Sewerage: The Designing, Constructing and Maintaining of Sewerage Systems and Sewage Treatment Plants

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J. Wiley & sons, Incorporated, 1918 - 473 páginas

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Contenido

Population per Acre in Boston by Wards
25
Persons per Family and per Dwelling in 1900 and 1910
26
Average Sizes of Families 1850 to 1910
27
Gaugings at Sewer Outlets at Des Moines
28
Curves of Variations in Sewage Rates in Cincinnati
29
Commercial and Industrial Sewage
30
Curve of Intense Rainfalls Philadelphia
38
Records of Some Severe Storms
39
Diagram Showing Actual Rates of Individual Rainfalls
40
Maximum Rainfall Curves
41
Runoff to Sewers
42
Diagram of Runoff Contours and Areas
47
Diagram for Calculating Runoff from City Block
55
Diagram for Calculating Sewer Sizes and Velocities folded insert
57
FLOW IN SEWERS
61
Velocity and Discharge in Sewers 4 to 36 ins Diameter
65
Velocity and Discharge in Sewers 33 to 120 ins Diameter
67
Effect of Depth on FlowCircular Sewers
70
Eggshaped Sewers
71
Limits of Velocity
73
Materials Moved by Water Flowing at Different Velocities
74
Shapes of Sewers
81
London Sewer of Deposit
82
Eggshaped Sewer
83
Flushing Sewers
88
Sewer Air
94
SEWER APPURTENANCES ART PAGE 20 Manholes Inlets and Flushtanks
101
Subdrains
106
Inverted Siphons
109
Intercepting Sewers and Overflows III
111
Sewer Junctions
113
House and Inletconnections
115
Use of Old Sewers
118
Pumping Sewage
119
Sewer in Hollow Wall above Street Level I 21
127
COLLECTING THE DATA 28 Data Required
129
Surveying and Plotting
132
Profile and Plan of Sewer
135
Rod for Sounding for Rock
136
DESIGNING 30 General Principles
139
Separate and Combined Systems
143
Subdivision into Districts
146
Outlining the System
147
Locating the Sewer Lines
148
Alignment of Sewer Junctions
150
Volume of House Sewage
151
Map Used in Calculating Separatesewer Capacity
153
Volume of Storm Sewage
154
Rainfall Curves and Acrecalculating Curve
156
Map Used in Calculating Stormsewer Capacity
159
Grade Size and Depth of Sewers
161
Sizes Required at Minimum Grade
164
DETAIL PLANS 38 The Sewer Barrel
167
Joint of a Reinforced Concrete Pipe
168
Segmental Block Sewer at Wausau Wis
169
Vitrified Pipe Sewers
170
Diagram for Calculating Load on Pipes in Trench
172
Bearings for Testing Pipe
173
FIGURE PAGE 28 Special Forms of Vitrified Sewerpipe
176
Concrete Pipe Sewers
177
List Prices Weights and Dimensions of Vitrified Sewerpipe
178
Sewers Built in Place
180
Circular Sections
182
Sections in Unstable Soil
183
Sections for Low Head
184
Baskethandle and Ushaped Sections
185
Intersections of Large Sewers
187
Flushtank and Combined Flushtank and Manhole
200
Standard Forms of Inlet
202
Depression in Gutter at Inlet
203
Standard Forms of Catchbasins
205
Other Structural Details
207
Boston Regulator
208
Storm Water Overflow
209
Inverted Siphon under River
211
Inverted Siphon under Subway
213
Subdrain Sewer on Concrete Saddle
214
SPECIFICATIONS AND CONTRACT 44 Definitions
216
Specifications for Trenching
218
Masonry and Materials Therefor
224
Steel Iron and Lumber
230
Constructing Sewers
238
Restoration of Surface and Cleaning Up
254
The Contract
256
Estimating Cost
259
Cost of Excavating and Backfilling Trenches
261
Cost of Manholes
262
SUPERVISION OF CONSTRUCTION ART PAGE 52 Work Preliminary to Construction
263
Work During Construction
265
Grade Rod
266
Notes and Records
269
Final Inspection
270
CONSTRUCTION 56 Trenching
275
Ladderdredge Type of Trench Excavator
277
Construction
281
Fiftytwo Inch Concrete Sewer
285
MAINTENANCE 58 Necessity for Maintenance
288
Maintenance Requirements
290
Flushing
292
Cleaning Sewers
295
Sewer Cleaning Tools Used in Richmond Boro New York
298
SEWAGE DISPOSAL CHAPTER XIV DISPOSAL BY DILUTION 63 Disposal and Sewage Defined
300
Aims of Disposal
301
Principles Involved
302
Composition of Sewage
306
Amount of Excremental Organic Matter in Sewage
307
Isochlors of New England and New York
310
Analyses of Sewage and Effluents
313
Analyses of Sewage of Several Cities
317
Pollution of Streams and Tidal Waters
319
Aims of Treatment
322
Disposal by Dilution
326
REMOVING SUSPENDED MATTER 71 General Principles
333
Straining
335
Diagrams of Various Types of Screens
