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wards, in September, he visited the islands, and found that one of the party supposed to be massacred still survived, who came off shore and joined the ship. This sailor stated that all the islands are under the control of one chief, who issues his orders to the chiefs of the islands, who have under them inferior chiefs. All children but those of the chiefs are murdered, and the natives act with the extremest jealousy to their wives, killing them on the slightest suspicion. The sailor, whose name is Leonard Shaw, says that the natives have not the slightest notion of a Divine Being, and that his escape from the fate of the other sailors
was owing to his concealment at first, and his then instructing them in little arts of civilization.
Destruction of Weeds in paved Paths and Courts. The growth of weeds between the stones of a pavement is often very injurious as well as unsightly. The following method of destroying them is adopted at the Mint at Paris and elsewhere, with good effect:-One hundred pounds of water, twenty pounds of quick-lime, and two pounds of flour of sulphur, are to be boiled in an iron vessel; the liquor is to be allowed to settle, the clear part drawn off, and being more or less diluted, according to circumstances, is to be used for watering the alleys and pavements. The weeds will not re-appear for several years.
In a recent communication to the Holderness Agricultural Society, by Mr. Stickney, of Ridgmont, we meet with the following remarks upon Corn-trade legislation, and rape-thrashing: "When Parliament," says Mr. Stickney, "began to legislate, in compliance with the prayer of the petitions of the merchants and the manufacturers, and although it was several years before they could agree upon any fixed alteration in the Corn Laws, yet, during that period of debate and uncertainty, the Ministry, by Orders in Council, frequently disappointed the reasonable expectations and hopes of the farmer, by admitting the introduction of foreign corn at merely a nominal duty, and at times when it was not wanted. About this time the growth of rape-seed had greatly extended in this country; it was one of the most profitable, and, in my opinion, one of the least injurious crops to the land grown by the farmer; it was also a crop which provided a great deal of employment for the labouring class. The reaping and thrashing of rape was generally performed before the corn harvest commenced, and thereby almost doubled the time of harvest wages to the labouring class; I have paid as much as four shillings per day for reaping and thrashing rape. The Government, by taking off the duty on foreign rape-seed, has nearly annihilated the growth of it in this country."
Roman Cosin.-At least five thousand Roman coins, of various periods, weighing six-and-thirty pounds, have been lately found at Silly, in France, near Argentan, in the department of the Orne. The mode of their discovery was singular. Two or three pieces of silver were observed by some labourers to have been turned up to the surface of the earth by moles; this induced them to dig, and at the depth of only a foot they came to a broken vase of red clay, filled with the treasure.
Sand as a Manure.-An elaborate report on this subject has been presented to the French Academy of Sciences: good arable land is proved to contain four primitive earths, the varied proportions of which form the different qualities of the soil. It appears, the siliceous principle predominates in good land. M. Chaptal found of it 49 per cent. in the most fertile soil on the banks of the Loire; Davy extracted 60 from the best of the English soils, and Giobert found 79 in the most productive lands near Turin. M. Dutrochet made the experiment of covering with siliceous sand previously unproductive land, and obtained by this means crops as good as in the most (naturally) fertile soil in the vicinity; and he gives it as his opinion that its great fertilising virtue consists in its allowing both water and air to reach and penetrate to the roots of the vegetable, of which they form the two principal elements.
Substitute for Tea.-A patent was granted in February last to a tea-dealer, "for a new mode of preparing the leaf of a British plant for producing a healthy beverage by infusion." According to the specification, the British plant in question is the hawthorn, from which the leaves may be taken from the month of April to September inclusive; they are at first to be carefully picked and cleansed, then to be well rinsed in cold water and drained; and whilst in the damp state they are to be put into a common culinary steamer, where they are to be subjected to the action of the vapour until they change from a green to an olive colour; the leaves are then to be taken out and dried upon a hot plate well heated, and are to be continually stirred up and turned over till they are thoroughly dry, in which state they may be preserved for use. quired for that purpose, an infusion is to be made in the same manner as tea, and sugar and cream are to be added to suit the taste of the drinker.
Machine for dressing Cloth.-Monsieur Beauduin Kameune has made some improvements on a machine of this nature, the object of which is to obtain a greater degree of celerity in the napping of cloths, added to a greater perfection in the same operation than that accomplished by any other mechanism. Although it is constructed upon the same principle as the machines already well known, it nevertheless varies from them in an essential degree, inasmuch as the teazels with which the cylinders are supplied seize the cloth with double effect, and consequently give at the same moment two strokes for one.
