and most pages of impression, whilst the former language, history, must be objected to, as both were a which had been acquired without the same libel on our common nature, but only ac- mental exertion, recedes before the new oc
cupant, and only resumes its station when system of arrangement laid down by Linthat has again vanished. Dr. Brown, in næus he considered as erroneous. This accounting physiologically for this action, great naturalist had classified the cuttle-fish, considered the injury inflicted on the inan's earth-worm, and hydatid, thus forming a brain caused an alteration of texture in a genus of animals having not the least posparticular portion of it, which rendered it sible alliance with each other. The same unfit to be the vehicle of the English lan- objection occurred in his class mammalia, guage, but placed it in a state capable of where instead of placing man at the head recalling the original dialect of the indivi- of the animal kingdom, (which has been dual. In fact, the structure was the same done by modern zoologists,) he had assoas before the acquirement of the new lan- ciated him with the bat, thus placing two guage : of course such a change in texture animals together in whom we find no circould not be demonstrated, yet the circum- cumstance of agreement, except in the situstances of the case in question authorised ation of the mammæ, which Linnæus makes the assertion that it so originated. Dr. characteristic of this class. In the other Brown, after some powerful arguments in orders he has associated the elephant, tri. support of his position, adduced several in- checus or walrus, sloth, and ant-eaters, stances of the acquirement of peculiar pow. animals extremely different in their form, ers during temporary disease of the brain, organization, and habitude. In the order but which generally disappeared on its re- feræ, he included with the real beasts of storation to health; proving to demonstra- prey the phoca or seal, whose mode of life tion that the brain of the same individual and structure is so peculiar, with the hedgemay be at one time in a state fit to develope hog, mole, and shrew, which are really fugi. any of the mind's attributes, while at an- tive animals ; and in the order belluæ, we other it loses all recollection of the mode in find the hippopotamus, hog, and tapir, which it before proceeded. He then con- whose uncouth figure, slow, and heavy gait, cluded his paper, by observing that he con- and general economy declare their relation fidently looked forward to the time when the more with the rhinoceros and elephant, (with vague speculations of metaphysics would be whom they should have been united) rather abandoned for the self-evident demonstra. than with that feet and finely-proportioned tions of phrenology; for though it was im- quadruped the horse. possible for phrenologists to seize the light The Professor then enlarged on the imwhich illumes the innermost chamber of the portance of a correct arrangement of anilabyrinth, they could, at least, by the assist- mals, and stated that a great reformation ance of its beam, safely trace each winding had been made by Baron Cuvier, Blumenavenue, and even behold the flame, though bach, La Cepede, Vigors, C. Buonaparte, they must sometimes confess their inability Rennie, Yarrell, Joshua Brookes, Audobon, to discern the different areolæ which com- and Wilson. The lecturer then illustrated posed it; wbilst the metaphysicians see only his remarks by referring to the tables of Linits reflection-grasp at it as a reality-find næus, Daubenton, Virey, Baron Cuvier, themselves deceived -become confused, and and the late Mr. Bennett ; and concluded search in vain for the lost treasure.
his observations by stating the peculiarities
in the various classes of organized beings, THEATPE OF ANATOMY AND ZOOLOGY.