338
Tank Treatment Sedimentation
342
Precipitation
348
Results of Precipitation with Various Chemicals
350
Septic Tanks
351
Discharge Weirs of Septic Tanks Birmingham
352
Interior of Covered Septic Tank
355
Typical Sections of Tanks for Sewage Treatment
357
Imhoff Tanks
358
Activated Sludge
360
Artificial Sand Filter with Wooden Distributor
371
Contact Bed Floor Construction and Stone Filter Material
377
Contact Beds with Tile Pipe Distributors and Hand Gates
378
Sewage Being Sprayed onto Sprinkling Filter
385
Sprinkling Filter Drainage System
388
Disinfection of Sewage and Effluents
401
Description and Cost of Municipal Purification Plants in Ohio
421
Sewage Treatment Plants in the United States
423
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Página 258 - ... due notice thereof in writing, served personally upon or left 23 at the shop, office, or usual place of abode, or with the agent of the said 24 party of the second part, and the said party of the second part...
Página 257 - Boston, for or on account of any injuries or damages received or sustained by any party or parties, by or from the said Contractor, his servants or agents...
Página 457 - ... bichromate as described in almost any work on volumetric analysis. The keeping qualities of the thiosulphate solution are improved by adding to each liter 5 cc of chloroform and 1.5 grams of ammonium carbonate before making up to the prescribed volume. 5. Starch solution. Mix a small amount of cornstarch with cold water until it becomes a thin paste. Stir this into 150 to 200 times its weight of boiling water.
Página 459 - Sutton in his new edition on Volumetric Analysis, p. 139, gives the following new method to which the reader is referred: Dissolve 4.948 grams of the purest sublimed arsenious oxide in about 250 cc of distilled water in a flask with about 20 gm. of pure sodium carbonate. The mixture needs warming and shaking ,for some time in order to complete the solution; when this is accomplished the mixture is diluted somewhat, cooled, then made up to a liter. This gives a tenth normal solution and may be checked...
Página 241 - Samples for Testing: Any or all of the following tests may be applied to samples selected by the engineer from the pipe delivered on the work. For the purpose of making such tests the contractor shall furnish and deliver, when directed, five lengths of each size pipe used in the work.
Página 259 - IN WITNESS WHEREOF, The said party of the first part has caused these presents to be signed...
Página 229 - Materials 85. Stones for rubble masonry shall be hard, sound, free from checks and shakes, as nearly rectangular as practicable, and unless used for trimming or closers, not less than 6 inches thick. The stones shall be cleaned and wetted immediately before being placed in the work; they shall be laid on their natural beds, in full beds and joints of mortar, with spalls firmly embedded therein.
Página 252 - The pavements adjoining the inlets to receiving basins shall be restored and adjusted to the extent and in the manner directed, and in accordance with paragraphs. . . .and. . . .in unpaved streets and in macadamized streets, where the inlets to the receiving basins are approximately at the surface of the street, a space of 2\ feet adjoining such inlets shall, if required, be paved with approved paving blocks.
Página 221 - The required width of trench in rock for pipe sewers, basin connections, house connections and other pipes will be such as to give a clearance of 1 foot on each side of the pipe, exclusive of spurs and hubs; the required width of trench in rock for other sewers and drains will be such as to give a clearance of one foot on each side of the structure to be built therein at its greatest external width.
Página 224 - The average of the tensile strength developed at each age by the briquettes in any set from one sample will be considered the strength of the sample at that age, excluding any results that are manifestly faulty. The average strength of briquettes at 28 days shall be greater than the average strength at 7 days, and if tests are made after 28 days the strength shall be not less than that at 28 days.

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