In another particular also, not less important, it differs from the machines already in use, and that is, that it dispenses with the necessity of the workman's removing the teazels for the purpose of cleaning them; since that operation is effected spontaneously and incessantly, as the work itself proceeds, and without loss of time, by means of a second cylinder furnished with brushes, and revolving with great rapidity.
The advantages which this machine presents over those now in use, consist-1st. In the cost of labour being diminished, and the produce being double that of the common machines; whence it results that half the time requisite for completing this department in the preparation of cloth is economised:-2nd. In the economy of expense and time bestowed in cleaning, which was heretofore entrusted to children; moreover, in husbanding the teazels, whereby their duration is extended :-3rd. Finally, in the force consumed, being much less than that of two common frames; the whole at the same time occupying the space of one frame only.
Dial or Watch for indicating the precise time of observation.-This watch or dial is composed, according to custom, of five wheels and a cylindrical escapement. It performs 18,000 vibrations in an hour, that is to say, five every second. The hand then makes five little leaps in each space between the divisions of the dial. The stay of the hand can act upon one only of these leaps, which limits the inaccuracy in the movement to less than a fifth of a second, a precision amply sufficient for the required purpose. When the machinery is to be set in motion, this is effected by pressing a button similar to that used in repeaters, the action of which may be stopped at pleasure, according to the will of the person making the observation. The arrested hand is then examined, and the second with its fraction of stoppage is noted; this fraction is obviously the place at which the stoppage was made, in dividing the whole space between
the two divisions into five parts, noting at the same time that this limb should be centred and divided with great care, to prevent inaccuracy. The observation being noted, to proceed to another, the pin is pressed with the finger to set the second hand in motion, and in an instant it is observed to hasten to regain its place. The inventor, the better to show the truth of this movement, has furnished another hand, which is not stopped with the former, in order that it may be perceived that this has, in fact, resumed its place and overtaken the other. This part of the mechanism consists in connecting with the small middle wheel a pinion of the same number as that of the seconds' wheel, and in carrying the other moving hand upon the extension of the axis of this pinion, the centre of another seconds' dial.
Machine for cutting Veneering Wood into thin sheets, and of every length.-The machine, employed in Russia, possesses this peculiarity, that, instead of cutting the wood from the flat and thick surface, it carries off from its circumference a continuous shaving, the result of which is that leaves of an indefinite length are produced, agreeably veined and knotted.
The construction is simple, combining the advantage of cutting the precious woods without waste and very rapidly, to an extraordinary extent, and so thin that they have been employed for the covering of books, and for lithographic and other engraving. One hundred feet in length of veneering may be cut in the space of three minutes.
They begin by placing the timber from which the leaf is to be cut upon a square axle, when it is revolved and made circular with a turner's gouge. The blade of a plane of highly-tempered steel, and rather longer than the cylinder, is fixed at the extremity of a frame of 6 or 7 feet in length, in such a manner as to exert a constant pressure upon the cylinder, and pare off a sheet of an equal thickness, which folds upon another cylinder like a roll of linen. The frame to which the blade is attached is moveable at its lower extremity, and as it is charged, it depresses in proportion as the mass diminishes in substance. That this depression may be progressive and perfectly regular, the inventor has appended a regulator to the machine, consisting of a flat brass plate, preserved in an inclined position, upon which the frame descends as the regulator itself is advanced. The motion is communicated to the cylinder by means of several cog-wheels, which are turned by a crank.
Machine for drilling Cast-iron.-This machine, which acts upon the principle of the stock and bit, is simple and solid, being composed entirely of iron. It acts with as
much regularity as promptitude. The block to be perforated being firmly fixed upon a solid plank, the drill is brought down upon it. The operation consists in turning a fly which plays upon a roller, the cord, to which is fastened the lever centre-bit. The moving power being acted upon, the tool turns with considerable rapidity, but as the weight of the furniture would not be of itself sufficient to urge it forward in proportion to the progress of the bore, the fly is kept constantly turning. When the hole is perforated, the tool is withdrawn by raising the furniture, which preserves its vertical position, whatever may be the degree of elevation or depression of the lever to which it is suspended.
Sandals for Horses.-An English saddler, named Tade, says "Le Petit Courrier des Dames," has invented a sandal for horses. It is fastened on with strings of leather, instead of nails, and is so managed that it may be put on or removed, as the rider wishes, in less than a minute. The object of this invention is to enable the rider to replace at once, during a journey, any of the iron shoes which may be lost, and to continue his journey without fear of exposing the animal to the accidents which might result from the loss of a shoe. The lightness of the shoe, which weighs no more than half the iron one, and its portable form, as it can be carried with ease in the pocket, or behind the saddle, are great improvements; moreover it may be taken off when horses are grazing, even for a short time.
