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of the necessity of borrowing foreign capital and of improving the national credit by introducing financial reform. He admitted too that China has few men qualified to undertake financial reform, and this admission may perhaps have been intended to prepare the way for the engagement of foreign expert advice.

In short there is more than a suspicion that the passages of the address to which attention has been called [tariff and land tax) were designed for foreign consumption. I have [etc.]

W. J. CALHOUN. File No. 893.51/873. The German Ambassador to the Acting Secretary of State.

GERMAN EMBASSY,

Washington, May 5, 1912. MY DEAR MR. WILSON: With reference to our last conversation I beg to say that I have again been informed by my Government that Japan makes a reservation with regard to her claims in Mongolia. My Government considers that such claims go rather too far, but is ready to recognize the Russian and Japanese claims as far as they are based on written conventions concluded with the Chinese Government before the fall of the Manchu Dynasty.

I should be very much obliged to you if you would kindly let me know which point of view is taken by the Government of the United States. With many thanks [etc.]

J. BERNSTORFF.

File No. 893.51/873a.

The Acting Secretary of State to the American Minister.

[Telegram.--Paraphrase.)

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, May 6, 1912. In the judgment of the Legation, and in the light of the more recent reports from our consuls, how far is the situation in China responsive to the conditions of recognition of governments under international law; and, specifically, in what respects does the Provisional Government still fall short of the requirements!

HUNTINGTON WILSON.

File No. 893.00/1304.

The American Minister to the Secretary of State.
[Telegram.--Paraphrase.)

AMERICAN LEGATION,

Peking, May 7, 1912. The present coalition Government is nominally in possession of 20 Provinces, under military governors the extent of whose submission to the central Government is problematical. The north and south are not yet well fused, but the only organized resistance is in Mongolia, Kanush, Turkestan and Thibet. There is acquiescence but not hearty support on the part of the wealthy and educated, and the real will of the mass of the people is not known. The National Council cannot therefore be considered representative. The Government was established by the poltical manoeuvers of a few, not by general demand of the people. But it is the only government in sight, and recognition would strengthen its hold on the country, particularly if given by concerted action of the powers.

CALHOUN.

File No. 893.51/873.

The Acting Secretary of State to the German Ambassador.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, May 9, 1912. MY DEAR MR. AMBASSADOR: I wish to thank your excellency for your letter of the 5th instant relating to reported Japanese reservations with reference to Mongolia. As intimated to you in our recent conversation the Department has received no reliable information on the subject from any source except that kindly furnished by your excellency. We have therefore not given the subject any special consideration, but with respect to similar reservations made by Japan and Russia relating to South Manchuria and to North Manchuria, Mongolia and Western China, respectively, we have been proceeding upon the understanding that the reservations in question related only to such rights and interests as were based on treaties or conventions with China, from which it seems clear that the positions of our Gov. ernments are quite in harmony in this matter, as to which, moreover, I understand that the British Government takes precisely the same view. I am [etc.]

HUNTINGTON WILSON.

File No. 793.94/175.

Memorandum of a conversation between the Acting Secretary of Stato and the Japanese Ambassador.

DEPARTMENT or STATE,

Washington, May 16, 1912. The Japanese Ambassador said that he was ordered by his Government to explain to us that, in view of Russia's reservation of rights in relation to Northern Manchuria, Mongolia and Western China, the Japanese Government had felt that silence might be misconstrued and that therefore Japan must make reservation as to eastern Inner Mongolia (bordering on Southern Manchuria) in which quarter Japan was naturally interested.

I replied that this Government would take due note of the fact that Japan desires thus to extend the reservation previously made in correspondence here and in the European capitals wherein, with regard to both Japanese and Russian reservations, this Government had been quite willing to acquiesce, on the understanding of course that the rights and interests referred to were those covered by treaty or convention.

File No. 893.51/931.

The Secretary of State to the American Ambassador to Great Britain.

[Telegram.--Paraphrase. )

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, June 10, 1912. According to information privately received by the Department, the bankers' negotiations in connection with the Chinese loan may be delayed indefinitely or even disrupted by the insistence of the Japanese and Russian financial agents upon recognition in the bankers' agreement of the political rights of Japan and Russia in Mongolia, Manchuria and elsewhere. The attitude of these representatives is taken in pursuance of instructions from their Governments.

The position of the Government of the United States in regard to these political questions is that they should be the subject of an understanding between the Governments concerned rather than between the bankers, although the bankers would doubtless be expected to subscribe to the agreement reached by the powers. The Department understands that this position is also that of the Governments of France and Great Britain.