which were illustrated by beautiful and apProfessor Dewhurst has commenced a propriate specimens and drawings. The course of popular lectures on the anatomy, lecture met the approbation of a crowded physiology, and mechanical structure of the audience, which was partly composed of human body, contrasted with the for ladies. mation of the various orders of animals. Subsequently the Professor delivered a In the discourse forming the first lecture, lecture on the manner in which the skeletons which was introductory to the sciences of of various animals were mechanically conzoology and comparative anatomy, the Pro. structed ; the architecture of the skull of man, fessor paid a just tribute to the Lord the arched and elastic form of the human foot, Chancellor, inasmuch as it was through and of most animals were described, as also the exertions of that illustrious character the necessity of this construction proved neand Dr. Birkbeck, that the sciences hecessary, which was illustrated by referring to was about to teach were considered as a drawing of the foot of a Chinese lady, in deserving to be made comprehensible to a whom the back part of the heel as found in mixed audience. He then pointed out the Europeans, and where the tendo-achillis is advantages to be derived from the medical inserted, was inverted and made the basis of student being acquainted with the structure the posterior part of the arch, which in this of the various classes and orders of the in- drawing was beautifully preserved; the oriferior animals, particularly as it aided their ginal specimen being in the possession of studies of the human body, and formed the Mr. Bransby Cooper. In the formation of basis of all zoological classification. The the head of the various races of man, some interesting particulars were stated, especi. Regarding the first of these, the noble Preally as regards the flattening of the foreheads sident observed, “ that his Majesty having of the infants of the Carib Indians by the graciously and munificently bestowed an shingle or wooden tile ; this the Professor annual donation of fifty guineas on the socistated had been denied by some authors, ety, to constitute a royal premium for the but his statement was supported by Mr. encouragement of geograpbical science and Joshua Brookes, and recently by Mr. Ross discovery, it gave him, and he was certain Cox in his valuable work on “ The Columbia it would give the society, great pleasure to River,” &c. an extract from which he find itself called on, the first time this was quoted respecting a tribe of Indians hi. conferred, to bestow it on so worthy an intherto unknown. bv whom a similar process dividual. Mr. Lander was one of those men was performed to distinguish this peculiar of whom England had so frequently to boast, race from others, and by whom the flat who derived no advantages from birth or forehead was considered a beauty, the education, but who, by his own patience, direct contrary of the beau ideal of the spirit, temper, and perseverance, had European. The characteristics between the achieved celebrity, and ultimately succeedskulls of man and monkeys were then point- ed in placing himself in the foremost rank ed out, as also the peculiarities in the skulls of modern discoverers. He had, therefore, of the various classes and orders of quad- the greatest pleasure in conveying this prize rupeds, birds, and reptiles. The Professor to him-he fully deserved it.”* Mr. Lander then described the improved nomenclature made a short but appropriate reply. Lord he had adopted for the sutures of the skull, Goderich's address was very happily exwhich he stated had met universal approba pressed. He spoke with great feeling, and tion, and Dr. Kirby and several other emi. was much cheered by the meeting, which nent anatomists in Dublin adopted his sys- seemed cordially to sympathise with its notem in their lectures on anatomy.
ble chairman in the sentiments he so imThe other lectures have chiefly been upon pressively uttered, and to take a deep inthe structure and physiology of the heart terest in the passing scene. Sure we are, and its blood-vessels, the circulation of the that the public bestowal of such honours blood, and importance of the due supply of must have an excellent effect; and we rethe arterial or vital portion of this fluid, as gret they have been so unfrequent amongst us. necessary to the preservation of animal life; “ As regarded the African Association." but if, from the respiration of carbonic-acid his Lordship then proceeded, “ that body gas, generated either from charcoal, lime had made overtures within the last few kilps, mines, &c. the venous blood, instead months to join the society, on condition that of becoming regenerated and purified in the such of its members as were not already respiratory organs, becomes thrown into the members also of the Royal Geographical arterial system, and as the venous blood Society should become such, on payment of contains substances dangerous to vital exist. the usual fees, without form of ballot; and ence, the lungs are unable to perform their the council had eagerly accepted an offer so office, and the individual expires from suffo honourable and so gratifying. The labours cation. This proves the great necessity for of the African Association were well known, free ventilation of all crowded buildings, and its character stood so high as to make particularly hospitals, of which the professor inquiry almost superfluous as to the indistated he did not believe there existed one viduals thus introduced. But when he furamong the many in this metropolis that ther read the names of Lord Clive, Henry could be said to have this process properly Bankes, Esq., Charles Hoare, Esq., H. H. performed.
Hoare, Esq., and John Motteux, Esq., as These truisms the professor illustrated, being the gentlemen in question, he was and then proceeded to demonstrate the ana. persuaded the society would most cordially lysis of the blood itself. Afterwards, the approve of the act of council which had respiratory organs underwent a careful in- provisionally admitted them as members." vestigation, wherein the lecturer exploded Which was accordingly carried by acclamathe old test of the buoyancy of the lungs as tion, and the meeting adjourned. a test of infanticide, considering it both fallacious and erroneous.
* We rejoice to have to add, that Lord Go
derich's and the Government's countenance ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. of Lander has not been confined to honoOn the 14th of Nov. a meeting of this so- rary distinctions. That enterprising and ciety proceeded to the special business of the singularly deserving traveller has, at the evening, viz. to confer the royal premium earnest recommendation of his Lordship to for last year on Mr. Richard Lander for his Mr. Edward Ellice, been appointed to a discoveries in Africa; and to receive a re- situation in the Customs, sufficient to enable port from the council relative to the union him to pass the remainder of his days in of the African Association with the Society. comfort and respectability.