New Boiling Apparatus. Mr. Perkins, the celebrated engineer, has recently discovered and obtained a patent for a new mode of boiling, by a process so simple that it is a subject of surprise to all who see it that it has not been earlier among our useful improvements.
PATENTS LATELY GRANTED.
Joshua Bates, of Bishopsgate-street, London, gentleman, for improvements in machinery or apparatus for roving, twisting, or spinning cotton, silk, wool, hemp, flax, or other fibrous substances. Communicated by a foreigner, residing abroad.
Sarah Guppy, of Tarway House, Clifton, near Bristol, widow, for a method of applying and arranging certain pieces of cabinet work, upholstery, and other articles, commonly or frequently applied to bedsteads and hangings; and also others not hitherto so applied.
James Macdonald, of the University Club house, Pall Mall East, gentleman, for a certain improvement or improvements in the construction of bridges made of iron, or other materials, which improvements are also applicable to the construction of piers, rail-roads, roofs, and other useful purposes. Communicated by a foreigner, residing abroad.
Thomas Brunton, of Park-square, Regent's
It consists in placing within a boiler, of the form common to the purpose to which it is applied, and of all capacities, from coffeepots to steam-boilers, a vessel so placed that it may, by slight stays, be kept at equal distances from the sides and the bottom of the boiler, and having its rim below the level of the liquid: the inner vessel has a hole in the bottom, about one-third of its diameter. On the application of the fire to the boiler, the heated liquor rises in the space between the two vessels, and its place is supplied by the descent of the column in the inner vessel, or, as Mr. Perkins calls this part of the apparatus, the circulator; for the ascending portion having the space it occupied supplied by the descending liquid in the centre, and the level of the centre being kept up by the running in of the heated portion which has risen on the sides, a circulation rapidly begins and continues; thus bringing into contact with the heated bottom and sides of the boiler the coldest portion of the liquid. By this process the rapidity of evaporation is excessive, far exceeding that of any method previously known; whilst the bottom of the boiler, having its acquired heat constantly carried off by the circulating liquid, never burns out, nor rises in temperature many degrees above the heat of the liquid. In many manufactures this is a most important discovery, especially in salt-works, brewers' boilers, and for steam-boilers; and, applied to our culinary vessels, no careless cook can burn what she has to dress in a boiler by neglecting to stir it, as the circulation prevents the bottom of the boiler from ever acquiring heat enough to do mischief. We need hardly add that this discovery is esteemed by men of science to be one of the most useful and important of the present day.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Lord Dover's Life of Frederick the Great, 2 vols. 8vo. with portrait, 17. 8s.
Lord Nugent's Life of Hampden, 2 vols. 8vo.
Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, 8vo. 14s.
Lodge's Genealogy of the British Peerage, 8vo. with Plates of Arms, 16s.
Loudon's Gardener's Magazine, Vol. VII. 8vo. 21s. boards.
Loudon's Natural History, Vol. IV. 8vo. boards.
Cooke's Hints on Scarlet Fever, 8vo. 5s. 6d. Dewhurst's Anatomy of the Human Muscles, oblong 4to. coloured, 15s.
Dewhurst's Anatomy of the Human Bones, oblong 4to. coloured, 15s.
Oke's Examinations in Surgery and Midwifery, 8vo. Part I. 8s.
Copland on Cholera, 12mo. 5s.
Swan's Demonstration of the Nerves, Part II. folio, 21. 12s. 6d.
Storer on Dispensaries, 12mo. 2s. 6d.
Trendall's Designs for Cottages and Villas, 4to. 17. 11s. 6d.
Valpy's Classical Library, No. XXIV.; Plutarch, Vol. 2. 18mo. 4s. 6d.
Mary Gray, by A. Knight, 25. Fanny and her Mother, 18mo. 1s. 6d. Geological Sketches, &c., by Maria Hack, 12mo. 95.
Thoresby's Correspondence, 2 vols. 8vo. 11. 88. Anecdotes of Hogarth, Part I., with Plates, 6s. sewed; India proofs, 9s. sewed.
Polytechnic Library; Domestic Chemist, Vol. II. 18mo. 48.
Stories of Animals, Second Series, by Maria Hack, 18mo. 2s. 6d.
Hannay's Representation of England, Svo. 8s. Luther's Table-Talk, 12mo. 5s.
Gray's Social System, 8vo. Ss. 6d.