This question you may promptly and confidentially discuss with the Foreign Office, in order to see if the Foreign Office can do something toward reaching an understanding about it with the Governments of Japan and Russia, if possible before the next session of the bankers' conference on June 15.

Knox.

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File No. 893.51/932.

The American Ambassador to Great Britain to the Secretary of State. (Telegram.-Extract.—Paraphrase.)

AMERICAN EMBASSY,

London, June 10, 1912. Regarding the declaration of the special rights of Japan and Russia in Mongolia and Manchuria, Langley says the British Government will admit such rights but will at the same time affirm the principle of the open door.

REID.

File No. 893.51/949.

The American Ambassador to Germany to the Secretary of State.

[Telegram.-Paraphrase. )

AMERICAN EMBASSY,

Berlin, June 17, 1912. The German Government is strongly of the opinion that there must be no deviation from the attitude assumed toward Russia and Japan; that is to say, we can recognize in them only such special rights and privileges in Mongolia and Manchuria as they may have acquired by formal treaties or conventions with the old Chinese Government.

LEISHMAN,

File No. 893.002/20.

The President of the Council of Ministers to the Secretary of State.

(Telegram.-Translation. )

PEKING (received July 7, 1912). In announcing to your excellency my appointment to be President of the Council of Ministers, I desire to assure you that my efforts still tend to maintain and draw even closer the relations of friendship between our two countries. At the same time I permit myself to express the hope that the United States will recognize without delay the Chinese Republic.

Lou TSENG TSIANG.

File No. 893.002/20.
The Secretary of State to the American Minister.

(Telegram.--Paraphrase. )

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, July 9, 1912. In response to the courtesy of his telegram of July 7 announcing his appointment as President of the Council of Ministers, you will convey informally to Mr. Lou my thanks, and beg his acceptance of my personal felicitation and high appreciation of his friendly sentiments.

Knox.

File No. 893.00/1383b.

The Secretary of State to the American Ambassadors to France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Russia, and Austria.

[Telegram.-Paraphrase.)

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, July 20, 1912. Confidential memorandum. The powers are in full accord, the American Government believes, in the view that a stable central government is the first desideratum in China and that formal recognition by the powers, when granted, would go far to confirm the stability of the established government.

The Provisional Government appears now to be generally in possession of the administrative machinery, to be maintaining order, and to be exercising its functions with the acquiescence of the people. The situation accordingly seems to resolve itself to the question whether there are any substantial reasons why recognition should longer be withheld.

Would the Government of (insert name of country) now be disposed to consider whether the present Chinese Government may not be regarded as so far substantially conforming to the accepted standards of international law as to merit formal recognition ?

In handing the foregoing textually to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Government to which you are accredited you may in strict confidence intimate that in this country public opinion is such that a strong demand for early recognition will probably be made through the Congress in case of undue delay of Executive action.

Kyox.

1 Sent also to Peking " for the Legation's confidential information only." 67106°-FR 1912—6

File No. 893.00/1384.

The American Ambassador to Japan to the Secretary of State.

(Telegram.-Summary.]

AMERICAN EMBASSY,

Tokio, July 22, 1912. This telegram acknowledges receipt of the Department's instructions of July 20 and says that the Minister for Foreign Affairs promises to give the matter careful consideration.

File No. 893.00/1391.

The American Ambassador to Germany to the Secretary of State.

(Telegram.-Extract.-Paraphrase.)

AMERICAN EMBASS

Berlin, July 23, 1912. At the Foreign Office, upon my presentation of the communication contained in your July 20, I was informed that the German Government does not believe this is an opportune time for recognition of the Republic, in view of the failure of the party in power to establish a more effective and permanent central government; recognition at this time would be of little benefit to the Chinese nation and might be misunderstood and misconstrued by the other powers, who have repeatedly indicated their unwillingness to recognize the existing Government until it has fully demonstrated its permanency and control.

LEISHMAN.

File No. 893.00/1396.

The American Ambassador to France to the Secretary of State.

(Telegram.--Summary. )

AMERICAN EMBASSY,

Paris, July 25, 1912. This telegram acknowledges the instructions and memorandum of July 20, and says that the Minister for Foreign Affairs wishes to telegraph to the French Minister at Peking before replying, and also to consult with the other powers.

HERRICK.

File No. 893.00/1397.

The American Ambassador to Russia to the Secretary of State.

(Telegram.--Summary.]

AMERICAN EMBASSY,

St. Petersburg, July 26, 1912. In the absence of the Prime Minister and the Minister for For. eign Affairs, Nératoff, Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs, would give no immediate answer but promised one soon.

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