At a meeting of the same society on the “The Lago di Amsancto," says Mr. Ha28th November, a letter was read from a milton, " is of a rhomboidal form, about gentleman lately returned from Java, giving twenty paces in its shortest, and thirty in an account of a remarkable valley, called its longest dimensions. The water is of a the Guevo Upas, or Poison Valley, which deep ash colour, almost black, and bubbles was communicated by Mr. Barrow, and il- up over a large proportion of the surface, lustrated by extracts from a letter written by with an explosion resembling distant thunW. R. Hamilton, Esq., V.P. of the society, der, and to the height of two feet, more or who, when British minister at the Court of less. On one side of the lake there is also Naples, visited the Lago di Amsancto a constant and rapid stream, of the same (Amsancti ralles of Virgil, Æneid, lib. vii. blackish water, running into it from under 1. 565, into which the fury Alecto threw the barren rocky hill; but the fall is not herself, after having, at the command of more than a foot or two : and a little above Juno, sown the seeds of discord among the are some holes, through which warm blasts Italian cities,) the phenomena of which of sulphuretted hydrogen gas are continu. closely resembled those of the valley in ally issuing, with more or less noise, accordJava.
ing to the sizes of the openings. Some are “ On approaching within a few yards of oblong, others perfectly round. On the opthe latter," says the narrative, “ we expe- posite side of the lake is another smaller rienced a strong nauseous, sickening, and pool of water, on the surface of which are suffocating smell; but on coming close to continually floating, in rapid undulations, the edge, this left us, and we were lost in thick masses of carbonic acid gas, which astonishment at the scene before us. The are visible a hundred yards off. This pool valley appeared half a mile in circumference, is called the Coccaio, or cauldron ; the oval, the depth from thirty to thirty-five feet, larger lake is called Mefite ; and the openthe bottom quite flat, without vegetation, ings on the slope above Mefitinelle. These and the whole covered with the skeletons of openings you will recognise as the sævi human beings, tigers, pigs, deer, peacocks, spiracula Ditis, and the cauldron as the &c. interspersed with large stones, without specus horrendum of Virgil. . any appearance of vapour, or opening in the “ The mephitic vapours arising from ground, which appeared to be of a hard, these waters are at times very fatal, partistony substance. The sides of the valley, cularly when the wind is strong, and they from the top to the bottom, were covered are borne in a body in one direction. When with trees and shrubs. Having lighted our calın, as when we were there, the danger is cigars, we prepared to descend ; and, with much less, as the carbonic acid gas will not, the assistance of bamboos, went down within in its natural state, rise above a couple of eighteen feet of the bottom. We then fast- feet from the ground; and we were thus ened a dog to a bamboo, and sent him in, enabled to walk all round the lake and having our watches in our hands; and in cauldron, and even step across some parts, fourteen seconds he fell on his back, nor taking great care, however, not to stumble ever moved his limbs, or turned to look so as to fall; as a very short time, with our round, though he continued to breathe for noses and mouths too near the ground, eighteen minutes. We then sent in another, would have fixed us to the spot asphyxiés. or rather he got loose from the bamboo, and Many insects lay dead around us; and walked in to where the other dog lay; and birds are said often to fall in like manner in ten seconds he fell on his face, and only into the lake and on the banks. continued to breathe for seven minutes. A “The gaseous products of these waters fowl was then tried, which died in a minute are, l. Carbonic acid gas; 2. Sulphuretted and a half; and another seemed to expire hydrogen gas; 3. Sulphurous acid gas; before even touching the ground. On the and 4. Carburetted hydrogen gas. When opposite side of the valley was lying a hu- evaporated, their deposit has been found to man skeleton, which I was most anxious to cure the scab, or rot, among the neighbour. get, but the attempt would have been mad- ing sheep; and an attempt has been made ness. The bones, from exposure to the air, to establish a sulphur manufactory here, as were bleached as white as ivory. The hu- on Solpaterra, but without success. The man skeletons are supposed to have been banks have thus been much changed since rebels, who, pursued from the main road, the days of Virgil; but the great features may have sought shelter here, ignorant of still remain sabstantially the same, though, the fatal properties of the place. The con on again reading his description, I do not tiguous range of mountains is volcanic, and think it that of a person who had visited the two craters are at no great distance; but in spot. It is curious enough, that although the valley itself there is no smell of sul. the earth is here much blackened, there is phur, nor any appearance of eruption having no appearance of volcanic soil in the ad. ever taken place.