Easy Lessons, with sixteen steel engravings, 18mo. 3s. 6d.
Flynn's Latin Grammar, 12mo. 1s. 6d. Home for the Holydays, 12mo. 3s. 6d. Heslop's Geographical Exercises, in two Parts, 5s. sewed.
Dr. Webster's English Dictionary, 2 vols. 4to. 51. 10s.
Hood's Comic Annual for 1832, 12s.
Gallery of the Society of Painters in Watercolours, Part I. imperial 4to. Prints, 10s. 6d. ; Proofs, colombia 4to. 18s.; India Proofs, colom
Anthologia Sacra, or Select Theological Extracts, 8vo. 11. 48.
Hughes's Divines, No. XIX.-Hall's Contemplations, Vol. II. Svo. 7s. 6d.
Rev. Thomas Gill's Family Book of Common Prayer, 18mo. 1s. 6d.
Progress of the Gospel in Polynesia, 18mo. 38. 6d.
Sacred History, for the use of the Edinburgh Sessional School, Part IV. 18mo. 3s.
Paley's Works, in 1 vol. crown 8vo. 10s. 6d. Beverley's Sermon on the Unknown Tongues, Is. The Theological Library, No. I.-Life of Wiclif, by the Rev. C. W. Le Bas, 12mo. 6s.
Boyle's Account of the Western Coast of Africa, 8vo. 12s.
Travels in the North of Europe, by C. B. Elliott, Esq. 1 vol. 8vo. 15s.
The second and concluding volume of the interesting "Correspondence of David Garrick" is just ready for publication, containing a variety of Letters from the most eminent Persons of his Time in Europe; among others, of Voltaire, Grimm, Le Kain, Madame Riccoboni, the Abbé Morellet, Preville, Mademoiselle Clairon, &c. &e.
"The Memoires of the celebrated Duchesse de St. Leu, Hortense, Ex-Queen of Holland," are nearly ready for publication.
The long-promised "Memoirs of Sir James Campbell of Ardkinglas," are also said to be in a forward state.
A new work from the pen of that favourite writer, Mr. Horace Smith, to be entitled "Romance of the Early Ages," will shortly make its appearance. The plan is understood to possess many features of novelty.
Mr. Galt has nearly ready a new novel, to be called "Stanley Buxton; or the Schoolfellows." The Author, we understand, brings together a knot of schoolfellows in advanced life, who relate the vicissitudes of their early lives.
"The Cottagers of Glenburnie," by Miss Hamilton, will be shortly introduced into that popular series of fiction, "The Standard Novels." A second edition of Dr. Granville's "Cate chism of Health" is now published. The first edition of this useful work was sold in a few days.
A new work may soon be expected from the caustic pen of the successful Author of "Mothers and Daughters." It is to be entitled "The Opera; a Story of the Beau Monde."
The story of naval life, now on the eve of ap pearance, to be entitled "The Adventures of a Younger Son," is understood to be the work of one of Lord Byron's most intimate friends, whose life, which this story is partly intended to delineate, was marked by more singular events than even that of the noble poet.
Mr. James's" Memoirs of Celebrated Military Commanders" will appear early in January.
"Recollections of the late Robert William Elliston, Esq." by Pierce Egan, with a likeness of the distinguished actor from Bruccini's bust, is about to be published.
Mr. Keightley announces a new edition of his "Mythology of Greece and Italy," in an abridged form, chiefly intended for the use of schools and young persons.
The Second Volume of "A Concise View of the Succession of Sacred Literature," by J. B. B. Clarke, M.A. will be shortly published.
Mr. Macfarlane (the author of "Constantinople in 1828," &c.) is about to publish, by subscription, a work under the attractive title of "The Seven Churches," illustrated by seven etchings from views taken on the spot, and a Map of the most interesting regions of Asia-Minor.
"A History and Character of American Revivals of Religion," by the Rev. Calvin Cotton, of America, is about to appear.
Jan.-VOL. XXXVI. NO. CXXXIII.
"A Six Weeks' Tour in Switzerland and France," by the Rev. William Liddiard, author of "the Legend of Einsidlin," &c.
"Advice to a Young Christian, on the importance of aiming at an elevated Standard of Piety," by a Village Pastor.
Part IV. of "Rickards on the Trade with India," to complete the second volume.
"An Essay on the Rights of Hindoos over Ancestral Property, according to the Law of Bengal," by Rajah Rammohun Roy; and also, by the same author, "Remarks on East India Affairs, with a Dissertation on the Ancient Boundaries of India, its Civil and Religious Divisions, and Suggestions for the future Government of the Country."